Dipentene

Dipentene corresponds to a racemic mixture of d-limonene and l-limonene. Dipentene can be prepared from wood turpentine or by synthesis. It is used as a solvent for waxes, rosin and gums, in printing inks, perfumes, rubber compounds, paints, enamels, and lacquers. An irritant and sensitizer, dipentene caused contact dermatitis mainly in painters, polishers, and varnishers. Martins C, Gon alo M, Gon alo S (1995) Allergic contact dermatitis from dipentene in wax polish. Contact Dermatitis 33...

N02

Goon AT, Gilmour NJ, Basketter DA, White IR, Rycroft RJ, McFadden JP (2003) High frequency of simultaneous sensitivity to Disperse Orange 3 in patients with positive patch tests to para-phenylenediamine. Contact Dermatitis 48 248-250 Le Coz CJ, Jelen G, Goossens A,Vigan M, Ducombs G, Bircher A, Giordano-Labadie F, Pons-Guiraud A, Milpied-Homsi B, Castelain M, Tennstedt D, Bourrain JL, Bernard G, GERDA (2004) Disperse (yes), Orange (yes), 3 (no) what do we test in textile dye dermatitis Contact...

With the Patients Own Products

Frosch, Johannes Geier, Wolfgang Uter, An Goossens Commercially available patch test kits (standard series and various supplementary series) are the basis of a diagnostic work-up if an allergic contact dermatitis is to be confirmed. However, various investigators have shown that this way of testing is not sufficient. Menn et al. 20 found in a multicenter study that the European Standard Series detects only 37-73 of the responsible allergens in patients with contact dermatitis. The...

A

This is an organic solvent for vinyl resins and acetylene, butadiene and acid gases. It caused contact dermatitis in a technician at an epoxy resin factory, and can provoke alcohol-induced flushing in exposed subjects. Camarasa JG (1987) Contact dermatitis from dimethylformamide. Contact Dermatitis 16 234 Cox NH, Mustchin CP (1991) Prolonged spontaneous and alcohol-induced flushing due to the solvent dimethyl formamide. Contact Dermatitis 24 69-70

M

Trichloroethylene is a chlorinated hydrocarbon used as a detergent or solvent for metals, oils, resins, sulfur and as general degreasing agent. It can cause irritant contact dermatitis, generalized exanthema, Stevens-Johnson-like syndrome, pustular or bullous eruption, scleroderma, as well as neurological and hepatic disorders. Goon AT, Lee LT, Tay YK, Yosipovitch G, Ng SK, Giam YC (2001) A case of trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome. Arch Dermatol 137 274-276 Puerschel WC, Odia SG,...

Info

Dias M, Fernandes C, Pereira F, Pacheco A (1995) Occupational dermatitis from ethylenediamine. Contact Dermatitis 33 129-130 23. N,N-bis-(3-Aminopropyl) Dodecylamine CAS Registry Number 2372-82-9 This alkylamine is contained in detergent-disinfectants solutions for medical instruments. It is also contained in association with 3-aminopropyl dodecylamine in liquid laundry disinfectants such as Aset aqua (Johnson Wax SpA, Rydelle). Dibo M, Brasch J (2001) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis...

Propyl Gallate

This gallate ester (E 311) is an antioxidant frequently used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries to prevent the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids into rancid-smelling compounds. It causes cosmetic dermatitis mainly from lipsticks and induced contact dermatitis in a baker, and in a female confectioner, primarily sensitized by her night cream, who fried doughnuts -the margarine probably containing gallates. Bojs G, Niklasson B, Svensson A (1987) Allergic contact dermatitis to...

Primin

Primin is the major allergen of Primula obconica Hance (Primula-ceae family). Allergic contact dermatitis is mainly occupational, occurring in florists and horticulturists. Christensen LP, Larsen E (2000) Direct emission of the allergen primin from intact Primula obconica plants. Contact Dermatitis 42 149-153 Lamminpaa A, Estlander T, Jolanki R, Kanerva L (1996) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants. Contact Dermatitis 34 330-335 Pristinamycin IA (Streptogramin B,...

Quaternium22

CAS Registry Numbers 51812-80-7 , 82970-95-4 OH OH O This quaternary ammonium compound, used as a film former and conditioning agent, was reported as a co-sensitizer in eyelid dermatitis due to shellac-based mascara. Le Coz CJ, Leclere JM, Arnoult E, Raison-Peyron N, Pons-Guiraud A, Vigan M, Members of Revidal-GERDA (2002) Allergic contact dermatitis from shellac in mascara. Contact Dermatitis 46 149-152 Scheman AJ (1998) Contact allergy to quaternium-22 and shellac in mascara. Contact...

Alpha Pinene

CAS Registry Numbers 80-56-8 , 2437-95-8 Alpha-pinene is the major constituent of turpentine (about 80 ). It exists in levogyre form in European turpentine, and in dextro-gyre form in turpentine found in North-Americans. Sensitization occurs mainly in painters, polishers, and varnishers, and in those in the perfume and in the ceramics industry. Lear JT, Heagerty AHM, Tan BB, Smith AG, English JSC (1996) Transient re-emergence of oil turpentine allergy in the pottery industry. Contact Dermatitis...

S

One case was reported of a bullous contact dermatitis due to ethyl-parathion. A case of sensitization to methyl-parathion was described in a female agricultural worker with multiple sensitization. Jung HD, Holzegel K (1988) Akute Toxisch-bull se Kontaktdermatitis durch den Phosphors urester Parathionethyl im Follidel- l. Aktuel Dermatol 14 19-31 Pevny I (1980) Pestizid-Allergie. Dermatosen 28 186-189

Or

Cyanoacrylates, particularly 2-ethyl cyanoacrylate, are derived from cyanoacrylic acid. They are used as sealants. Fischer AA (1985) Reactions to cyanoacrylate adhesives instant glue. Cutis 35 18,20,22 Tarvainen K (1995) Analysis of patients with allergic patch test reactions to a plastics and glue series. Contact Dermatitis 32 346-351 Diethyleneglycol Diacrylate CAS Registry Number 4074-88-8 Diethyleneglycol diacrylate was positive in a painter sensitized to his own acrylate-based paint....

Badge

Most epoxy resins result from polymerization of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE). Delayed hypersensitivity is caused by the low-molecular-weight monomer BADGE (Mol. Wt. 340 g mol), the dimer having much a lower sensitization power. This allergen caused contact dermatitis in six workers in a plant producing printed circuits boards made of copper sheets and fiber glass fabric impregnated with a brominated epoxy resin. It can be contained in adhesives. Bruze M, Almgren G (1989) Occupational...

Scratch Chamber Testing [23

After four scarifications with a fine needle, the test material is applied under a large Finn chamber for 24 h. Readings are taken after 24 and 48 h. With fruits and vegetables, irritant reactions are quite frequent. For bakers, the flours used, the spices, and enzymes must be tested in prick and scratch chamber tests (amylase 1 in water). In rare cases an exposure test with the dough squeezed in the hands for 20 min might confirm a suspected protein contact dermatitis.

Mp

Methylol phenols are sensitizers contained in resins based on phenol and formaldehyde of the resol type. Cross-reactivity is possible with other phenol derivative molecules. Bruze M, Zimerson E (1997) Cross-reaction patterns in patients with contact allergy to simple methylol phenols. Contact Dermatitis 37 82-86 Bruze M, Fregert S, Zimerson E (1985) Contact allergy to phenol-formaldehyde resins. Contact Dermatitis 12 81-86

Ranitidine

Ranitidine Hydrochloride CAS Registry Number 66357-59-3 Ranitidine, an H2-receptor antagonist, can cause contact dermatitis within the pharmaceutical industry and in healthcare workers, or may induce systemic drug reactions in patients. Martinez MB, Salvador JF, Aguilera GV, Mas IB, Ramirez JC (2003) Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis induced by ranitidine hydro-chloride. Contact Dermatitis 49 47 Romaguerra C, Grimalt F, Vilaplana J (1988) Epidemic of occupational contact dermatitis...

Nh

Isophorone diamine is widely used in urethane and epoxy coatings for light-stable, weather-resistant properties. It is used in water proofing and paving concreting, and in the manufacture of diisocyanates and polyamides as an epoxy resin hardener. It is a strong sensitizer and can cause airborne contact dermatitis. Guerra L, Vincenzi, Bardazzi F, Tosti A (1992) Contact sensitization to isophoronediamine. Contact Dermatitis 27 52-53 Kelterer D, Bauer A, Elsner P (2000) Spill-induced...

S44Dimethoxy Dalbergione

It is an allergen of Dalbergia nigra also contained in Dalbergia latifolia Roxb. (East Indian rosewood, palissander). Occupational dermatitis can occur in timberworkers such as carpenters, sawyers, joiners or knifegrinders. Gallo R, Guarrera M, Hausen BM (1996) Airborne contact dermatitis from East Indian rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.). Contact Dermatitis 35 60-61

Chlorpromazine

This phenothiazine with sedative properties is used in human medicine and induced contact dermatitis in nurses or those working in the pharmaceutical industry. It is also in veterinary medicine, to avoid mortality of pigs during transportation. It is a sensi-tizer and a photosensitizer. Brasch J, Hessler HJ, Christophers E (1991) Occupational (photo)allergic contact dermatitis from azaperone in a piglet dealer. Contact Dermatitis 25 258-259

Ci 11005

Disperse Orange 3 is an azo dye that can induce contact dermatitis in workers in the textile industry. It is positive in a great majority of PPD-positive people, because of hydrolysis in the skin into PPD. Disperse Orange 3 can also be found in some semipermanent hair dyes. Balato N, Lembo G, Patruno C, Ayala F (1990) Prevalence of textile dye contact sensitization. Contact Dermatitis 23 126-127 Conde-Salazar L, Baz M, Guimaraens D, Cannavo A (1995) Contact dermatitis in hairdressers patch test...

Pyrethrosin

Pyrethrosin is an allergen of Asteraceae-Compositae such as Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium Vis. Mitchell JC, Dupuis G, Towers GHN (1972) Allergic contact dermatitis from pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum spp.). The roles of pyrethrosin, a sesquiterpene lactone, and of pyrethrin II. Br J Dermatol 86 568-573 Paulsen E, Andersen KE, Hausen BM (1993) Compositae dermatitis in a Danish dermatology department in one year (I). Results of routine patch testing with the sesquiterpene lactone mix supplemented with...

Polyvinylpyrrolidone Polyvidone Povidone 2Pyrrolidinone 1Ethenyl Homopolymer

Polyvinylpyrrolidone is widely used as is in cosmetics such as hair care products, and in medical products. It acts as iodophor in iodine-polyvinylpyrrolidone. PVP is an irritant, and has been claimed as the allergen in some cases of dermatitis from iodine-polyvinylpyrrolidone (although iodine is more likely the hapten). It may cause type I contact urticaria or anaphylaxis. Adachi A, Fukunaga A, Hayashi K, Kunisada M, Horikawa T (2003) Anaphylaxis to polyvinylpyrrolidone after vaginal...

O

This germacranolide sesquiterpene lactone is extracted from costus oil.With alantolactone and dehydrocostunolide,it is a component of lactone mix used to elicit reactions in patients sensitive to Asteraceae-Compositae. An erythema-multiform-like occupational contact dermatitis case occurred in a chemical student after an accidental exposure to costus oil. Ducombs G, Benezra C, Talaga P, Andersen KE, Burrows D, Camarasa JG, Dooms-Goossens A, Frosch PJ, Lachapelle JM, Menne T, Rycroft RJG, White...

Ci

Chlorothalonil is a fungicide widely used in the cultivation of ornamental plants and flowers, rice, and onions. In banana plantations it is used in fumigations by airplanes. It can be used as a preservative of paints and of woods. It can induce contact urticaria, irritant and allergic contact dermatitis, erythema dys-chromicum perstans or folliculitis mainly in agricultural workers, wood-related professions or in horticulturists. Boman A, Montelius J, Rissanen RL, Lid n C (2000) Sensitizing...

Hema

Sensitization to 2-HEMA concerns mainly dental technicians and dentists, but can also occur in other workers such as printers or beauticians or consumers using photopolymerizable sculptured nails. Geukens S, Goossens A (2001) Occupational contact allergy to (meth)- acrylates. Contact Dermatitis 44 153-159 Jolanki R, Kanerva L, Estlander T, Tarvainen K (1994) Concomitant sensi-tization to triglycidyl isocyanurate, diaminodiphenylmethane and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate from silk-screen printing...

Thiabendazole

This fungicide and vermifuge agent is widely used in agriculture (for example, forcitrus fruits), and in medical and veterinary practice as an anthelmintic drug. Izu R, Aguirre A, Goicoechea A, Gardeazabal J, Diaz Perez JL (1993) Photo-aggravated allergic contact dermatitis due to topical thiabendazole. Contact Dermatitis 28 243-244 Mancuso G, Staffa M, Errani A, Berdondini RM, Fabri P (1990) Occupational dermatitis in animal feed mill workers. Contact Dermatitis 22

Oh

This gallic acid ester (E 310) is an antioxidant added to foods and cosmetics to prevent oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. Cases were reported in workers of the food industry, gallate being contained in margarine, and from washing powder. De Groot AC, Gerkens F (1990) Occupational airborne contact dermatitis from octyl gallate. Contact Dermatitis 23 184-186 Mancuso G, Staffa M, Errani A, Berdondini RM, Fabri P (1990) Occupational dermatitis in animal feed mill workers. Contact Dermatitis 22...

Ch

It is a reactive diluent added in epoxy resins Bisphenol A type. Chieregato C, Vincenzi C, Guerra L, Farina P (1994) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis due to ethylenediamine dihydrochloride and cresyl glycidyl ether in epoxy resin systems. Contact Dermatitis 30 120 Daecke C, Schaller J, Goos M (1994) Acrylates as potent allergens in occupational and domestic exposures. Contact Dermatitis 30 190-191 Holness DL, Nethercott JR (1993) The performance of specialized collections of bisphenol A...

Cyclohexen1one

This strong sensitizer has been responsible for chemical burning followed by sensitization in a chemistry student. Goossens A, Deschutter A (2003) Acute irritation followed by primary sensitization to 2-cyclohenen-i-one in a chemistry student. Contact Dermatitis 48 163-164 A rubber accelerator chemical. The most frequent occupational categories are metal industry, homemakers, health services and laboratories, and the building industry. Conde-Salazar L, Del-Rio E, Guimaraens D, Gonzalez Domingo...

Sodium lauryl sulfate

SLS, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate CAS Registry Number 151-21-3 This anionic detergent is widely used in cosmetics and in industry. As a skin irritant agent, SLS can be used in several dermatological applications. It is also a good indicator of excited skin during patch testing. Geier J, Uter W, Pirker C, Frosch PJ (2003) Patch testing with the irritant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is useful in interpreting weak reactions to contact allergens as allergic or irritant. Contact Dermatitis 48 99-107

Tuliposide A

Tuliposide A is a glucoside prohapten contained in tulip bulbs and in Alstroemeria (Tulipa spp. Alstroemeria spp. Lilium spp.). It is rapidly hydrolyzed to tulipalin A and represents a common occupational problem among workers in the European tulip industry. Tuliposide can be present as 1-tuliposide A, but is more frequently identified as 6-tuliposide A. Christensen LP, Kristiansen K (1995) A simple HPLC method for the isolation and quantification of the allergens tuliposide A and tulipalin A...

H H

Ethylbutylthiourea is an accelerator used with other thiourea derivatives in the production of neoprene rubber. It is also contained in glues, mainly neoprene type. Bergendorff O, Persson CML, Hansson C (2004) HPLC analysis of alkyl thioureas in an orthopaedic brace and patch testing with pure ethylbu-tylthiourea. Contact Dermatitis 51 273-277 Kanerva L, Estlander T, Jolanki R (1994) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by thiourea compounds. Contact Dermatitis 31 242-248 Roberts JL,...

Ho

Pyrogallol belongs to the phenols group. It is an old photograph developer and a low sensitizer in hair dyes. Frosch PJ, Burrows D, Camarasa JG, Dooms-Goossens A, Ducombs G, Lahti A, Menne T, Rycroft RJG, Shaw S, White IR, Wilkinson JD (1993) Allergic reactions to a hairdresser's series results from 9 European centres. Contact Dermatitis 28 180-183 Guerra L, Tosti A, Bardazzi F, Pigatto P, Lisi P, Santucci B, Valsecchi R, Schena D,Angelini G, Sertoli A,Ayala F, Kokelj F (1992) Contact...

Phenylethyl Caffeate

Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester, Capee CAS Registry Number 104594-70-9 OH Capee is one of the allergens of propolis (bee glue). It is also contained in poplar bud secretions. Lamminpaa A, Estlander T, Jolanki R, Kanerva L (1996) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants. Contact Dermatitis Oliwiecki S, Beck MH, Hausen BM (1992) Occupational contact dermatitis from caffeates in poplar bud resin in a tree surgeon. Contact Dermatitis 27 127-128 CAS Registry Numbers 85-44-9...

Piroxicam

CAS Registry Number 36332-90-4 OH O This nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug belongs to the oxicam class. It induces photo-allergic contact dermatitis rather than contact allergy. Systemic photosensitivity is frequent, in patients prev iously sensitized to thiomersal. Thiosalicylic acid, the nonmer-curial moiety of thiomersal, is a marker of photoallergy to piroxi-cam. Reactions are expected with piroxicam p-cyclodextrin but cross-sensitivity is generally not observed to tenoxicam or melox-icam...

N

Hydralazine Hydrochloride CAS Registry Number 304-20-1 Hydralazine is a hydrazine derivative used as a antihypertensive drug. Skin rashes have been described during treatment. Exposure occurs mainly in the pharmaceutical industry. Cross-sensitivity is frequent with hydrazine, which is considered to be a potent sensi-tizer. Pereira F, Dias M, Pacheco FA (1996) Occupational contact dermatitis from propranolol, hydralazine, and bendroflumethiazide. Contact Dermatitis 35 303-304 Hydrangenol is the...

Oh Oh

Sorbitan sesquioleate is a mixture of mono and diesters of oleic acid and extol anhydrides derived from sorbitol. It is used as a surfactant and an emulsifier in cosmetics. It acts sometimes as a contact allergen, particularly in leg ulcer patients. It is also responsible for false-positive patch test reactions to haptens, with which some allergen providers emulgated, such as parabens mix, fragrance mix, Amerchol L101, and ethylene-urea melamine formaldehyde. Orton DI, Shaw S (2001) Sorbitan...

BooH

Mezlocillin is an acylaminopenicillin, which caused both immediate and delayed hypersensitivity in a nurse. Keller K, Schwanitz HJ (1992) Combined immediate and delayed hypersensitivity to mezlocillin. Contact Dermatitis 27 348-349 CAS Registry Number 141-43-5 OH Monoethanolamine is contained in many products, such as metal-working fluids. It is mainly an irritant. Traces may exist in other ethanolamine fluids. Bhushan M, Craven NM, Beck MH (1998) Contact allergy to 2-amino-ethanol...

Propranolol

Propranolol is a beta-blocking agent that was responsible for the sensitization of workers in drug synthesis. In one case, epichlor-hydrin was used for the production of drugs propranolol and oxprenolol. Cross-reactivity is expected between beta-blockers. Pereira F, Dias M, Pacheco FA (1996) Occupational contact dermatitis from propranolol, hydralazine and bendroflumethiazide. Contact Dermatitis 35 303-304 Rebandel P, Rudzki E (1990) Dermatitis caused by epichlorhydrin, Oxprenolol hydrochloride...

Clopidol

Methylchlorpindol, 3,5-Dichloro-2,6-Dimethyl-4-Pyridinol CAS Registry Number 2971-90-6 , 11116-46-4 , 68821-99-8 This drug is used for the prevention of coccidiosis in poultry. Mancuso G, Staffa M, Errani A, Berdondini RM, Fabri P (1990) Occupational dermatitis in animal feed mill workers. Contact Dermatitis 22 37-41 Pang GF, Cao YZ, Fan CL, Zhang JJ, Li XM, MacNeil JD (2003) Determination of clopidol residues in chicken tissues by liquid chromatography collaborative study. J AOAC Int 86...

Qh

This sympathomimetic a-adrenergic agonist is found in plants of the genus Ephedra (Ephedraceae) and is systemically used as a nasal decongestant. It can induce drug skin reactions such as acute generalized exanthematic pustulosis or generalized eczema. Assier-Bonnet H, Viguier M, Dubertret L, Revuz J, Roujeau JC (2002) Severe adverse drug reactions due to pseudoephedrine from over-the-counter medications. Contact Dermatitis 47 165-182 Padial MA, Alvarez-Ferreira J, Tapia B, Blanco R, Manas C,...

Diethylaminoethyl 4Aminobenzoate Novocaine CAS Registry Number [59461

Procaine Hydrochloride CAS Registry Number 51-05-8 Procaine is a local anesthetic with para-amino function. Sensitiza-tion mainly concerns the medical, dental, and veterinary professions. Berova N, Stranky L, Krasteva M (1990) Studies on contact dermatitis in stomatological staff. Dermatol Monatschr 176 15-18 Rudzki E, Rebandel P, Grzywa Z, Pomorski Z, Jakiminska B, Zawisza E (1982) Occupational dermatitis in veterinarians. Contact Dermatitis 4-Acetamidophenyl N,N-Diethylglycinate Hydrochloride...

T A

Methomyl is a pesticide agent, a carbamate insecticide with anticholinesterase activity. This mixture of two stereoisomers is used as a foliar spray to control field crops, stables and poultry houses, and in glasshouses on ornamentals and vegetables, or in flypapers. Cases were reported in chrysanthemum growers and in two women working in a plant nursery. Bruynzeel DP (1991) Contact sensitivity to Lannate . Contact Dermatitis 25 60-61 CAS Registry Number 4640-26-0 28396-75-0 ( )-4-Methoxy...

Tetrazepam

Tetrazepam is a benzodiazepine compound used systemically as a myorelaxant. It may induce skin rashes such as maculo-papular eruption, Stevens-Johnson syndrome or photosensitivity. Occupational sensitization can be observed in pharmaceutical plants. Sensitization generally does not concern other benzodiazepines (personal observations). Barbaud A, Trechot P, Reichert-Penetrat S, Granel F, Schmutz JL (2001) The usefulness of patch testing on the previously most severely affected site in a...

Do Not Test

In general, the following materials should not be tested because they are known as strong irritants but not as contact allergens (with few exceptions). Patch testing may be performed only if there is high suspicion of contact allergy by history and clinical findings. Then an open and semi-open test should precede closed patch testing (dilution series from 0.1 to 1 ). Toilet cleaners and other strong caustic

Tylosin

Tylosin is a macrolid antibiotic used in veterinary medicine. Occupational exposure concerns farmers, breeders, animal feed workers, and veterinarians. Barbera E, de la Cuadra J (1989) Occupational airborne allergic contact dermatitis from tylosin. Contact Dermatitis 20 308-309 Carafini S, Assalve D, Stingeni L, Lisi P (1994) Tylosin, an airborne contact allergen in veterinarians. Contact Dermatitis 31 327-328 Guerra L,Venturo N, Tardio M, Tosti A (1991) Airborne contact dermatitis from animal...

H

Lodopropynyl butylcarbamate (IPBC) is a broad-spectrum preservative used for years because of its wide field of application, in polymer emulsions and pigment dispersions such as water-based paints and adhesives, cements and inks, as a wood preservative, in metalworking fluids, in household products and in cosmetics. Allergic contact dermatitis to IPBC was reported due to cosmetics, from sanitary wipes, and in metalworkers. Badreshia S, Marks JG Jr (2002) lodopropynyl butylcarbamate. Am J...

H2s04

It caused some allergic reactions in photographers. Cross-reactivity is possible with Disperse Blue 124, Disperse Blue 106, and Disperse Red 17 Aguirre A, Landa N, Gonzalez M, Diaz-Perez JL (1992) Allergic contact dermatitis in a photographer. Contact Dermatitis 27 340-341 Galindo PA, Garcia R, Garrido JA, Feo F, Fernandez F (1994) Allergic contact dermatitis from colour developers absence of cross-sensitivity to para-amino compounds. Contact Dermatitis 30 301 Hansson C,...

Spectinomycin

Spectinomycin is an aminocyclitol antibiotic. It is used in human medicine against Neisseria gonorrhoeae and in veterinary medicine, especially for poultry, pigs, and cattle. Cases of dermatitis have been reported in veterinary practice. Dal Monte A, Laffi G, Mancini G (1994) Occupational contact dermatitis due to spectinomycin. Contact Dermatitis 31 204-205 Vilaplana J, Romaguera C, Grimalt F (1991) Contact dermatitis from linco-mycin and spectinomycin in chicken vaccinators. Contact...

Skin Tests

Methodological details regarding dilution, vehicle, pH measurement, open test, closed patch test, repetitive open application test (ROAT), and use test are dealt with in Chap. 22. In Dortmund we found large Finn chambers (12 mm diameter) useful for testing cosmetics with low irritancy (e.g., moisturizers, lip cosmetics, sunscreens, eye drops 14 Fig. 1). The semi-open test as described by Dooms-Goossens 6 is particularly helpful if strong irritancy under occlusion is suspected, e.g., in the case...

Propanediol

Propylene glycol is used as a solvent, a vehicle for topical medicaments such as corticosteroids or aciclovir, an emulsifier and humectant in food and cosmetics, and as antifreeze in breweries, in the manufactures of resins. It was present as an occupational sensi- tizer in the color film developer Flexicolor . Patch tests in aqua are sometimes irritant. Claverie F, Giordano-Labadie F, Bazex J (1997) Ecz ma de contact au propyl ne glycol. Ann Dermatol Venereol 124 315-317 Connoly M, Buckley DA...

Pyridine

Pyridine (unsubstituted pyridine) and its derivative (substituted pyridines) are widely used in chemistry. Pyridine is a solvent used for many organic compounds and anhydrous metallic salt chemicals. Contained in Karl Fischer reagent, it induced contact dermatitis in a laboratory technician. No cross-sensitivity is observed between those different substances. Knegt-Junk C, Geursen-Reitsma L, van Joost T (1993) Allergic contact dermatitis from pyridine in Karl Fischer reagent. Contact Dermatitis...

A3Carene

Hydroperoxides of A-3-carene are allergens contained in turpentine. Occupational exposure occurs in painters, varnishers, or in ceramic decoration. The percentage of A-3-carene is higher in Indonesian than in Portuguese turpentine. Lear JT, Heagerty AHM, Tan BB, Smith AG, English JSC (1996) Transient re-emergence of oil turpentine allergy in the pottery industry. Contact Dermatitis 35 169-172

Cooh

All cephalosporins have a 7-amino-cephalosporanic group (cephem nucleus). They differ by a C7 and a C3 substitution. The cause of an allergic reaction to cephalosporins can be the cephem nucleus itself, but this seems to be rare. Allergic contact dermatitis from cephalosporins is uncommon and mainly occurs in healthcare, pharmaceutical, and veterinary professions. Systemic drug reactions are more frequent, and can involve an immuno-allergic mechanism or not. Some of them are severe and life...

DihydroxyN3Hydroxypropyl33Dimethylbutanamide Pantothenylol NPantoyl3Propanolamine Panthenol Pantothenyl Alcohol

Pan(to)thenol is the alcohol corresponding to pantothenic acid,of the vitamin B5 group. It is used as a food additive, and in skin and hair products as a conditioning agent. Contact dermatitis and urticaria have been reported. Schalock PC, Storrs FJ, Morrison L (2000) Contact urticaria from panthe- nol in hair conditioner. Contact Dermatitis 43 223 Stables GI, Wilkinson SM (1998) Allergic contact dermatitis due to panthenol. Contact Dermatitis 38 236-237

Qpx

Naphthol AS is a coupling agent in cotton dyeing, inducing occupational dermatitis or contact allergy in consumers in contact with cotton-dyed clothing. It has been indirectly reported as a cause of occupational allergy due to its coupling with Diazo Component 51, or as a cross-sensitizer or sensitizer associated with Pigment Red 23 in red parts of tattoos. Pigmented contact dermatitis is usual in patients with a high phototype. Le Coz CJ, Lepoittevin JP (2001) Clothing dermatitis from Naphthol...

Nh2

Chloroacetamide is as a preservative used in several applications as in cutting metalworking fluids, in paints or in glues. It can induce contact dermatitis in hairdressers or in shoemakers, being used as a leather preservative. Katsarou A, Koufou B, Takou K, Kalogeromitros D, Papanayiotou G, Vareltzidis A (1995) Patch test results in hairdressers with contact dermatitis in Greece (1985-1994). Contact Dermatitis 33 347-348 Mancuso G, Reggiani M, Berdondini RM (1996) Occupational dermatitis in...

Nco

MDI is used in the manufacture of various polyurethane products elastic and rigid foams, paints, lacquers, adhesives, binding agents, synthetic rubbers, and elastomeric fibers. Estlander T, Keskinen H, Jolanki R, Kanerva L (1992) Occupational dermatitis from exposure to polyurethane chemicals. Contact Dermatitis 27 161-165 Mancuso G, Reggiani M, Berdondini RM (1996) Occupational dermatitis in shoemakers. Contact Dermatitis 34 17-22 It is a rubber chemical used as an accelerator and stabilizing...

J

This drug is a 2 1 mixture of the alkaloid theophylline and ethyl-lenediamine (see below). It caused contact dermatitis in industrial plants, in pharmacists, and in nurses. Ethylenediamine is the sensitizer and patch testing is generally positive to both ethylene-diamine and aminophylline, and negative to theophylline. Corazza M, Mantovani L,Trimurti L,Virgili A (1994) Occupational contact sensitization to ethylenediamine in a nurse. Contact Dermatitis 31

Omite

The pesticide omite principally acts as an irritant. Contact dermatitis was reported in 40 of 47 agricultural workers using Omite . Nishioka K, Kozuka T, Tashiro M (1970) Agricultural miticide (BPPS) dermatitis. Skin Res 12 15 O'Malley M, Rodriguez P, Maibach HI (1995) Pesticide patch testing California nursery workers and controls. Contact Dermatitis 32 61-62

ONitrop Phenylenediamine Onpd Ci 76070 CAS Registry Number [5307142 NH2

ONPD is a hair dye and a sensitizer in hairdressers and consumers who are generally sensitive to PPD too. Frosch PJ, Burrows D, Camarasa JG, Dooms-Goossens A, Ducombs G, Lahti A, Menne T, Rycroft RJG, Shaw S, White IR, Wilkinson JD (1993) Allergic reactions to a hairdresser's series results from 9 European centres. Contact Dermatitis 28 180-183 Guerra L, Tosti A, Bardazzi F, Pigatto P, Lisi P, Santucci B, Valsecchi R, Schena D,Angelini G, Sertoli A,Ayala F, Kokelj F (1992) Contact dermatitis in...

Vinylpyridine

4-Vinyl pyridine was used as a monomer in polymer chemistry and induced nonimmunological contact urticaria, and allergic contact dermatitis. No cross-reactivity is observed between pyri-dine derivatives. Bergendorff O, Wallengren J (1999) 4-Vinylpyridine-induced dermatitis in a laboratory worker. Contact Dermatitis 40 280-281 Foussereau J, Lantz JP, Grosshans E (1972) Allergic eczema from vinyl-4- pyridine. Contact Dermatitis Newslett 11 261 Sasseville D, Balbul A, Kwong P,Yu K (1996) Contact...

V

Penicillins can induce contact dermatitis, contact urticaria, and systemic and sometimes severe reactions. Occupational sensitivity to penicillins concerns health workers, workers in the pharmaceutical industry and veterinaries, since these antibiotics are used by veterinarians and cattle breeders as medications and animal feed antibiotic. All penicillins contain the 6-aminopenicillanic acid moiety. Penicillins of G, V, A, and M groups are characterized by a specific C7 side chain....

Zinc NNDibutyldithiocarbamate CAS Registry Number [136232 SS

A rubber chemical, used as a vulcanization accelerator. It can also be contained in paints, glue removers, and anticorrosive. It was contained in carba-mix. Conde-Salazar L, Del-Rio E, Guimaraens D, Gonzalez Domingo A (1993) Type IV allergy to rubber additives a 10-year study of 686 cases. J Am Acad Dermatol 29 176-180 Conde-Salazar L, Guimaraens D, Villegas C, Romero A, Gonzalez MA (1995) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis in construction workers. Contact Dermatitis 35 226-230...

Pivampicillin

Pivampicillin Hydrochloride CAS Registry Number 26309-95-5 Pivampicillin is a prodrug of ampicillin. It caused sensitization in 56 workers at a penicillin factory. Pivampicillin and pivmecillinam were responsible for contact dermatitis in pharmaceutical production workers. Ampicillin, mecillinam or amdinocillin, penicillin V and penicillin G were also implicated in cross-reactions. Moller NE, von W rden K (1992) Hypersensitivity to semisynthetic penicillins and cross-reactivity with penicillin....

Caffeic Acid Dimethyl Allylic Ester

3-Methyl-2-Butenyl-Caffeate CAS Registry Number 108084-13-7 This is the major allergen of poplar bud resins and of propolis, the bee glue derived almost exclusively from poplar buds. Lamminpaa A, Estlander T, Jolanki R, Kanerva L (1996) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants. Contact Dermatitis 34 330-335 Oliwiecki S, Beck MH, Hausen BM (1992) Occupational contact dermatitis from caffeates in poplar bud resin in a tree surgeon. Contact Dermatitis 27 127-128

Captafol

Captafol is a pesticide, belonging to thiophthalimide group. Occupational contact dermatitis was reported in an agricultural worker who had multiple sensitizations. Peluso AM, Tardio M, Adamo F, Venturo N (1991) Multiple sensitization due to bis-dithiocarbamate and thiophthalimide pesticides. Contact Dermatitis 25 327

Captane NTrichloromethylmercaptotetrahydrophtalimide

A pesticide, belonging to the thiophthalimide group, mainly affecting agricultural workers. Sensitizer and photosensitizer, it can induce contact urticaria. It is used as a fungicide and a bacteriostatic agent in cosmetics and toiletries, particularly in shampoos. Cases of contact dermatitis were reported in painters, polishers, and varnishers. Aguirre A, Manzano D, Zabala R, Raton JA, Diaz-Perez JL (1994) Contact allergy to captan in a hairdresser. Contact Dermatitis 31 46 Moura C, Dias M,...

Chloro13Dinitrobenzene 6Chloro13Dinitrobenzene

This substance is one of the strongest primary skin irritant known, and a universal contact allergen. Occupational dermatitis has been reported, but current use is decreasing or performed with completely closed systems. DNCB is sometimes used for topical treatment of alopecia areata, severe warts, and cutaneous metastasis of malignant melanoma. Adams RM, Zimmerman MC, Bartlett JB, Preston JF (1971) i-Chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as an algicide. Report of four cases of contact dermatitis. Arch...

Dehydrocostuslactone

A guaianolide sesquiterpene lactone extracted from costus oil. It is one of the components of Lactone mix, with costunolide and alantolactone, used to detect Compositae-sensitive patients. Ducombs G, Benezra C, Talaga P, Andersen KE, Burrows D, Camarasa JG, Dooms-Goossens A, Frosch PJ, Lachapelle JM, Menne T, Rycroft RJG, White IR, Shaw S, Wilkinson JD (1990) Patch testing with the sesquiterpene lactone mix a marker for contact allergy to Compositae and other sesquiterpene-lactone-containing...

Diallyl Disulfide

Diallyl disulfide is one of the major allergens in garlic (Allium sativum) and onions. Among patients patch-test-positive to garlic, all 13 who were tested had positive reactions to diallyl sulfide 5 pet. Bruynzeel DP (1997) Bulb dermatitis. Dermatological problems in the flower bulb industries. Contact Dermatitis 37 70-77 Lamminpaa A, Estlander T, Jolanki R, Kanerva L (1996) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants. Contact Dermatitis 34 330-335 McFadden JP, White...

Diethylenetriamine

CAS Registry Number 111-40-0 H Diethylenetriamine is a hardener in epoxy resins of the Bisphenol A type. It has been reported to be a sensitizer when used in an ultrasonic bath for cleaning jewels, in synthetic lubricants or in carbonless copy paper. Holness DL, Nethercott JR (1993) The performance of specialized collections of bisphenol A epoxy resin system components in the evaluation of workers in an occupational health clinic population. Contact Dermatitis 28 216-219 Jolanki R, Kanerva L,...

Dimethoate

This organophosphorus compound is used as a contact and systemic insecticide and acaricide. It induced an erythema-multiform-like contact dermatitis in a warehouseman in an agricultural consortium. Haenen C, de Moor A, Dooms-Goossens A (1996) Contact dermatitis caused by the insecticides omethoate and dimethoate. Contact Dermatitis 35 54-55 Schena D, Barba A (1992) Erythema-multiforme-like contact dermatitis from dimethoate. Contact Dermatitis 27 116-117

Dimethylol Phenol

2,4-Dimethylol phenol in a compound of resins based on phenol and formaldehyde. Cross-reactivity is possible with other phenol derivative molecules. Bruze M, Zimerson E (1997) Cross-reaction patterns in patients with contact allergy to simple methylol phenols. Contact Dermatitis 37 82-86 Bruze M, Zimerson E (1985) Contact allergy to 3-methylol phenol, 2,4-dimethylol phenol and 2,6-dimethylol phenol. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 65 548-551

Dipentamethylenethiuram Disulfide

A rubber chemical contained in thiuram mix. The most frequent occupational categories are the metal industry, homemakers, health services and laboratories, and the building industry. Conde-Salazar L, Del-Rio E, Guimaraens D, Gonzalez Domingo A (1993) Type IV allergy to rubber additives a 10-year study of 686 cases. J Am Acad Dermatol 29 176-180 Conde-Salazar L, Guimaraens D, Villegas C, Romero A, Gonzalez MA (1995) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis in construction workers. Contact...

Disperse Blue 106

This clothing dye used in synthetic fibers is one of the most potent sensitizers in clothes. Allergic contact dermatitis is relatively frequent in consumers. Occupational textile dye dermatitis was reported in a ready-to-wear shop. Constant concomitant reactions with Disperse Blue 124 are due to their chemical similarities, as with photograph developers CD1, CD2, CD3, and CD4. Menezes-Brandao F, Altermatt C, Pecegueiro M, Bordalo O, Foussereau J (1985) Contact dermatitis to Disperse Blue 106....

Glyceryl Trinitrate Glycerol Trinitrate

CAS Registry Number 55-63-0 O O Nitroglycerin is an explosive agent contained in dynamite, and an antianginal and vasodilator treatment available in systemic and topical forms. It is a well known irritant agent in dynamite manufacture. It can also cause allergic reactions in employees of explosives manufacturers, and in the pharmaceutical industry. Transdermal systems are the main source of iatrogenic sensitization. Nitroglycerin can cross-react with isosorbide dinitrate. Aquilina S, Felice H,...

H2so4h2o

It is both an allergen and an irritant in photographers. Cross-reactivity is possible with Disperse Blue 124, Disperse Blue 106, and Disperse Red 17. Aguirre A, Landa N, Gonzalez M, Diaz-Perez JL (1992) Allergic contact dermatitis in a photographer. Contact Dermatitis 27 340-341 Galindo PA, Garcia R, Garrido JA, Feo F, Fernandez F (1994) Allergic contact dermatitis from colour developers absence of cross-sensitivity to para-amino compounds. Contact Dermatitis 30 301...

Methylmorphine

CAS Registry Number 76-57-3 (CAS Registry Number 52-28-8 , CAS Registry Number 1422-07-7 ) Codeine has been reported as an occupational sensitizer in workers in the production of opium alkaloids. Codeine has been responsible for fixed drug eruptions or generalized dermatitis. Cross-sensitivity is expected to morphine. Conde-Salazar L, Guimaraens D, Gonzalez M, Fuente C (1991) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from opium alkaloids. Contact Dermatitis 25 202-203 Estrada JL, Alvarez Puebla...

Prilocaine Hydrochloride

CAS Registry Number 25655-41-8 (CAS Registry Number 1786-81-8 ) Prilocaine in a local anesthetic of the amide group. It can induce allergic contact dermatitis, particularly from EMLA cream. Le Coz CJ, Cribier BJ, Heid E (1996) Patch testing in suspected allergic contact dermatitis due to Emla cream in haemodialyzed patients. Contact Dermatitis 35 316-317

Sodium Pyrosulfite Disodium Disulfite E223 CAS Registry Number [7681574O O

This agent is frequently used as a preservative in pharmaceutical products, in the bread-making industry as an antioxidant, and it can induce contact dermatitis. It can be used as a reducing agent in photography and caused dermatitis in a photographic technician, probably acting as an aggravating irritative factor. Sodium metabisulfite contains a certain amount of sodium sulfite and sodium sulfate. Acciai MC, Brusi C, Francalanci Giorgini S, Sertoli A (1993) Allergic contact dermatitis in...

Vitamin E Acetate dlVitamin E Acetate d

CAS Registry Number 7695-91-2 , CAS Registry Number 58-95-7 Tocopherol and tocopheryl acetate are used mainly as antioxidants. Tocopheryl acetate, an ester of tocopherol (vitamin E), can induce allergic contact dermatitis. De Groot AC, Berretty PJ, van Ginkel CJ, den Hengst CW, van Ulsen J, Weyland JW (1991) Allergic contact dermatitis from tocopheryl acetate in cosmetic creams. Contact Dermatitis 25 302-304 Matsumura T, Nakada T, Iijima M (2004) Widespread contact dermatitis from tocopherol...

Paratert Butylphenol

Para-ferf-butylphenol is used with formaldehyde to produce the polycondensate p-ferf-butylphenol formaldehyde resins (PTBPFR). Major occupational sources are neoprene glues and adhesives in industry, in the shoemaking and leather industries or in car production. It is also used as a box preservative in box and furniture manufacture, and in the production of casting molds, car brake linings, insulated electrical cables, adhesives, printing inks, and paper laminates. Para- ferf--butyl-phenol...

Dibutyl Phthalate

It is mainly used as a nonreactive epoxy diluent. Capon F, Cambie MP, Clinard F, Bernardeau K, Kalis B (1996) Occupational contact dermatitis caused by computer mice. Contact Dermatitis 35 57-58 Chieregato C, Vincenzi C, Guerra L, Farina P (1994) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis due to ethylenediamine dihydrochloride and cresyl glycidyl ether in epoxy resin systems. Contact Dermatitis 30 120

Cincaine Cinchocaine Percaine Sovcaine

CAS Registry Number 85-79-0 (CAS Registry Number 61-12-1 ) Dibucaine hydrochloride is an amide group local anesthetic that can induce allergic contact dermatitis. Erdmann SM, Sachs B, Merk HF (2001) Systemic contact dermatitis from cinchocaine. Contact Dermatitis 44 260-261 Nakada T, Iijima M (2000) Allergic contact dermatitis from dibucaine hydrochloride. Contact Dermatitis 42 283

Nicotine

Nicotine is an alkaloid found in tobacco, and is responsible for its pharmacological effects and addiction. Contact dermatitis from nicotine, considered as rare, has been more frequent since its use in transdermal systems. Irritant dermatitis is mainly encountered, as contact urticaria seems to be rare. Allergic contact dermatitis, sometimes generalized, has been reported, with positive patch testing to nicotine base (10 ethanol or petrolatum). No consequences have been reported in patients who...

Polyvinylpyrrolidone Iodine PVPIodine

Povidone-iodine is iodophor, used as a topical antiseptic. A 10 povidone-iodine solution contains 1 available iodine, but free-iodine is at 0.1 concentration. Skin exposure causes irritant rather than allergic contact dermatitis. In such a situation however, iodine seems to be the true hapten. Lachapelle JM (2005) Allergic contact dermatitis from povidone-iodine a re-evaluation study. Contact Dermatitis 52 9-10 Tosti A, Vincenzi C, Bardazzi F, Mariani R (1990) Allergic contact dermatitis due to...

Cyclohexanone

Used as a polyvinyl chloride solvent, cyclohexanone caused contact dermatitis in a woman manufacturing PVC fluidotherapy bags.Cyclohexanone probably does not cross-react with cyclohexanone resin. A cyclohexanone-derived resin used in paints and varnishes, caused contact dermatitis in painters. Bruze M, Boman A, Bergquist-Karlson A, Bjorkner B, Wahlberg JE, Woog E (1988) Contact allergy to cyclohexanone resin in humans and guinea pigs. Contact Dermatitis 18 46-49 Sanmartin O, de la Cuadra J...

MethamNa Carbathion SodiumNMethyldithiocarbamate

Metham-Na is a fungicide nematocide of the dithiocarbamate group. Sensitization occurs among agricultural workers. Koch P (1996) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis and airborne contact dermatitis from 5 fungicides in a vineyard worker. Cross-reactions between fungicides of the dithiocarbamate group Contact Dermatitis Pambor M, Bloch Y (1985) Dimethoat und Dithiocarmabat als berufliche Kontaktallergene bei einer Agrotechnikerin. Dermat Monatsschr 171 401-405 Schubert H (1978) Contact...

Cocamide DEA Coconut Oil Fatty Acids Diethanolamide NNbis2Hydroxyethyl Coco Fatty Acid Diethanolamide Cocoyl

Cocamide DEA, manufactured from coconut oil, is widely used in industry and at home as a surface-active agent. It is contained in hand gels, hand washing soaps, shampoos, and dish-washing liquids for its foam-producing and stabilizing properties, and in metalworking fluids and polishing agents as an anticorrosion inhibitor. Fowler JF Jr (1998) Allergy to cocamide DEA.Am J Contact Dermat 9 40-41 Kanerva L, Jolanki R, Estlander T (1993) Dentist's occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by...

Bardac22

This quaternary ammonium compound is used as a detergent-disinfectant in hospitals, as an algaecide in swimming pools, as a fungicide, and against termites in wood. We recently observed severe contact dermatitis in a slaughterhouse worker using a liquid soap containing this product (personal observation). Dejobert Y, Martin P, Piette F, Thomas P, Bergoend H (1997) Contact dermatitis from didecyldimethylammonium chloride and bis-(amino-propyl)-laurylamine in a detergent-disinfectant used in...

Octocrilene

Octocrylene is an anti-UVB filter used in cosmetics that may induce photoallergic contact dermatitis. Carrotte-Lefebvre I, Bonnevalle A, Segard M, Delaporte E, Thomas P (2003) Contact allergy to octocrylene. Contact Dermatitis 48 46-47 Octyl gallate, a gallate ester (E 311), is an antioxidant added to foods and cosmetics to prevent oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. Cases were sparsely reported in food industry or from lipsticks. Patch tests are frequently irritant. De Groot AC, Gerkens F...

Kathon LM Kathon 4200 Kathon 893 Pancil Skane M8 CAS Registry Number q

This isothiazolinone, contained in relatively few products compared to other isothiazolinones, is used in cleaning and polishing agents, latex paints, stains, adhesives, wood and leather preservatives, metalworking fluids (cutting oils), and plastic manufacture. Oleaga JM, Aguirre A, Landa N, Gonzalez M, Diaz-Perez JL (1992) Allergic contact dermatitis from Kathon 893. Contact Dermatitis 27 345-346 Young HS, Ferguson JEF, Beck MH (2004) Contact dermatitis from 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazoline-3-one in...

Hexamethylene Diacrylate

2-EHA was contained in a surgical tape and caused allergic contact dermatitis in a patient. Daecke C, Schaller J, Goos M (1994) Acrylates as potent allergens in occupational and domestic exposures. Contact Dermatitis 30 190-191 Ethyl methacrylate is used in dental prostheses or in photobonded sculptured nails. Kanerva L, Estlander T, Jolanki R, Tarvainen K (1993) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by exposure to acrylates during work with dental prostheses. Contact Dermatitis 28...

Nonylphenol Ethoxylates PEGn Nonyl Phenyl Ether Polyoxyethylene n Nonyl Phenyl Ether

CAS Registry Number 26027-38-3 and more than 25 other numbers CAS Registry Number 26027-38-3 and more than 25 other numbers Their general formula is C9H19C6H4(OCH2CH2)nOH. Each non-oxynol is characterized by the number (n) of ethylene oxide units repeated in the chain for example, nonoxynol-9, nonoxynol-14. They are present in detergents, liquid soaps, emulsifiers for creams, fabric softeners, photographic paper additives, hair dyes, lubricating oils, spermicides, and anti-infective agents....

Diphencyprone

Diphencyprone

2,3-Diphenylcyclopropenone CAS Registry Number 886-38-4 Diphencyprone is a potent contact allergen used in topical immunotherapy, to treat some severe alopecia areata. It is responsible for occupational contact dermatitis in chemists and dermatology department staff. Sansom JE, Molloy KC, Lovell CR (1995) Occupational sensitization to diphencyprone in a chemist. Contact Dermatitis 32 363 Temesv ri E, Gonz lez R, Marschalk M, Horv th A (2004) Age dependence of diphenylcyclopropenone...

PVPEicosene Copolymer

Polyvinylpyrrolidone Eicosene Copolymer CAS Registry Numbers 28211-18-9 , 77035-98-4 PVP eicosene copolymer is the polymer of vinylpyrrolidone and of 1-eicosene, and one of the 11 PVP copolymers recorded in the International Nomenclature of Cosmetics Ingredients inventory system. This substance is utilized in cosmetics, in sunscreens to enhance their water resistance, and is an inert ingredient in pesticides. Contact sensitization to a close compound VP eicosene co-polymer was also reported....

PVPHexadecene Copolymer

Eczema Arch

PVP hexadecene copolymer, another PVP copolymer used for identical applications as PVP eicosene copolymer, has been rarely implicated in contact dermatitis. De Groot AC, Bruynzeel DP, Bos JD, van der Meeren HL, van Joost T, Jagtman BA, Weyland JW (1988) The allergens in cosmetics. Arch Dermatol 124 1525-1529 Scheman A, Cummins R (1998) Contact allergy to PVP hexadecene copolymer. Contact Dermatitis 39 201

Dimethylaminopropylamine

Dimethylaminopropylamine is an aliphatic amine present in amphoteric surfactants such as liquid soaps and shampoos. It is present as a residual impurity thought to be responsible for allergy from cocamidopropylbetaine. It is structurally similar to diethyl-aminopropylamine. It is also used as a curing agent for epoxy resins and an organic intermediate in chemical synthesises ion exchangers, additives for flocculants, cosmetics and fuel additives, dyes and pesticides . Patch test has to be...

Trimethylol Phenol

Trimethylolphenol is an allergen in resins based on phenol and formaldehyde. Cross-reactivity is possible with other phenol-derivative molecules. Bruze M, Zimerson E 1997 Cross-reaction patterns in patients with contact allergy to simple methylol phenols. Contact Dermatitis 37 82-86 Bruze M, Fregert S, Zimerson E 1985 Contact allergy to phenol-formaldehyde resins. Contact Dermatitis 12 81-86