Autoantibodies against glucooxidative modified proteins in diabetic retinopathy

The autoantibodies have always been important for clinical interest due to their potential role in screening, diagnosis, monitoring treatment of effectiveness and prognosis. Non-enzymatic glycation of proteins can lead to the formation of reactive AGEs, which are thought to be implicated in the formation of micro- and macrovascular complications in diabetes mellitus. Proteins such as serum albumin, collagen, elastin, lens crystalline, are particularly susceptible to glucose modification (Festa...

Polyol pathway

In diabetes, hyperglycemia activates polyol pathway, where a part of excess glucose are metabolized to sorbitol which is then converted to fructose Lorenzi M, 2007 . Aldose reductase (AR) is the key and rate limiting enzyme in polyol pathway, and both galactose and glucose are substrates to this enzyme and compete with each other while being reduced to galactitol and sorbitol, respectively. Under physiological conditions glucose is poorly reduced by AR to sorbitol. By contrast, under diabetic...

Inflammation and diabetic retinopathy

Many of the molecular and functional changes that are characteristic of inflammation have been detected in retinas from diabetic animals or humans, and in retinal cells under diabetic conditions which support the potential role of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines and other inflammatory markers in DR Adamis AP, 2008 . Joussen et al, have shown that CD18- - and ICAM-1- - mice have significantly fewer adherent leukocytes which is associated with fewer damaged endothelial cells and lesser...

Role of neurotrophic factors

Neurotrophic factors play important roles in regulating growth, maintenance and survival of neurons Mattson MP, 2004 . The role of brain derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF) in metabolism is supported by studies on BDNF-deficient mice which develop obesity and hyperphagia in early adulthood Kernie SG, 2000 whereas, when it administered to normal mice or rats, it has no effect on blood glucose levels, indicating that BDNF exerts its effects by enhancing insulin sensitivity Ono M, 1997 and...

Vascular tone

For some time a correlation between blood pressure and progression of retinopathy has been noted in epidemiologic studies demonstrating that lower blood pressures result in less diabetic retinopathy. This has now been confirmed by large randomized studies (Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT EDIC) Study Research Group 2005 The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Group 1993 UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group 1998). It is well established that adolescent and...

Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha TNFa

TNF-a is one of most important inflammatory cytokines. It is produced primarily by monocytes and macrophages on which it exerts its endo-, para- and autocrine actions. It stimulates cytotoxic properties of monocytes and macrophages and simultaneously is a mediator of cytotoxicity. Its biological effects depends strongly on quantity and intensity of TNF-a secretion. Apart from taking part in inflammatory processes it also plays important role in neovascularisation (Wilson & Balkwill, 2002)....

Doxium For Varicose Veins

J. (2008). Immunological mechanisms in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Semin Immunopathol, Vol. 30, No. 2, (April 2008), pp.(65-84), ISSN 1863-2297 Adank, C. & Koerner, F. (1985). Calcium dobesilate in diabetic retinopathy. A retrospective controlled study. Ophthalmologica, Vol. 190, No. 2, (February 1985), pp. (102-111), ISSN 0030-3755 Aiello, L.M (2003). Perspectives on diabetic retinopathy. American journal of ophthalmology, Vol. 136, No. 1, (July...

Fenofibrate

Because dyslipidemia is a well documented risk factor of diabetic macular edema and hard exudates deposition, lipid lowering treatment was expected to have benefit on these complications. The Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes FIELD study group applicated fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PPAR -a agonist which is widely used as lipid lowering agent in diabetic patients to reduce the risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications. PPAR-a...

Vitreoretinal interface and macular traction

Macular traction is a factor implemented in the pathogenesis of macular edema and there is increasing evidence that releasing it via vitrectomy may be beneficial DRCRN, 2010 Patel et al., 2006 Yanyali et al., 2007 . Macular traction may be induced by vitreoretinal interface abnormalities such as incomplete posterior vitreous detachment PVD or ERM. In 1984 Shepens and coauthors postulate the role of incomplete PVD in the formation or progression of macular edema in susceptible eyes, such as of...