Differential diagnosis

Atopic dermatitis dermatitis herpeti-formis pityriasis lichenoides lichen pla-nus insect bite reaction contact dermatitis psoriasis ecthyma impetigo xerotic eczema transient acantholytic dermatosis linear IgA bullous dermatosis seborrheic dermatitis erythroderma from other causes such as Sezary syndrome and pemphigus foliaceus Langerhans cell histiocy-tosis fiberglass dermatitis dyshidrotic eczema pityriasis rosea animal scabies pediculosis delusions of parasitosis metabolic pruritus

Diphtheria cutaneous

Acute, toxin-mediated disease caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae C. diphtheriae (causative organism) an aerobic, toxin-producing, gram-positive bacillus toxin production only when the bacillus infected by a specific virus carrying the genetic information for the toxin only toxi-genic strains cause severe disease toxin inhibiting cellular protein synthesis responsible for local tissue destruction and membrane formation toxin produced at the site of the membrane absorbed into the bloodstream...

Clinical manifestation

Bite minimally symptomatic fewer than 10 of bites result in severe skin necrosis signs of progression within 48-72 hours of the bite mild-to-severe pain beginning 2-8 hours after bite central papule and associated erythema occur 6-12 hours after bite purple vesicle sometimes ulcerates stellate necrotic area sometimes ensues. Constitutional signs and symptoms hemol-ysis hemoglobinuria thrombocytopenia disseminated intravascular coagulation fever headache malaise arthralgia nausea vomiting

Erysipeloid

Acute bacterial infection of traumatized skin caused by the microorganism Erysip-elothrix rhusiopathiae (insidiosa) Causative organism, E. rhusiopathiae, enters the skin through scratches or pricks organism produces enzymes that help it dissect through the tissues inflammation produced when immune system activated against foreign antigen Food handlers (home makers, farmers, fishermen, and butchers) at increased risk of acquiring the infection Localized form well demarcated,...

Dosage form

Corticosteroids, topical, high potency. Dermatologic indications and dosage Corticosteroids, topical, high potency. Dermatologic indications and dosage Jessner's lymphocytic infiltration of skin Lupus erythematosus, subacute systemic Pruritic urticarial Apply twice daily Apply twice daily papules and plaques of pregnancy Psoriasis Apply twice daily Apply twice daily Seabather's eruption Apply twice daily Apply twice daily Seborrheic dermatitis Apply twice daily Apply twice daily Subcorneal...

Generic available

Dermatologic indications and dosage Cutaneous candidiasis Apply daily for 3-6 weeks Tinea capitis Apply daily for 3-6 weeks Tinea corporis Apply daily for 3-6 weeks Tinea cruris Apply daily for 3-6 weeks Tinea pedis Apply daily for 3-6 weeks Apply daily for 3-6 weeks Apply daily for 3-6 weeks Apply daily for 3-6 weeks Apply daily for 3-6 weeks Naftifine. Dermatologic indications and dosage Tinea capitis Apply daily for 3-6 weeks Tinea corporis Apply daily for 3-6 weeks Tinea cruris...

Folliculitis

Ofuji's disease Ofuji disease eosinophilic folliculitis HIV-associated eosinophilic fol- liculitis HIV-related eosinophilic folliculi-tis, sterile eosinophilic pustulosis eosinophilic pustular dermatosis infantile childhood eosinophilic pustulosis of the scalp Recurrent follicular and non-follicular papules associated with tissue and peripheral eosinophilia Unclear possibly abnormal immunologic reaction to follicular pathogens Follicular-based erythematous papules and pustules, with or without...

Erythema infectiosum

Fifth disease, slapped-cheek disease, academy rash, Sticker's disease, Sticker disease Childhood exanthem caused by human Par-vovirus B19, in which a 3-phased cutaneous eruption follows a mild prodrome Parvovirus B19 viremia production of specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies and subsequent formation of immune complexes clinical findings probably result from the deposition of the immune complexes in the skin and joints 4-14 day incubation period virus spreads primarily via aerosolized...

Therapy

Comedonal acne tretinoin 0.025 cream or adapalene 0.1 gel or tazarotene 0.1 gel alpha hydroxy acid preparation Inflammaroty acne tetracycline or doxycy-cline or minocycline benzoyl peroxide 5 gel azelaic acid 20 cream clindamycin 1 lotion or cream erythromycin 2 gel or cream Recalcitrant acne in women oral contraceptive containing norgestimate 0.25 mg and ethinyl estradiol 0.035 mg spironolactone prednisone Acne where sweating is an aggravating factor aluminium chloride solution Severe...

Definition

Chronic inflammatory skin disorder characterized by scaly, red papules and plaques distributed over extensor body surfaces and the scalp Psoriasis. Scaly, red plaques of the feet Pathogenesis Multifactorial, with genetic factors and environmental triggers, including infections (e.g., HIV and streptococcal), smoking, UV light, medications such as lithium, and emotional factors T-cell immunologic reaction causes epidermal hyperprolifera-tion

Dupuytrens contracture

Palmoplantar fibromatosis Dupuytren's disease, palmar fasciitis Viking disease Disorder characterized by subcutaneous fascia thickening and shortening, causing the fingers to retract down towards the palm of the hand Unclear dominant genetic inheritance often involves individuals of northern European descent trauma sometimes initiates or accelerates the process associated with alcoholism, diabetes mellitus, smoking, epilepsy, pulmonary disease Asymptomatic, palmar skin nodule, generally within...

Erythema nodosum

Dermatitis contusiformis erythema con-tusiformis focal septal panniculitis nodose fever Inflammatory vascular reaction pattern to multiple causes characterized by tender subcutaneous nodules, usually on the anterior legs Probably is delayed hypersensitivity reaction to a variety of antigens most common associations with streptococcal infections in children and sarcoidosis in adults other associations include tuberculosis, myco-plasma pneumonia, leprosy, coccidioid-omycosis, North American...

Follicular mucinosis

Degenerative mucinosis of pilosebaceous units Primary idiopathic form secondary form associated with benign diseases such as lupus erythematosus, lichen simplex chronicus, and angiolymphoid hyperplasia, and with malignant diseases such as mycosis fungoides, Kaposi's sarcoma, and Hodg-kin's disease Pruritic, pink to yellow-white, follicular papules and plaques may be solitary or multiple face and scalp most common sites non-scarring alopecia Alopecia areata telogen effluvium andro-genetic...

Focal dermal hypoplasia

Goltz's syndrome, Goltz syndrome Definition Genetic disorder characterized by distinctive skin abnormalities and a wide variety of defects affecting the eyes, teeth, and skeletal, urinary, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and central nervous system X-linked dominant, typically lethal in males mosaicism with random X-chromo-some inactivation (lyonization) likely profound dysplasia of ectodermal, neuroecto-dermal, endodermal, and mesodermal elements Present at birth, almost exclusively in...

Erythema gyratum repens

Figurate erythema with a distinctive clinical appearance, which serves as a marker of internal malignancy Possibly involves a cutaneous response to tumor antigens Eruption often precedes diagnosis of underlying malignancy wood-grain appearance created by concentric, pruritic, mildly scaling bands of flat-to-slightly-palpable erythema, with rapid migration of the bands course of eruption mirrors course of the underlying illness, with clearance of rash and relief of pruritus within 6 weeks of...

Epidermolysis bullosa

Bullae, erosions, and scarring of the hands Epidermolysis bullosa. Bullae, erosions, and scarring of the hands Group of inherited disorders characterized by blister formation in response to mechanical trauma Epidermolysis bullosa simplex associated with mutations of the genes coding for keratins 5 and 14 level of skin separation at the mid basal cell associated with variable intermediate filament clumping Junctional epidermolysis bullosa mutations in genes coding for...

Epidermoid cyst

Epidermal cyst epidermal inclusion cyst wen atheroma steatoma sebaceous cyst Cyst with a stratified squamous lining, which produces keratin Polymorphic, verrucous or flat-topped papules resembling flat warts macules and reddish-brown plaques with slightly scaly surfaces and irregular borders localized mostly on sun-exposed regions, palms, soles, in the axillae, and on external genitalia mucous membranes rarely affected malignant tumors typically appears during the fourth and fifth decades of...

Dissecting cellulitis of scalp

Dissecting cellulitis perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens Hoffman's disease Chronic inflammatory disease characterized by painful suppurating lesions of the scalp, leading to scarring alopecia Associated with acne conglobata, hidraden-itis suppurativa, and pilonidal cysts, all of which have follicular blockage as the common mechanism retained material dilates and causes follicular rupture keratin and organisms from the damaged hair follicles initiate neutrophilic and granulomatous...

Dyshidrotic eczema

Dyshidrosis pompholyx vesicular pal-moplantar eczema vesicular eczema of palms and soles Dyshidrotic eczema. Multiple vesicles on the hands, with concentration along the sides of the digits Recurrent or chronic relapsing form of vesicular palmoplantar dermatitis Occurring commonly in atopic individuals associated with stress, infection, exogenous contactants, climate changes Symmetric crops of clear vesicles and or bullae on the palms and lateral aspects of fingers and feet vesicles deep...

Fogo selvagem

Endemic pemphigus foliaceus Brazilian pemphigus Brazilian pemphigus foliaceus South American pemphigus Variant of pemphigus foliaceus found in certain areas of Central America, South America, and Tunisia Autoimmune disease, with autoantibodies specific for desmoglein, which results in acantholysis and linical blistering black fly may be vector of spread Superficial vesicles that rupture easily and leave erosions positive Nikolsky sign occasional total body erythroderma no mucous membrane...

Pathogenesis

Irritant variant caused by direct injury of the skin by an agent capable of producing Contact dermatitis. Erythematous, edematous plaques around the eyes in a patient with an allergic contact dermatitis to a topical eye medication Contact dermatitis. Erythematous, edematous plaques around the eyes in a patient with an allergic contact dermatitis to a topical eye medication cell damage in any individual if applied for sufficient time and in sufficient concentration Allergic variant type IV...

Erythema toxicum

Erythema toxicum neonatorum erythema neonatorum toxic erythema erythema neonatorum allergicum erythema papulo-sum urticaria neonatorum erythema dys-pepsicum Benign, self-limited eruption occurring primarily in healthy newborns in the early neonatal period Usual onset within the first 4 days of life in full-term infants, with peak onset occurring within the first 48 hours following birth presents with a blotchy, evanescent, macular erythema, often on the face or trunk sites of predilection...

Erythrokeratodermia variabilis

Erythrokeratoderma keratosis rubra figurata erythrokeratodermia figurata variabilis Disorder of cornification associated with transient noninflammatory erythema and persistent, but changing, scaliness Mutations identified in the connexin gene GJB3 possibly caused by impaired gap junctional intercellular communication due to a defect in gap junctions Transient, circumscribed, highly variable, figurate erythematous patches, sometimes surrounded by a hypomelanotic halo, involving any part of the...

Erythromycin topical

Emgel Erycette EryDerm Erymax Erythra-Derm T-Stat Theramycin Staticin Topical macrolide antibiotic anti-inflammatory Inhibition of RNA-dependent protein synthesis by binding to the 50S subunit of the ribosome Cutaneous burning sensation, dryness, peeling, pruritus, erythema Erythromycin, systemic. Dermatologic indications and dosage Erythromycin, systemic. Dermatologic indications and dosage 30-50 mg per kg daily divided into 4 doses for 10 days 30-50 mg per kg daily divided into 4 doses for 4...

Erythema multiforme

Erythema Multiforme

Erythema exudativum erythema polymorphe Erythema multiforme. Target-like papules on the palm Erythema multiforme. Target-like papules on the palm Acute inflammatory disorder related to numerous factors, characterized by distinctive clinical eruption, with hallmark of iris or target lesion Unclear herpes-associated disease appears to represent the result of a cell-mediated immune reaction associated with herpes simplex virus (HSV) antigen becoming violaceous and forming concentric target lesion...

Ehlers Danlos syndrome

Heterogeneous group of inherited connective tissue disorders characterized by joint hypermobility, skin fragility, and hyperex-tensibility Specific collagen defect has been identified in 6 of the 11 types Type IV - decreased Ehlers Danlos syndrome. Marked joint hypermobility of digits Ehlers Danlos syndrome. Marked joint hypermobility of digits type III collagen types V and VI - deficiencies in hydroxylase and lysyl oxidase type VII - amino-terminal procollagen pepti-dase deficiency type IX -...

Folliculitis decalvans

Final common pathway of various types of chronic folliculitis, producing progressive scarring Inflammatory process caused by obstruction or disruption of individual hair follicles and the associated pilosebaceous units, leading to scarring alopecia because of destruction of the follicular units role of staphylococcal follicular infection uncertain Occurs in women after age 30 and in men from adolescence onward bogginess or induration of affected areas of the scalp or other hair-bearing sites...

Pilar cyst

Dermatologic indications and dosage Tretinoin. Dermatologic indications and dosage Apply once daily, preferably at bedtime apply 20-30 minutes after washing and drying skin Apply once daily, preferably at bedtime apply 20-30 minutes after washing and drying skin Apply once daily, preferably at bedtime apply 20-30 minutes after washing and drying skin Apply once daily, preferably at bedtime apply 20-30 minutes after washing and drying skin Apply once daily, preferably at bedtime apply...

Eczema fendille

Presents as clusters of umbilicated vesiculo-pustules in areas where the skin has been affected by a preexistent dermatitis umbili-cated vesiculopustules progress to erosions, usually over the upper trunk and head vesicles often become hemorrhagic and crusted, coalescing to form large, denuded plaques that bleed and sometimes become secondarily infected with bacteria Impetigo varicella contact dermatitis bul-lous pemphigoid dermatitis herpetiformis erythema multiforme pemphigus Mooney MA,...

Erythema elevatum diutinum

Leukocytoclastic vasculitis characterized by red, purple, brown, or yellow papules, plaques, or nodules Possibly involves immune complex deposition with subsequent inflammatory cascade associated with IgA monoclonal gam-mopathy, recurrent bacterial infections, (especially streptococcal), viral infections (including Hepatitis B or HIV), and rheu-matologic disease Red, violaceous, smooth, brown or yellow papules, plaques, or nodules over extensor surfaces, especially over the joints occasional...

Erythroplasia of Queyrat

Erythroplasia Queyrat

Arises from squamous epithelial cells of the glans penis or inner lining of prepuce multiple contributing factors including chronic irritation (urine, smegma), inflammation (heat, friction, maceration) and infection (herpes simplex virus infection, human papillomavirus infection) Minimally raised, erythematous plaques, which may be smooth, velvety, scaly, crusted, or verrucous ulceration or distinct papillomatous papules suggest progression to invasive squamous cell carci- Carcinoma in situ of...