Crickets Breeding Made Simple

Crickets Breeding Made Simple

With the Crickets Breeding Made Simple, which immediately downloads onto your computer, you are going to receive: Ground-breaking building tips for breeding crickets! Cricket maintenance, so that you keep your colony in top health forever! This allows you to: Save on monthly pet food expenses. Save yourself the troubles of looking for pet food during season when less food is available. Reduce the risks of have sick/virus-infected crickets to feed your pets, which can eventually cause sickness or even death to your pets. Make money and sell to other pet owners & pet shops. Purchase more pets, such as leopard gecko, bearded dragon from the money earned from selling crickets. Crickets are perhaps one of the slickest creatures when it comes to getting away. No matter how great you treat them, crickets by nature have a habit of trying to go off on their own. However, there is a sure-proofed way to keep any and all of your crickets at bay every single day of the year., but with this unique guide youll know how to keep your crickets healthy and strong for as long as they live. Inside this guide, you'll discover things that You are possibly doing to drive your crickets away as well as things that you can start doing to make them want to stay with you for as long as you want them around. This breakthrough guide simply opens your eyes to what you can do to keep your crickets around a lot longer. Read more...

Crickets Breeding Made Simple Summary

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Orthoptera Grasshoppers Locusts Katydids Crickets

Family Gryllidae (Crickets) Several species of crickets are important as food. In Southeast Asia, Brachytrupes portentosus lives in tunnels that are about 30 cm deep, usually one cricket per hole, and comes out only at night. They feed on young plants and are an agricultural pest. They are collected by digging, by filling the holes with water, or as they fly around lights at night. After the wings are removed they are eviscerated, then fried, grilled, or put into curry as a substitute for meat. They are sold by villagers in the markets. In the market at Chiang Mai in Thailand, the shopkeeper takes the crickets live from a plastic bag and spits them longitudinally from head to abdomen on a bamboo stick, three or four crickets per stick. They are then fried in oil in front of shoppers. FIGURE 1 Mass-reared edible house crickets, A. domesticus. FIGURE 1 Mass-reared edible house crickets, A. domesticus. 30 C or higher and fed diets equal in quality to those used in bringing conventional...

Crickets

Crickets are insects in the order Orthoptera that comprise the ensiferan family Gryllidae. Some authors regard them as the superfamily Grylloidae with four families Myrmeco-philidae, Gryllotalpidae, Mogoplistidae, and Gryllidae. The group dates from the Triassic Period and today includes 3726 known living species and 43 extinct ones, 22 extant subfamilies and 7 extinct ones, 528 extant genera and 27 extinct ones. Most extant subfamilies are distributed worldwide.

General Functions Of Biogenic Amines

The physiological role of OA at different levels of the organism is well documented. As a stress hormone in the periphery and in the central nervous system OA prepares the animal for energy-demanding behaviors. This monoamine stimulates glycogenolysis, modifies muscle contraction, supports long-term flight, and regulates arousal in the central nervous system. OA and OA agonists can enhance behavioral responses, like escape or aggressive behavior in crickets and sucrose responsiveness in honey bees. Injection of OA can elicit flight motor behavior in locusts, even in isolated thoracic ganglia. It is assumed that in insects OA has functions similar to those of the adrenergic system in vertebrates.

Enrichment For Animals

Historically, there were distinctions between ''behavioral enrichment'' and ''environmental enrichment.'' These were based on suggestions that there were two radically different approaches to improving the lot of captive animals. The behavioral enrichment approach focused on engineering environments that provided opportunities that were likely to elicit species-typical behaviors. For example, occasionally producing the sounds of crickets in an otter exhibit and providing means by which the otters could hunt and capture crickets resulted in considerable display of species-typical behaviors. Supporters of environmental enrichment suggested that providing a rich-enough environment precluded the need for engineering artificial ''hunts'' or other apparatus that rewarded animals for particular responses. For example, if a captive forest with sufficient food was provided for chimpanzees,* this might be sufficient to encourage significant amounts of species-typical behaviors. Today, the term...

Economic Importance

Conventional wisdom has it that the iridoviruses are not good biological control agents since they do not cause a lethal infection and are difficult to transmit in the field. However, the iridovirus isolated from southern mole crickets, Scapteriscus vicinus, operates in an epizootic fashion, killing greater than 70 of the collected mole crickets. When the virus is added to the diet of laboratory-reared nymphs, at least 65 became infected. This virus also infects Trichoplusia ni larvae and insect cell cultures and may be a pathogenic strain of iridovirus.

Geographic Distribution

Crickets occur almost everywhere on the earth between the regions of taiga vegetation that start at approximately 55 north and south latitude. Excellent dispersers, they are the only orthopterans that readily colonize far-flung Pacific islands. Some colonizers fly, others tend to lay their eggs in wood, which is carried by water far and wide. Flightless soil ovipositors are poor colonizers, except via human transport. The largest numbers of cricket species audible from a single location occur in tropical regions. In Malaysia, along about 1 km of road northeast of Kuala Lumpur, the songs of 88 species can be heard, including almost every extreme of structure in cricket songs across the world. In the richest habitats of tropical Queensland (Australia), midwestern United States (southern Ohio), and some other tropical locations, up to about 25 species can be heard in single locales. Mute species, more difficult to locate, must be added to these numbers to obtain the number of cricket...

Historical Events Mediated By Insects

Insects have also served as important determinants in the fates of human societies and economies throughout human history. The survival of the Israelites during their extended journey through the Sinai Desert was apparently made possible by insects. The manna that they gathered, ate, and survived upon was most likely the excretions of scale insects. If not for the arrival and help of divinely inspired seagulls, a plague of mormon crickets in 1848 may have ruined the crops and doomed the Mormons soon after their arrival in their new home in Utah. The silk trade was central to the economy of the Chinese Empire as was cochineal to the Aztecs of central Mexico. This is also true on a smaller scale for producers of honey and shellac, and for the thriving modern-day trade in insects sold for scientific, educational, and hobbyist uses.

Insect Body Plans And Developmental Programs

The majority of insects are winged and have either partial or complete metamorphosis. The Hemimetabola, such as grasshoppers and crickets, emerge from the egg formed as small, immature versions of the adult and are called nymphs. They lack wings and functional reproductive organs. After a series of molts, the number usually constant from one generation to another, nymphs pass directly to the winged, reproductive adult stage in a single step. This mode of development is referred to as incomplete metamorphosis. The more advanced insect orders, including moths, beetles, flies, and wasps, develop as vermiform (wormlike) larvae during the immature stages. The complete metamorphosis of these groups is a two-step process in which a sessile, nonfeeding pupal stage is intermediate between larva and adult. The pupal stage allows for a complete change in body form from larva to winged, hexapod adult. This total transformation of body form during complete metamorphosis requires a high degree of...

Potential as Biological Control Agents

Insect picorna-like viruses have been recorded in a number of different insect families including some, such as the hemipterans and the orthopterans (e.g. grasshoppers, locusts, crickets) where the occluded viruses do not occur frequently. The picorna-like viruses might be useful for these groups as well as others. There are several recorded examples of the picorna-like viruses being used as control agents. Infestations of the moth Gonometa podocarpi in pine plantations in Uganda were controlled using extracts of dead insects killed by GV and applying these to pest populations where the virus was absent. Like GV, LvV was shown to be an effective biocontrol agent when extracts of diseased cadavers were applied to apparently healthy populations of the pest insects. Although not tested in the field, CrPV has shown itself quite capable of devastating insect populations and was originally discovered when it triggered a population collapse of crickets. CrPV has also been shown to kill adult...

Digging Leg Of The Mole Cricket

Fossorial Legs

The majority of insectan legs are either elongate, slender, and designed for walking and climbing or cursorial, i.e., adapted for running, as in the cockroach (Fig. 1A). During walking, the legs form alternating triangles of support, with the fore and hind legs of one side and the middle leg of the opposite side contacting the substrate as the other three legs move forward. Various modifications allow the legs to be used in other forms of locomotion. Enlarged hind legs of many Orthoptera, fleas, and other insects are saltatorial, meaning they are designed for jumping. The jump of insects such as fleas is aided by a rubberlike protein called resilin in the cuticle that stores and subsequently releases energy for the jump. Powerful, spadelike forelegs of mole crickets, scarab beetles, burrowing mayflies, and other insects are fossorial, or adapted for digging and rapid burrowing (Fig. 1B). Flattened, fringed legs of aquatic insects such as dytiscid and gyrinid beetles and notonectid...

Discovery And Characterization Of Cave Arthropods

Malfj Ril Larv

Terrestrial cave arthropods Insects, arachnids, and millipedes are the dominant terrestrial groups living in caves. Not all orders are represented, however. Among the Hexapoda, the orders Collembola, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Coleoptera, and Diptera predominate. The springtails (Collembola) are represented by many troglophilic (facultative cave residents) and troglobitic species and are important scavengers in many caves. Most cavernicolous orthopterans are troglophilic or trogloxenic (roosting in caves), with the cave crickets (Rhiphidophoridae) being the best known. As more tropical caves are studied, many new species of troglobitic true crickets (Gryllidae) are being described. Among

Songs And Communication

Oecanthus Wings

FIGURE 4 Drawings from audiospectrographs of the songs of 7 of the 17 known species of Western Australian desert crickets in the genus Eurygryllodes. Top to bottom the species are warrilla (a), warrilla (b), warrami, wirangis, yoothapina, buntinus, and diminutus. E. warrilla (a) and (b) have not yet been treated as different species because too little is known about them, and the available specimens have not been distinguished morphologically (from Otte and Alexander, 1983, p. 81). FIGURE 4 Drawings from audiospectrographs of the songs of 7 of the 17 known species of Western Australian desert crickets in the genus Eurygryllodes. Top to bottom the species are warrilla (a), warrilla (b), warrami, wirangis, yoothapina, buntinus, and diminutus. E. warrilla (a) and (b) have not yet been treated as different species because too little is known about them, and the available specimens have not been distinguished morphologically (from Otte and Alexander, 1983, p. 81). FIGURE 5 Teeth on the...

Carcharias megalodon See Megatooth shark

Both kinds of cavefishes interested CD, who after having read an article by Silliman (1851) asked for further information What I want to know is, whether any of the Crustacea, spiders, insects (flies*beetles, crickets & c) & Fish belong to the American type (Has not *Agassiz noticed the Fish ) ie to genera or sections of genera, found only on the American continent. - I shd be most grateful for any, the least, information on this head (Correspondence to J. D. Dana, July 14,1856).

Nontympanal Hearing Organs

Some caterpillars can detect the near-field sounds produced by the beating wings of a flying wasp up to distances of 70 cm. Specialized hairs on the dorsal thorax of the caterpillar are displaced in the sound's near field, eliciting an evasive response, such as freezing or dropping from a leaf. Similar particle-displacement-sensitive setae on the cerci of crickets and cockroaches function in predator avoidance and possibly for close-range conspecific communication. from a few minutes to a few hours (Fig. 7B). At present, we know little about how insects detect substrate vibrations. The subgenual organ (a chordotonal just below the knee in many insects) functions as a vibration receptor in some groups (like some crickets and termites), but for most insects, the receptor organs are yet to be identified. Clearly further research is required before we gain a full appreciation of this important form of communication in insects.

Digestive Physiology Overview

Orthoptera Grasshoppers feed mainly on grasses, and their digestive physiology clearly evolved from the neopteran ancestor. Carbohydrate digestion occurs mainly in the crop, under the action of midgut enzymes, whereas protein digestion and final carbohydrate digestion take place at the anterior midgut ceca. The abundant saliva (devoid of significant enzymes) produced by grasshoppers saturate the absorbing sites in the midgut ceca, thus hindering the countercurrent flux of fluid. This probably avoids excessive accumulation of noxious wastes in the ceca, and makes possible the high relative food consumption observed among locusts in their migratory phases. Starving grasshoppers present midgut countercurrent fluxes. Cellulase found in some grasshoppers is believed to facilitate the access of digestive enzymes to the plant cells ingested by the insects by degrading the cellulose framework of cell walls. Crickets are omnivorous or predatory insects with most starch and protein digestion...

Autotomy

Autotomy is a defensive response to attack involving the amputation or active breaking of a body part along a breakage plane and usually involves loss of a leg. Many invertebrates (e.g., crayfish, daddy-long-legs), including insects such as crickets, grasshoppers, and walkingsticks, and many vertebrates (e.g., salamanders) exhibit this ability. For example, walk-ingsticks (Phasmida) have weakened areas at the trochanter that break under stress, such as when an appendage is grasped by a predator. If the insect is not an adult, regeneration occurs at the next molt. The amputated leg of the walkingstick twitches after being detached, which may divert the predator's atten

Blattodea

Cockroaches are referred to as generalized orthopteroid insects, which classifies them with the true Orthoptera (crickets, katydids, grasshoppers, locusts), Phasmatodea (walkingsticks), Mantodea (praying mantids), Plecoptera (stoneflies), Dermaptera (earwigs), Isoptera (termites), and a few other minor groups. The phylogenetic relationships among all these groups are not firmly established, although several theories exist. The closest relatives of cockroaches are believed to be the mantids, and some modern taxonomists prefer to place these two groups, as well as termites, in the order Dictyoptera. Indications are that termites evolved out of the cockroach stem or that cockroaches and termites both evolved from a common ancestor. One family of cockroaches (Cryptocercidae) and one extant relic species of termite (Mastotermes darwiniensis) have certain characteristics in common. Among them are the segmental origin of specific structures in the female reproductive system and that both...

Diagnostic Features

The Orthoptera also include katydids, long-horned and meadow grasshoppers, short-horned grasshoppers and locusts, pigmy locusts, and wetas. Orthoptera are related to stick insects (order Phasmatodea), cockroaches (order Blattodea), and mantids (order Mantodea), all of which lack jumping hind legs. Phasmatodea have three tarsal segments, Blattodea and Mantodea five tarsal segments. Crickets are further classified in the suborder Ensifera, the members of which share jumping hind legs, two pairs of wings (rarely one) or none, either three or four tarsal segments, and thread-like antennae that are longer than the body except in subterranean forms. Crickets all have long thread-like antennae, two slender tactual abdominal cerci, three tarsal segments, and some bulbous sensory setae basally on the insides of the cerci. No other insects share all these features the last is closest to a single defining trait, shared by only certain Stenopelmatidae (Jerusalem crickets with four tarsal...

Variation

The smallest crickets are tiny, wingless forms comprising the subfamily Myrmecophilinae (ca. 1 mm) they apparently live and reproduce only in ant nests. The largest are the short-tailed crickets (Brachytrupinae) called bull crickets (ca. 5 cm) they excavate burrows a meter or more deep. Different cricket groups vary from having slender, fragile, whitish or greenish bodies with virtually transparent forewings (tree crickets Oecanthinae, Fig. 1) to heavy-bodied, aggressive brown and black defenders of burrows and territories (field crickets Gryllinae, Fig. 2, short-tailed crickets Bachytrupinae mole crickets Gryllotalpinae). James Thurber said of one grylline, the sturdily built European burrowing field cricket (Gryllus campestris), that it has the aspect of a wrecked Buick.

Habitats

Crickets live in virtually all terrestrial habitats from treetops to a meter or more beneath the ground. Members of multiple subfamilies live in or near treetops and in bushes, grasses, and other herbaceous plants (Oecanthinae, Mogoplistinae, Eneopterinae, Podoscirtinae, Trigonidiinae) (Fig 3) on the soil surface (Nemobiinae, Gryllinae) in caves (Phalangopsinae, Pentacentrinae) and in shallow or deep burrows (Gryllotal- Females of different groups lay eggs in stems or twigs, in wood, under bark, in the ground, or in burrows. Apparently all females in the widely distributed burrowing subfamilies Brachytrupinae (short-tailed crickets, 223 species) and Gryllotalpinae (mole crickets, 76 species) are parental toward their eggs and also toward their juveniles.

Wings And Flight

The forewings of crickets, when present, are typically stiff and leathery the hind wings are membranous and fold fan-like under the forewing when not being used. The hind wings can be miniature nonflying organs (microptery), longer than the forewings (macroptery), or absent. Some macropterous individuals shed their hind wings. The hind wings may also be pulled off and eaten by their bearer or by a female being courted by a macropterous male. Some macropterous crickets, such as the subtropical and tropical American species, Gryllus assimilis, take off, fly, and land so adeptly as to be wasp-like others, such as mole crickets, fly in almost comically ponderous and slow manners, some with their abdomens hanging almost vertically.

Egglaying

Most female crickets inject their eggs into the soil or into plant stems through long, slender ovipositors. The oviposition slashes of tree crickets often seriously damage berry canes and small twigs. Females of the two subterranean subfamilies do not inject their eggs into the soil and have lost the external

Life Histories

In northern (and probably southern) latitudes most crickets overwinter as eggs and mature in late summer. A few burrowers overwinter as partly grown juveniles and mature in early summer. There are 6 to 12 nymphal molts, and the adults usually live 6 to 8 weeks. In latitudes with significant winters, life cycles vary from one generation every 2 years in a mole cricket to two generations each year. Diapause occurs in the overwintering stage. Nondiapausing crickets such as the house cricket (Acheta domesticus) have a generation time of a few weeks, varying with rearing temperature. Diapause also occurs during droughts in some tropical countries. Eggs or adults live through droughts, with rain causing nymphs to hatch and adults to oviposit.

Mating System

The long-range female-attracting songs and long tactual cerci of crickets are components of a unique mating system, some aspects of which evidently trace to the earliest instances of copulation in the insect line and help explain changes leading to the current major groups of insects. Thus, none of the primitively wingless modern insects copulate, while all winged and secondarily wingless insects do, the majority with the male mounting the female and in some way holding or forcing her. In primitively wingless insects, however, a sac or bulb containing the sperm (a spermatophore) is transferred indirectly to the female without direct copulation. Like crickets, some of these particular primitively wingless insects possess prominent tactual cerci (e.g., Thysanura), used to guide the female during spermatophore transfer, as also in cockroaches and mayflies. In all insect groups of ancient origin that have prominent tactual cerci, transfer of the spermatophore is a luring act in which the...

Host Range

DCV is the only dicistrovirus with a host range restricted to dipterans and has been isolated from Drosophila melanogaster and the sibling species D. simulans. TSV is a virus of penaeid shrimps and has been isolated from a number of species including Litopenaeus vannamei, L. stylirostris, Metapenaeus ensis, and Penaeus monodon. The majority of the dicistroviruses have relatively restricted host ranges and, at most, have only been isolated from insects of a single order. CrPV is the striking exception. Originally isolated from the field crickets Teleogryllus

The CrPVDCV Complex

Until 1997, the best characterized insect picorna-like viruses were cricket paralysis virus (CrPV) (Fig. 2), originally isolated from the orthopterans Teleogryllus commodus and T. oceantcus in Australia, and isolated from the dipteran Drosophila melanogaster. CrPV was discovered during the course of a mass-rearing program of the Australian field cricket, T. commodus, in the late 1960s. Young crickets became paralyzed and died and the disease, which spread rapidly and killed about 95 of the colony, was shown to be caused by the virus now called 'cricket paralysis virus'. Similar outbreaks in laboratory and commercial colonies of crickets have been observed elsewhere. DCV was isolated from laboratory populations of D. melanogaster in the late 1960s, during a

Evolution

The exception, not the rule, for insects, with only 7 of the 25 recognized extant neopteran orders having tympanate species. The Orthoptera (crickets, grasshoppers, and katydids) and the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) boast the largest number of eared species. In two of the most speciose orders, the Diptera (flies and mosquitos) and the Coleoptera (beetles), tympanal ears are rare, and surprisingly, the Hymenoptera (wasps, ants, and bees) are completely atympanate as far as we know. Following is a brief introduction to the major taxonomic groups for which tympanal ears have been identified to date. In the suborder Ensifera crickets (Gryllidae), katydids (Tettigoniidae) the ears occur just below the knee region, on the tibia of the forelegs. Each leg has two eardrums one on each side of the leg (Fig. 3). The tympanal membranes are connected to other sound input sources (the spiracles, contralateral ear) via a system of tracheal tubes and air chambers, which play important roles in...

Function

For humans, the most conspicuous sounds commonly heard from insects are the loud chirps and trills of field crickets, the long raspy choruses of katydids by night, and the intense, shrill-like buzzes and rattles of cicadas by day. These are the mating calls emitted by males in order to attract conspecific females. Sounds used in reproductive interactions function in species recognition, courting, pair maintenance, female mate choice, and male male competition. The hearing organs of crickets, katydids, grasshoppers, mosquitos, and cicadas are used primarily for these purposes and are sharply tuned to the calls of conspecifics. The features of these mating calls have surely been shaped by sexual selection.

Adaptive Radiation

Founder effects, behavioral isolation, ecological isolation, and host-associated isolation have all been implicated in the process of adaptive radiation. For insects, particularly noted examples include Drosophila flies, which are well known for their diversity of mating behaviors, as well as lineages of crickets that have diversified in song repertoire, sapfeeding planthoppers that have proliferated by switching between plant hosts, and beetles that have formed new species on different substrates. Diversification may follow a predictable pattern, at least in some groups for example, among Tetragnatha spiders, similar ecological sets of species have evolved over and over again on each of the different Hawaiian Islands.

Dorsal Vessel

Americana) and some other orthopteroid insects (e.g., crickets and mantids) there are paired segmental vessels diverging from the heart laterally. In the cockroach, these vessels are simple sacs of connective tissue and have no inherent musculature, thus providing a simple channel to the lateral aspects of the pericardial sinus in the middle segments of the abdomen. These specialized vessels ensure lateral perfusion of the pericardial sinus in moderate to large insects. Lateral tubes and vessels are not known in small insects.

DNA Viruses

Comprising a subfamily of the Parvoviridae, the Densovirinae contains members (DNVs) that are invertebrate-specific viruses, and that have a single-stranded linear DNA genome. Densonucleosis viruses (DNVs) have been shown to cause lethal infections in hosts from the orders Lepidoptera, Diptera and Orthoptera (locusts and crickets). The virions are relatively stable in the environment, but are apparently highly susceptible to ultraviolet (UV) light. Horizontal transmission is either via excretion of infected cells, as documented in, for example, a virus from Sibine fusca (SfDNV), or by cannibalistic ingestion of infected insects as is the case for, for example, Galleria mellonella (greater wax moth) densovirus (GmDNV).

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