Professional Makeup For Beginners
Vesiculoviruses exemplify one of the simplest genome architectures among the Mononegavirales. The entire CHPV genome has been sequenced and comparison with other vesiculoviruses has confirmed similar genetic makeup among vesiculoviruses. The Chandipura virus RNA genome comprises a 49-nt long leader sequence (l), followed by five transcriptional units coding for viral polypeptides separated by intergenic, nontranscribed spacer regions, and a short nontranscribed trailer sequence (t) arranged in the order 3' l-N-P-M-G-L-t 5' (Figure 1(c)). The CHPV gene junctions encompass a 23-nt long sequence that is highly conserved among different vesiculoviruses this conserved sequence is comprised of a 11-nt gene end signal that regulates transcription termination and polyadenylation of viral mRNA, a 2 nt nontranscribed spacer region, and a 10 nt conserved promoter element that has been implicated in
Table 4 .Testing of decorative cosmetics and sunscreens. Abbreviations for vehicles in the following tables ac acetone, MEK methyl ethyl ketone, oo olive oil,pet petrolatum, w water Table 4 .Testing of decorative cosmetics and sunscreens. Abbreviations for vehicles in the following tables ac acetone, MEK methyl ethyl ketone, oo olive oil,pet petrolatum, w water
Dimethylaminopropylamine is an aliphatic amine present in amphoteric surfactants such as liquid soaps and shampoos. It is present as a residual impurity thought to be responsible for allergy from cocamidopropylbetaine. It is structurally similar to diethyl-aminopropylamine. It is also used as a curing agent for epoxy resins and an organic intermediate in chemical synthesises (ion exchangers, additives for flocculants, cosmetics and fuel additives, dyes and pesticides). Patch test has to be carefully interpreted, since the 1 aqueous solution has pH ii (personal observation).
The fourth and final disinfection mechanism is that of altering and disrupting a cell's genetic makeup so that the cell is prevented from reproducing even though it may still have the energy to do so. This disinfection effect is largely associated with the use of ultraviolet irradiation, and its consequent high-energy cross-linking of adjacent nitrogen base groups poised side by side at various points within stranded DNA (see the thymine dimer reaction in Figure 16.54). The resulting impact of polymerizing DNA and formation of thymine dimers follow much the same path, such that cells are effectively sterilized by this UV exposure.
Extraction and separation processes are basic industrial operations applied in many areas with considerable economic relevance. Supercritical fluids, especially carbon dioxide, are of increasing interest for new separation processes in the fields of foodstuffs, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.
PVP eicosene copolymer is the polymer of vinylpyrrolidone and of 1-eicosene, and one of the 11 PVP copolymers recorded in the International Nomenclature of Cosmetics Ingredients inventory system. This substance is utilized in cosmetics, in sunscreens to enhance their water resistance, and is an inert ingredient in pesticides. Contact sensitization to a close compound VP eicosene co-polymer was also reported.
Kanerva L, Estlander T, Jolanki R, Tarvainen K (1993) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by exposure to acrylates during work with dental prostheses. Contact Dermatitis 28 268-275 Kanerva L, Lauerma A, Estlander T, Alanko K, Henriks-Eckerman ML, Jolanki R (1996) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by photobonded sculptured nails and a review of (meth) acrylates in nail cosmetics. Am J Contact Dermat 7 109-115
The Ames test is widely used by the pharmaceutical industry to test drugs prior to using them in clinical trials. When a drug is mutagenic in the Ames test, it is usually rejected for further development and will probably not be tested in animals or used therapeutically in humans. The cosmetic industry also uses the Ames test to assess the mutagenic potential of makeup and other hygienic products. The Food and Drug Administration requires companies to perform the Ames test before marketing most drugs or cosmetics. see also Cancer Carcinogens Mutagen Mutagenesis Mutation Nucleotide.
INTRODUCTION Angioedema and urticaria are common transient phenomena that result from mast cell degranulation with the release of mediators that promote vascular permeability, causing proteins and fluids to extravasate into the extracellular space. In urticaria fluid collects within the dermal tissue, whereas in angioedema fluid collects in the deeper subcutaneous space. The causes of mast cell degranulation are varied and include both immunologic and nonimmunologic mechanisms. Systemic involvement may include rhinitis, bronchospasm, or anaphylaxis. Severe reactions may lead to syncope, bronchial asthma, and hypotension. In rare cases both urticaria and angioedema may be triggered by exercise. Acute cases reach a peak in one to three days and usually fade in 7-21 days. In chronic cases the condition waxes and wanes for months or may even persist for years. There may be recurrent attacks separated by months to years. Inciting allergens are numerous and include foods, cosmetics,...
Culture and comments Easily introduced to the sunny, fern-forbidding sites of rock gardens, holly fern woodsia cheerfully cascades and meanders among the rocks and keeps company with alpine fellow travelers. My garden plants are in neutral to slightly acid grit, with slick drainage and exposure more critical than soil makeup.
Decline in Personal Hygiene and Grooming. The caregivers' accounts of failure to wash, bathe, groom, apply makeup, and dress appropriately as before are reinforced by clinical observations of unkemptness, body odor, clothing stains, garish makeup, and inappropriate clothing combinations.
The mere occurrence of an insect species in association with a crop or a farm animal does not necessarily mean that the species is a pest of that crop or animal. To be a pest it must cause economic losses. The assessment of economic losses from pests is the subject of studies conducted under conditions that match as closely as possible the conditions under which the crop is grown commercially or the animals are raised. Much of the methodology used in crop loss assessment has been established under the sponsorship of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations as a means of prioritizing budget allocations and research efforts. Key data for these studies relate to the determination of the yield potential of a crop. The genetic makeup of a crop variety determines its maximum yield in the absence of adverse environmental factors. This is known as the attainable yield. To determine the attainable yield, the crop is grown under nearly ideal conditions the actual yield...
The complete sequencing of the human genome in 2000, along with new technologies, such as DNA microarrays, for analyzing human genes on a genome-wide scale, provides scientists with the tools to study the molecular basis of diseases on a level and scale that previously had not been possible. Pharmacogenomics is a biomedical science that aims to use this knowledge to tailor drug therapies based on patients' individual genetic makeup. Doctors hope to use pharmacogenomics to develop safer and more effective medical treatments. For some diseases, this promise has already been realized.
Light applications of liquid nitrogen sufficient to produce a 0.5- to 1-mm rim of freeze at the perimeter of the base of the SK is usually sufficient for total removal. The advantage of this technique is the absence of scarring. Heavily pigmented persons must be warned about the possibility of posttreatment hyper- or hypopigmentation. This is especially important when working on the facial area. When patients express concern in this regard, we encourage treatment of one or two test lesions in an inconspicuous location before proceeding. During the sunny season, we strongly urge sun avoidance and the use of a sunscreen with makeup to prevent posttreatment darkening. Cryosurgery is the appropriate way to treat these lesions.
Digoxin and higher plasma drug levels. These results, however, were later contradicted by those of other groups. A recent metaanalysis suggested that the C3435T SNP has no effect on the expression of MDR1 mRNA or the pharmacokinetics of digoxin.211 Conflicting data have been reported on the effects of other alleles using various drug substrates, and the controversy seems likely to continue. The differential effects of Pgp polymorphisms on Pgp expression and drug disposition will probably not be resolved until progress is made in standardizing parameters such as sample size and makeup, environmental factors, and the assays used for Pgp protein and mRNA quantification. MDR1 haplotypes, rather than individual SNPs, are also more likely to affect the pharmacokinetics of MDR1 substrates. Two common Pgp polymorphisms (G2677T A and C3435T) may play a role in the differential response to the cholesterol-lowering statin drugs.212 When haplotypes were also considered, a subgroup of female...
The family Hamamelidaceae consists of 26 genera and about 100 species of shrubs or tress known to contain tannins and iridoids. The leaves are alternate, simple, and often palmately lobed. The flowers are small and appear in spikes. The fruits are woody, capsular, and scepticidal. In Western medicine, the dried leaves of Hamamelis virginiana (hamamelis, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1963), yielding not less that 20 of alcohol (45 )-soluble extractive, have been used as astringents for the treatment of hemorrhoids. Hamamelis water (British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1969) made from the stems has been used as a cooling application to sprains and bruises and as a styptic remedy. It is also used in cosmetics and as active ingredient of eye lotions.
Fatty acid monoesters and diesters of sugars are widely used as emulsifiers in a great variety of food and cosmetics formulations (1). Traditionally, these surfactants are produced by transesterification at high temperatures in the presence of an alkaline catalyst. Among drawbacks of the conventional chemical process, significant coloration of the final product and the formation of undesirable side products are especially worth mentioning. Consequently, the enzyme-catalyzed regioselective acylation of sugars in nonpolar organic solvents and supercritical fluids (SCFs) at ambient temperatures has received much attention in recent years (2-5).
It is interesting to note that the enteroviruses, originally established on provisional bases, now appear to form a 'real' genus, in which the members are indeed related in fundamental ways. The original grouping was based on small size (about 27 nm), an RNA genome, resistance to ether and mild acid and an enteric habitat. The grouping has been validated by studies utilizing sophisticated techniques of modern molecular virology that allow us to compare the genetic makeup of these viruses and details of their structure and their mode of replication.
The amount of DNA sequence data available and the methods used to exploit it have grown exponentially in recent years. The aim of this work is to understand how the various components of an organism interact to function properly, not just to catalogue a list of genes and how they function. Genomics describes the study of the genetic makeup of an organism, whereas proteomics is the study of the protein composition of the cell. There are more proteins in an organism than there are genes because transcriptional control, posttranslational modification, and so on can lead to multiple products form the one gene hence the need to study the interrelationship between genomics and proteomics, which is termed functional genomics.
Log variation in the detection of some strains. 10 The choice of method for quantification is dictated by throughput of samples and the genetic makeup of the patient cohort. There is an urgent requirement for international standards which should include non-clade B strains to enable quality control of viral load measurements.
Precise characterization of DNA and RNA sequences is now being used extensively to determine relationships among organisms. Such analysis of an organism's genetic makeup reveals its genotype. Genotype obviously affects phenotype, but not all genetic capabilities are necessarily expressed in an organism at a particular time. As might be expected, knowledge of genotypes has greatly increased and modified our understanding of the relationships among microorganisms. In fact, the separate domain of Archaea was not recognized until these newer tools were applied previously, they were simply considered types of (and may still often be referred to out of habit as) bacteria.
Common chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease. Risk for almost all human diseases results from the interactions between inherited gene variants and environmental factors, including chemical, physical, and infectious agents, as well as behavioral or nutritional factors. Thus it appears reasonable to direct disease-prevention and health-promotion efforts toward individuals at high risk because of their genetic makeup.
Genetic profiling for pharmacogenetic purposes is less likely to raise objections than genetic testing for primary disease risk assessment. Nevertheless, ethical issues concerning patient confidentiality, possible misuse of geno-typing data, and possible harm to patient's social and insurability status need to be resolved before the implementation of pharmacogenetics in healthcare. Holding sensitive information on someone's genetic makeup raises questions of privacy and security and ethical dilemmas in disease prognosis and treatment choices. After all, polymorphisms relevant to drug response may overlap with disease susceptibility, and divulging such information could jeopardize an individual. On the other hand, legal issues may force the inclusion of pharmaco-genetic information into clinical practice. Once the genetic component of a severe adverse drug effect is documented, doctors may be obliged to order the genetic test to avoid malpractice litigation.
What, then, is the preferred point of intervention in the RTK Ras Raf MEK ERK MAP kinase CDK Rb pathway A number of factors influence this selection, including issues of technical feasibility, extent of validation and proof principle, and the potential for therapeutic selectivity. One argument claims we should seek to interfere as closely as possible to the point of molecular deregulation, e.g., at the overexpressed RTK, the mutated Ras, or the deregulated CDK. This may provide maximum pharmacological selectivity, since the therapy would be tailored to the particular genetic makeup of the individual tumor.
The bioactivity of a toxicant ingested varies with the frequency, presence of food, and the makeup of the food, such as amount of purified sugar, fiber, high protein, or high fat. The different pH conditions of the gastrointestinal tract affect the ionization of weak organic acids and bases. Following absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, the bioactive chemical is translocated to either the lymphatic system or the portal circulation. The portal circulation directs the chemicals to the liver, and many of the chemicals are excreted by the liver as bile. Because the bile empties back into the intestine, a cycle involving translocation of the chemical from the gastrointestinal tract to the liver and via the bile back to the intestine occurs. This cycle is known as enterohepatic circulation. Ingestion of chemicals from the gastrointestinal tract and enterohepatic cycle exposes the liver to those concentrations of the agent that would not be obtained by other exposure routes, such as...
The ideal culture medium will use inexpensive components to supply their complex nutrient requirements. Miller and Churchill (13) provide an excellent summary of inexpensive media components and their makeup. These ingredients are crop, animal, marine or yeast based components. The culture medium alone can represent 30 to 70 of the fermentation production costs. Slight changes in medium micronutrients can have a major impact on the fermentation (14,15). Thus, the food industry demands a consistent product from suppliers of these complex components. Failure to provide a consistent product will eliminate the commercial use. What decides the culture medium makeup Essentially, it is the nutritional requirements of the microorganism of choice and its ability to biosynthesize essential elements such as amino acids, vitamins, lipids, and carbohydrates. For example, bacteria and yeast are high in protein (40-50 ), whereas molds are not (10-25 ). Yeast
Stirred tank fermentors have also been used for the growth of plant cells for the production of valuable products in single or multiple stages of cultivation. Plant cell culture is carried out by propagation of a callus, which is a mass of undifferentiated cells. To develop a new plant with shoot and root, cells from the callus must be cultured in different media. Desirable metabolites can be extracted from a callus without progression to a shoot and root. Plant cell culture may serve as a good medium for synthesis of metabolites useful in foods, biopesticides, and cosmetics. Plant cell culture has been proposed as an alternative technique for the supply of phytochemical to the normal plantation system (160). The benefits of such a system include a final product of required quality and consistency independent of the variations in plantation due to season, weather, disease, and pest destruction. Cultivation of plant cell suspensions in bioreactors has led to higher productivity of the...
The FDA is a subcabinet organization within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) which is one of the major cabinets in the United States government. The FDA is headed by a commissioner with several deputy or associate commissioners to assist him or her in various issues such as regulatory affairs, management and operations, health affairs, science, legislative affairs, public affairs, planning and evaluation, and consumer affairs. Under the office of commissioner, there are currently six different centers of various functions for evaluation of food, drugs, and cosmetics. They are Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER), Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH), National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR), Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM), and Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN).
In 1906, the United States Congress passed the Pure Food and Drug Act. The purpose of this act is to prevent misbranding and adulteration of food and drugs. However, the scope of this act is rather limited. No preclearance of drugs is required. Moreover the act does not give the government any authority to inspect food and drugs. Since the act does not regulate the claims made for a product, the Sherley Amendment to the act was passed in 1912 to prohibit labeling medicines with false and fraudulent claims. In 1931, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was formed. The provisions of the FDA are intended to ensure that (1) food is safe and wholesome, (2) drugs, biological products, and medical devices are safe and effective, (3) cosmetics are unadulterated, (4) the use of radiological products does not result in unnecessary exposure to radiation, and (5) all of these products are honestly and informatively labeled (Fairweather, 1994). The concept of testing marketed drugs in human...
Determine which organs or tissues are targeted by the responses 52, 53 . The genetic makeup of the host mainly determines the phenotype of the autoimmunity triggered by altered T cell regulation. For example, NTx predominantly produces autoimmune oophoritis in the A strain, autoimmune gastritis in the BALB c but not DBA 2 strain (which shares the H-2d MHC haplotype), and no apparent organ-specific autoimmunity in the C57BL 6 strain 53 . Administration of neutralizing anti-IL-2 mAb produced gastritis in BALB c mice, exacerbated T1D in NOD mice 25 , and produced de novo autoimmune peripheral neuritis in NOD mice 25 . ATx and subsequent fractionated X irradiations predominantly induces thyroiditis in PVG c rats with the RT1c MHC haplotype, and T1D in MHC congenic PVG-RT1u rats 54 . Thus, MHC and non-MHC genes contribute to determining the phenotype of autoimmune disease triggered upon reduction or dysfunction of natural Treg. Polymorphisms of these genes may affect the formation of a...
The FDA is responsible for not only drugs and biologics, but their regulatory authority also extends to food, medical devices, veterinary drugs, cosmetics, nutrition products, and radiation devices. Thus, they are responsible for protecting the health of the nation's citizens across a broad spectrum, including such areas as labeling of the nutritional content on food, approving only drugs found to be safe and effective for human or veterinary use, the allergenic potential of cosmetics, and the certification of mammography equipment. FDA further interprets new laws from Congress and promulgates regulations and guidelines for the industry to follow.
Sometimes we may formulate a model in a very abstract, nonbiological way, for example, to study how variation in rates of transition between stages influences age-onset patterns. In this case, stages remain abstract notions that we manipulate in a mathematical model in order to understand the logical consequences of various assumptions. In other cases, we may try to match the definition of stages and rates to the biological details of a particular cancer. A stage may, for example, be an adenoma of a particular size, histology, and genetic makeup. A transition between stages may occur at the rate of a somatic mutation to a particular gene.
In the case of donor sperm, eggs, or embryos, you'll also need to decide if you want to explain this to your child. If you do decide to be open about the conception, consider how much information to share with the child. Some people choose to portray the donor in the same way as a biological parent who placed the child for adoption. Others explain that the donor was more of a helper who assisted in conception but has no further role. At some point, will the child be able to find out about the donor Should they meet and form a relationship Many agencies keep this information on file, and so it may become available to the child once he or she reaches age 18. Ideally, this type of information should be spelled out in your donor agreement prior to conception. At the very least, the child should know about the donor's medical history because it is part of the child's genetic makeup and medical family history.
Warning The materials used to form Ag AgCl electrodes are relatively dangerous. Do not breathe dust or mist and do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. When working with these materials, safety goggles must be worn. Contact lenses are not protective devices. Appropriate eye and face protection must be worn instead of, or in conjunction with, contact lenses. Wear disposable protective clothing to prevent exposure. Protective clothing includes lab coat and apron, flame- and chemical-resistant coveralls, gloves, and boots to prevent skin contact. Follow good hygiene and housekeeping practices when working with these materials. Do not eat, drink, or smoke while working with them. Wash hands before eating, drinking, smoking, or applying cosmetics.
Gesell also made significant contributions with the development of the co-twin method for comparing the relative effects of heredity (nature) and environment (nurture) on development. One identical twin would receive specific training in some skill (such as stair climbing), and the other twin would receive no training in the skill. The rationale for this strategy was that because the children had an identical genetic makeup, any difference in stair-climbing ability must be the result of training. This is the basic paradigm that Gesell used to question some very interesting and controversial statements about the nature of intelligence.
The use of laboratory animals creates an ethical dilemma for humans, offering the possibility of improvements for human health but also causing possible pain* and discomfort to animals. One result of this dilemma has been a growing resolve to find alternatives* in research, teaching, and testing. At the same time, finding alternatives has become an established goal of many organizations and has been enacted as a requirement in some legislation. This idea that it is desirable to develop new methods reflects changing attitudes toward animals. More and more people, both inside and outside the scientific community, have come to believe that it is worth considerable effort and cost to reduce discomfort of laboratory animals. This shift in consciousness was accelerated by publicity concerning the Draize test in rabbits (see ACTIVISM FOR ANIMALS), which was used to test new cosmetic and pharmaceutical products for eye and skin irritancy. Henry Spira's concerted campaign begun in 1979 against...
Cinnamyl alcohol occurs (in esterified form) in storax, Myroxylon pereirae, cinnamon leaves, and hyacinth oil. It is obtained by the alkaline hydrolysis of storax, and prepared synthetically by reducing cinnamal diacetate with iron filings and acetic acid, and from cinnamaldehyde by Meerwein-Ponndorf reduction with aluminum isopropoxide. Cinnamic alcohol is contained in the fragrance mix. As a fragrance allergen, it has to be mentioned by name in cosmetics within the EU. Occupational cases of contact Citral is an aldehyde fragrance and flavoring ingredient, a blend of isomers cis (Neral) and trans (geranial). As a fragrance allergen, citral has to be mentioned by name in cosmetics within the EU.
Disease responses vary dramatically depending on the virus-host combination under investigation. The type of response, for example chlorotic versus necrotic symptoms, is generally dependent on the genetic makeup of both the plant and the infecting virus. However, environmental factors such as the availability of micronutrients, nitrogen, water and light can also have significant effects on the severity of the observed disease. Additionally, the developmental stage of a plant or leaf at the time of infection can also determine the type of disease response. For example, Matthews and colleagues determined that for tobacco leaves infected with TMV the critical leaf size at which mosaic symptoms develop is at or below 1.5 cm in length. Leaves that were developmentally larger when inoculated failed to display the mosaic
Our current understanding of the discrete steps of the CHPV replication cycle relies on the studies being conducted on the CHPV as well as on other vesiculoviruses. Remarkable similarities between CHPV and VSIV in genetic makeup, gene structure, polypeptide composition as well as function allow the postulation of a generalized model to describe vesiculovirus transcription at the molecular detail. While the proposed mechanism for
In the U.S., the regulatory process is confused because three different government agencies have jurisdiction over GM foods. To put it very simply, the EPA evaluates GM plants for environmental safety, the USDA evaluates whether the plant is safe to grow, and the FDA evaluates whether the plant is safe to eat. The EPA is responsible for regulating substances such as pesticides or toxins that may cause harm to the environment. GM crops such as Bt pesticide-laced corn or herbicide-tolerant crops but not foods modified for their nutritional value fall under the purview of the EPA. The USDA is responsible for GM crops that do not fall under the umbrella of the EPA, such as drought-tolerant or disease-tolerant crops crops grown for animal feeds or whole fruits, vegetables, and grains for human consumption. The FDA historically has been concerned with pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and food products and additives, and not whole foods. Under current guidelines, a GM ear of corn sold at a...
Protection factor of greater than 15 before going outdoors. Apply sunscreen on cloudy days because roughly 70 to 80 of ultraviolet rays can penetrate the clouds. Reapply sunscreen every 2 to 3 hours during long sun exposure. Be aware that the sun's rays are reflected by such surfaces as concrete, snow, sand, and water, thereby increasing exposure to ultraviolet rays. Wear protective clothing when outdoors, particularly a wide-brimmed hat to protect the face, scalp, and neck area. Wear wrap-around sunglasses with 99 to 100 ultraviolet absorption to protect the eyes and the skin area around the eyes. Be aware of medications and cosmetics that increase the sensitivity to ultraviolet rays. Minimize ultraviolet exposure as much as possible and use sunscreen that contains benzophenones. Avoid tanning booths or sunlamps.
Because the founder population is small, genetic drift can play an important role in determining the genetic makeup of subsequent generations, and allele frequencies may fluctuate. For example, consider an extreme situation where a new population is founded by just two individuals, a male and a female, perhaps because they are stranded on an island. Assume that the
Also led to some counter intuitive conclusions, such as the concept of selection of 'the fittest' compared to the consensus character of the master template. Quasispecies from a virus with high error rates (such as HIV-1) might be composed of all mutant progeny RNAs such that the consensus template (the mean, the fittest, or the master template) may not actually exist. With classical population genetics, an asexual clonal population should fix the clonal sequence. With quasispecies, this is not observed. The first laboratory measurements of viral quasispecies were made using Qp RNA polymerase in vitro. Error estimates ranged from 10 3 to 10_ substitutions per site per year (an error rate applicable to most RNA viruses). With Qp, the replication of many nonviable mutants generated a genetic spectra that had a characteristic makeup. For example, separate DNA clones of Qp were initially distinct from each other but quickly generated the same RNA quasispecies as before cloning. Additional...
There are several advantages to comparing DNA data instead of external physical characteristics (collectively called the phenotype). Environmental factors can shape the phenotype to make two individuals with the same genetic makeup look different. For instance, nutrition has a profound effect on height, and if we used average height to classify humans, we might mistakenly conclude that medieval humans represented a different subspecies because they were significantly shorter than modern humans. DNA comparisons, on the other hand, would show no significant difference between these groups.
She also recognized the very important set of responses to challenges that were not hard-wired into the genomic makeup of organisms. In this regard she observed that 'An experiment conducted in the mid-1940's prepared me to expect unusual responses of a genome to challenges that the genome is unprepared to meet in an orderly, programmed manner.' McClintock suggested that one such response could result from the genomic shock associated with crosses between divergent evolutionary lineages (e.g. Y.-M. Wang et al. 2005). Specifically with regard to the present topic she stated, 'Major restructuring of chromosome components may arise in a hybrid plant and continue to arise in its progeny, sometimes over successive plant generations. The restructuring may range from apparently simple to obviously complex' (McClintock 1984).
Highest level of potential degradability, due to both their organic makeup and their high water content. Cellulose-rich residues, whether discarded as lawn clippings or paper products, would also be amenable to biochemical degradation, although perhaps at a somewhat slower rate. Extending beyond these two segments, though, municipal solid waste includes many other materials whose composition will not be amenable, and possibly even antagonistic or inhibitory, to biochemical degradation. For example, MSW generated within affluent countries includes a sizable proportion of plastic, for which the vast majority will have no susceptibility to biochemical breakdown. Similarly, affluent countries generate municipal solid wastes with a proportionately higher percentage of metals (e.g., cans, batteries, used appliances) whose presence may actually lead to the release via leaching of soluble heavy (e.g., cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead) and transition (e.g., arsenic, selenium) metal ions that...
Currently, there are three complete genomes from dairy cultures that have been sequenced and published. These are for Lactococcus lactic IL1403 (177), Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705 (178) and Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC533 (179). A fourth genome from L. plantarum WCFS1 (180) may also be of interest as it is sometimes speculated to be a potential probiotic culture. The L. lactis IL1403 genome was the first one published and it provided an exciting glimpse into the makeup of a lactococcal chromosome and the evolution of this organism. Remnants of a once aerobic existence are evident, and a set of genes analogous to the natural competence genes in Bacillus. While analysis of the L. lactis IL1403 genome does give intriguing information, it does not shed light on many of the commercially significant phenotypes, as these are largely encoded on plasmids, and IL1403 is a plasmid cured laboratory strain. Therefore, as part of the LABGC effort a commercial strain of L. lactis subsp cremoris...
TREATMENT Patients should understand that this condition will likely be a life-long problem that can be controlled, but seldom eliminated. The main goals of treatment are to reduce meibomian gland inflammation and to reduce increased tear osmolality. Eyelid cosmetics may be an aggravating factor and should be avoided for a time. Scalp seborrhea must be controlled with 1 selenium sulfide shampoo, and a baby or no tears shampoo can be used for lid scrubs. Scales and crusts should be soaked and removed daily with cotton-tipped applicators or a moist washcloth wrapped around a finger. Cultures of the lid margins and of material expressed from the meibomian glands should be obtained for antibiotic sensitivities prior to starting topical antibiotics to suppress the bacterial growth. Preferred anti-infective agents in topical ointment form are bacitracin, sulfacetamide, and erythromycin. In the most severe cases a short course of systemic antibiotic, preferably a semisynthetic penicillin,...
Octocrylene is an anti-UVB filter used in cosmetics that may induce photoallergic contact dermatitis. Octyl gallate, a gallate ester (E 311), is an antioxidant added to foods and cosmetics to prevent oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. Cases were sparsely reported in food industry or from lipsticks. Patch tests are frequently irritant.
NETTLE juice combed through the hair to prevent baldness has been a common folk practice (Baker). The Wiltshire cure for dandruff was to massage the scalp with a nettle infusion each day (Wiltshire). PARSLEY was recommended for baldness as far back as Pliny's time (Bazin), repeated a long time afterwards as powder your head with powdered parsley seed three nights every year, and the hair will never fall off (Leyel. 1926). Actually, it really does make a good lotion for getting rid of dandruff, and helps to stave off baldness (A W Hatfield). ROSEMARY, besides providing the base of various hair rinses (see COSMETICS), was also used for the more serious purposes of preventing baldness. A manuscript from 1610 claims that if thou wash thy head with rosemary water and let it drye on agayne by itselfe, it causeth hayre to growe if thou be balde (Gentleman s Magazine Library Popular superstitions p162). Equally optimistic was a wash to prevent the hair from falling off , noted in the...
HOUSELEEK, probably because a growing plant in the thatch brought luck and order to the house NARCISSUS. The story of Narcissus, enamoured of his own beauty, becoming spell-bound in front of his own image, is too well-known for comment JASMINE GOLDEN ROD CAMOMILE, perhaps from the truism that the more it is trodden, the faster it grows PERIWINKLE, as in an old ballad, in which a noble lady is called the parwenke of proesse OPIUM POPPY, in Christian art (Ferguson). Presumably from the great number of its seeds ALKANET, for its roots, for making rouge, seem to be one of the most ancient of face cosmetics CARNATION
The individuals that make up a population are rarely identical. Such variation in the outward appearance of individuals (i.e., in their phenotype) results from the interaction of their individual inherited genetic makeup (genotype) with their surrounding environment. Most natural populations maintain a high level of such genetic diversity. This inherited genetic variation is the basis upon which evolution operates, and without it adaptation and speciation cannot occur. Genetic diversity fundamentally occurs in the form of nucleotide variation within the genome, which originates by mutation (changes in the nucleotide composition of genes, in the position of genes on chromosomes, and in the chromosome complement of individuals) and is maintained both by natural selection and by genetic drift. Other forms of genetic diversity include the amount of DNA per cell and chromosome structure and number. It is estimated that there are 109 genes in the world, although some of the genes for key...
A second basis for color is structural, caused by the interaction of white light with minute and precise arrays on or in the material. The effects depend on the architecture, rather than the chemical makeup of the material. Light may be reflected, refracted, or scattered, but it is not absorbed, and so structural colors are additive if two are combined, both sets of wavelengths are represented in the final effect. If all wavelengths of the visible spectrum are reflected, we call the sensation white. (Technically, white, even if caused by a pigment, is always a structural color, because it is the absence of any absorption of light.) Because the underlying architecture must generally be precise and stable, most structural colors are typically produced by stiff, nonliving materials, and of these insect cuticle is literally a brilliant example.
Enzymes have been used by humankind for millennia for a wide variety of biotechnological purposes, including the production of foodstuffs such as cheese, bread, wine, and beer. Currently, enzymes are used for a multitude of applications in a number of diverse areas ranging from detergent manufacturing to the production of fuels and pharmaceuticals, from food and feedstuff manufacturing to cosmetics production, as medicinal products, and as tools for research and development 3-8 .
Could give rise to significant environmental benefit. Biological synthesis, either by whole organisms or by isolated enzymes, tends to operate at lower temperatures and, as a result of high enzymatic specificity, gives a much purer yield with fewer byproducts, thus saving the additional cost of further purification. There are many examples of this kind of industrial usage of biotechnology. In the cosmetics sector, there is a high demand for isopropyl myristate which is used in moisturising creams. The conventional method for its manufacture has a large energy requirement, since the process runs at high temperature and pressure to give a product which needs further refinement before it is suitable for use. An alternative approach, using enzyme-based esterification offers a way to reduce the overall environmental impact by deriving a cleaner, odour-free product, and at higher yields, with lower energy requirements and less waste for disposal.
Hyperplastic polyps comprise a majority of all gastric polyps. Initially thought to makeup 75 or more of gastric polyps (1,27), they are probably the second most common polyp after FGPs. Hyperplasiogenic, regenerative, hyeprplastic-adenomatous, adenomatous polyps, inflammatory, and benign polyps are other names in the literature used for hyperplastic polyps. They affect men and women equally and tend to develop later in life than FGPs. They are small, dome-shaped or stalked polyps with an average size of about 1 cm (range
Carotenoids comprise a group of natural pigments that are ubiquitous throughout nature. Over 600 different carotenoids with diverse chemical structures have been identified in bacteria, fungi, algae, and plants (Shew-maker et al., 1999 Mann et al., 2000). Their colors range from yellow to red, with variations of brown and purple in addition, carotenoids as colorants take advantage of their good pH stability and their insensitivity to reducing agents such as ascorbic acid (Mann et al., 2000). Not to be outdone, humanity through the ages has learned to exploit the pleasing visual properties of carotenoid pigments by supplementing feedstocks and incorporating caro-tenoid pigments into cosmetics and foods (Delgado-Vargas et al., 2000 Jez and Noel, 2000). As precursors of vitamin A, they are fundamental components in our diet and play additional important roles in human health (Delgado-Vargas et al., 2000 Van den Berg et al., 2000 Ye et al., 2000). Because animals are unable to synthesize...
Genomics is a recent scientific discipline that strives to define and characterize the complete genetic makeup of an organism. Its primary approaches are to determine the entire sequence and structure of an organism's DNA genome the total (its genome) and then to determine how that DNA is arranged into genes.
The roots are used in the cosmetics trade, but in France there is a more immediate use. Dried, and known as Hochets de Guimauve, they are sold in chemists' shops as teethers. They are hard and fibrous enough for a baby to chew on, but slowly soften on the outside as their mucilage is released (Mabey. 1977). There is one interesting piece of folklore. In the Isle of Man, marsh mallow was used (both internally and externally) to remove the result of walking or lying on bad ground , and bad ground meant ground affected by the fairies (Gill. 1963).
Methodological details regarding dilution, vehicle, pH measurement, open test, closed patch test, repetitive open application test (ROAT), and use test are dealt with in Chap. 22. In Dortmund we found large Finn chambers (12 mm diameter) useful for testing cosmetics with low irritancy (e.g., moisturizers, lip cosmetics, sunscreens, eye drops 14 Fig. 1).
This emulsifying agent can be contained in many products such as cosmetics, topical medicines, metalworking cutting fluids, and color film developers. Traces may exist in other ethanolamines such as mono- and diethanolamine. Contact allergy seems to be rarer than previously thought.
Where the simplest preparation is still in use, in the Pacific islands and New Guinea, it serves mainly for cosmetics or for painting wood, etc., (Buhler). Body painting of one form or another was the main use of the yellow powder in Polynesia, and there are distinct sexual overtones to its use. On the Marquesas it was used in quantity by adolescents, particularly during orgiastic ceremonies and other situations involving sexual activity. The smell was supposed to have a sexually stimulating effect (Suggs). To the Muria, of India, the yellow colour makes it both a ghost scarer and a sexual symbol. The oil with which it is mixed is another sex symbol, recalling the oil traditionally put on a lover's mat to make it slippery (Elwin). The rubbing of turmeric and oil on the bride and groom is an essential part of a marriage festival in India (Pandey).
Achieve the safe and effective use of the drug. Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics are the sciences of understanding the correlation between an individual patient's genetic makeup (genotype) and their response to drug treatment. They already have influenced therapeutics. For a drug that is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6, approximately 7 of Caucasians will not be able to metabolize the drug, but the percentage for other racial populations is generally far lower. Similar information is known for other pathways, prominently, CYP2C19 and -acetyl transferase. For example, codeine is metabolized to its active molecule, and about 10 of the population are rapid metabolizers and only need a much smaller dose for the same pharmacodynamic outcome. Omeprazole, used to treat peptic ulcers, is poorly metabolized related to SNPs in the CYP2C19 liver enzyme in 2.5-6 of Caucasians and 15-23 of Asians. For thiopurine, an antimetabolite used in cancer chemotherapy, the dose is 1 10 for the poor...
(Santalum album) A fragrant oil, called Oil of Santal, is distilled from the heartwood for use in perfumery and cosmetics. The paste that can be got by rubbing the wood on a stone with a little water is used for painting the body after bathing, and is also used for making caste marks, especially in south India (Pandey). The Chinese make joss sticks from the wood (Usher), and incense from the sawdust, mixed with swine's dung( ) (Moldenke & Moldenke). The oil is used for the treatment of urinary complaints and sexually transmitted diseases, and heartwood is sliced and used in Chinese medicine for abdominal and chest pains, i.e., angina (Geng Junying). In Indian mythology, it is described as surrounded by snakes, but it is a sacred tree, and the devotees of Vishnu apply a paste made from it on their foreheads. Hindu funeral pyres are made from it if the family is rich enough to afford such a luxury (Upadhyaya).
Inappropriate self-treatment with topical 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) obtained from relatives or prescribed by misguided practitioners can alter lesions or hide established malignancies without effectively removing them. Patients will also attempt to treat themselves with various cosmetics and patent medications, but soon discover that this is fruitless.
Tool available to accomplish this in the past was to breed animals selected specifically for this purpose. This in turn required many generations of gradual change in order to produce significant changes in the animals and also limited manipulation of genes to those that could be introduced by normal reproduction. Since the late 1970s, however, the technology for inserting all manner of genes into an animal's genome, including radically foreign genes (for example, genes from human beings), has progressively developed in sophistication. This opens up a vast range of possibilities for manipulating animals' genetic makeup and thus their phenotypic traits. In 1989, the U.S. Patent Office announced that it had issued the first animal patent for a mouse (see MICE) that was genetically engineered to be highly susceptible to developing tumors, a trait rendering the animal extremely valuable for cancer research.
This procedure could be beneficial for women who are not able to produce their own viable eggs. In such a case, a donor egg would be obtained and the nucleus removed. Then the intended mother's nucleus, containing her DNA, would be implanted into the donor egg. The egg would then contain the intended mother's genetic material but would also contain the cytoplasm and other structures from the donor. Because the nucleus with DNA is what determines the baby's genetic makeup, the baby would be genetically linked to the intended mother and not to the donor.
What have stimulated and continue to drive the charge of speciesism are justifications of many avoidable, nonessential human activities. Instrumental use of other animals, sport hunting,* factory farming,* testing of cosmetics, biomedical experiments, roadside animal shows, and recreational animal parks involve intentional, but avoidable damage to other animals' interests.
Antivivisectionists tend to be abolitionists (those who demand the total end of animal experimentation, whether accomplished immediately or gradually), but they may also have more limited and practical goals, such as the ending of certain kinds of experiments deemed morally unacceptable (e.g., cosmetics testing on rabbits' eyes by the Draize test, burn experiments on animals, or pain* experiments performed without anesthesia or analgesia). In contrast, animal welfarists, though they oppose cruelty, generally accept the use of animals in research but campaign for their more humane treatment and for reduction, refinement, and replacement (the Three Rs see ALTERNATIVES TO ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS) in regard to overall animal usage.
Lady Muriel Dowding (1908-1981), a leading British humanitarian, vegetarian, and antivivisectionist, was the founder in 1959 and later chairperson of Beauty without Cruelty, the organization that led the way in the commercial production of synthetic alternatives to fur and cruelty-free cosmetics. She was a longtime president of the National Anti-Vivisection Society. In 1969, she cofounded the International Association against Painful Experiments on Animals (IAAPEA) and remained a patron until her death. She was the wife of Air-Chief Marshall the Lord Dowding, former commanderin-chief of the British Fighter Command, who died in 1970. Together, they shared a lifelong interest in spiritualism that informed their ethical concern for animals. Selected Bibliography. Berry, Rynn, Interview with Lady Dowding, in The New Vegetarians (New York Pythagorean Publishers, 1993), 137-152 Brophy, Brigid, The Darwinist's Dilemma, in David A. Paterson and Richard D. Ryder (Eds.), Animals' Rights A...
In 1990, FDA outlawed several uses of the strawberry-toned FD&C Red No. 3, invoking the Delaney Clause. The banned uses include cosmetics and externally applied drugs, as well as uses of the color's non-water-soluble form. FDA previously had allowed these provisional uses while studies were in progress to evaluate the color's safety. Research later showed large amounts of the color cause thyroid tumors in male rats. Though FDA viewed the cancer risk by Red No. 3 as low, ca. 1 in 100,000 over a 70-year lifetime, the agency banned provisional listings because of Delaney directives. At the same time, Red No. 3 has permanent listings for food and drug uses that are still allowed, although the agency has announced plans to propose revoking these uses as well. For now, Red No. 3 can be used in foods and oral medications. Products such as maraschino cherries, bubble gum, baked goods, and all sorts of snack foods and candy may contain Red No. 3.
(Anchusa officinalis) The gentlewomen of France do paint their faces with these roots. as it is said (Gerard). Anchusa is from the Greek meaning to paint or dye (another species is Dyer's Bugloss (A tinctoria). Alkanet seems to be one of the most ancient of face cosmetics (Clair). This use of the roots for making rouge led to the plant becoming known as a symbol of falsehood (Folkard).
Environmental stresses can cause changes in the genetic makeup of a population by favoring organisms with certain alleles more than others. This is, in fact, the normal way that populations can adapt rapidly to changes in their environment without mutations being required to produce new adaptations. It is also the reason why populations with genetic diversity are more likely to survive in the face of change. However, there is another side of this phenomenon related to human impacts on populations. Toxins added to the environment exert selection pressure for individuals that are more tolerant of the toxins. One negative impact of this is that it can reduce the genetic diversity of a population, making it vulnerable to further stresses. Another problem occurs if the organism is a pest and the toxicant is an agent such as a pesticide or antibiotic. As a result of the selection pressure, the population seems to develop tolerance or resistance to the agent, which then becomes less...
Up until the past decade, all forms of these concentrated residuals, whether raw or treated, were commonly described with the same sludge label in deference to the typically negative context associated with words whose spelling begins with sl '' (e.g., slap, sleet, slum, slam, etc.). However, despite the unwholesome connotations implied by sludge, the nature and makeup of many properly treated residuals (i.e., suitably degraded, stabilized, disinfected, and dewatered) can actually be rather positive, if not altogether even valuable harkening back, as it were, to the earliest days of wastewater processing as a means of generating nutrient-rich fertilizers.
(Nardostachys jatamansi) This is the Spikenard of the Bible (Moldenke & Moldenke), the spike being the ear that grows from the rhizome (Dalby). It has scented roots, which are used in India as a perfume for the hair (Moldenke & Moldenke), and the oil is used to improve hair growth (Lewis & Elvin-Lewis). Distillation of this root produces oil of spikenard, although all parts contain the aromatic oil, especially the rootstock, whose fragrant oil is mixed with other oils to make spikenard ointment, once used in cosmetics and in medicine for the treatment of nervous disorders (Zohary). The 'ointment of spikenard' Mary used to anoint Jesus's feet before the last supper is thought to have been derived from this plant (Lewington), but there are other candidates, the desert Camel grass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) being one.
Amino acids are used extensively in the food industry as flavor enhancers, antioxidants, and nutritional supplements in agriculture, as feed additives in medicine, in infusion solutions for postoperative treatment and in the chemical industry, as starting materials for the manufacture of polymers and cosmetics (Glick and Pasternak, 1998). For the most part, amino acids are commercially produced either by extraction from protein hydrolysates or as fermentation products of either Corynebacterium or Brevibacterium spp., which are both nonsporulating Gram-positive soil bacteria (Glick and Pasternak, 1998). Traditionally, the productivity of these organisms has been improved by mutagenesis and subsequent screening for strains that overproduce certain amino acids (Glick and Pasternak, 1998 Demian, 2000b). However, this way of developing new strains is slow and sometimes inefficient.
Triclosan is a chlorinated bisphenol, which dissolves well in some detergents such as anionic soaps, and alcohol. It is only sparingly soluble in water. Concentration of 0.2 -2 are effective against gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria but with variable and poor activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This agent is also active against mycobacteria and Candida spp., but it has limited activity against filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus spp. 49,72 . Because of acceptable antimicrobial activity, use of triclosan has risen dramatically in the past few years. Today it is used as an additive to hand soaps, dish-washing products, cosmetics, and toothpaste. It is also used as an additive to plastics, polymers, and textile and implant devices to confer these materials with antibacterial properties.
Although SPME has been widely used for highly efficient extraction of food components, little is known about the applicability of this technique for monitoring fragrance materials in household cleaning products, soaps, detergents, cosmetics, toiletries, etc. (61-63). Until recently, costly and laborious sample preparation techniques were required to isolate, separate, and identify fragrance components in perfumery matrices.
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