(Lobelia cardinalis) An American plant. The Indians had some ritual use for it; the Meskwaki, for example, would throw the "tobacco" made from it into the air when a storm was brewing, to try and dispel the bad weather. They used to throw it into the grave at a funeral, too (H H Smith. 1928). Both the roots and flowers were used by some Plains Indians in love charms (Gilmore), preferably mixed with ginseng and angelica, according to Sanford.
Carduus benedictus > HOLY THISTLE
Carduus nutans > MUSK THISTLE
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