1. Signs and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure (headaches, nausea, vomiting, transient visual obscurations, papilledema).
2. No localizing neurologic signs, with the exception of unilateral or bilateral cranial nerve VI paresis.
3. Cerebrospinal fluid can show increased pressure, but otherwise without cytological or chemical abnormalities.
4. Normal to small symmetric ventricles must be demonstrated by neuroimaging.
Note: the typical patient profile ("typical patient;" see Table 13) of a young obese woman is not required by these criteria, although the presence of idiopathic intracranial hypertension in a child, man, or thin or elderly individual would now be classified as being an "atypical case."
The modified Dandy criteria have been clarified by Friedman and Jacobson, in accordance with improved neuroimag-ing data.
(Adapted with permission from Friedman DI, Jacobson DM. Diagnostic criteria for idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Neurology 2002;59:1492-1495, and from Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkens.)
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Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...