Self Tolerance Maintained by Thymus Produced Natural Treg Induction of Autoimmune Disease by Their Manipulation at the

As evidence for the crucial role of natural Treg in the maintenance of natural self-tolerance, autoimmune diseases immunopathologically resembling their human counterparts can be produced in normal rodents by removing natural Treg from the periphery, abrogating their thymic production, or altering their survival or function at the molecular level. Induction of Autoimmune Disease in Normal Rodents by Depleting Treg from the Periphery Several lines of investigations suggested that T cells capable...

Brain Autoantigens in the Immune System

Myelin basic protein (MBP) is the classical brain-specific autoantigen. In many species and strains of animals, immunization against MBP in suitable immune adjuvants almost unfailingly results in the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease targeted exclusively against CNS white matter. The exquisite tissue specificity has been traditionally explained by a correspondingly restricted tissue distribution. Indeed, MBP is produced at the...

Strength of BCR signal

Fig. 3 Basic mechanisms known to be involved in the prevention of B cell autore-activity and dependent on the BCR signal strength. A further mechanism known as receptor revision editing may also prevent autoimmunity but apparently is not strictly dependent on the BCR signal munization of bcl-2-transgenic mice resulted in 20-fold more memory B cells than controls. Furthermore, a high proportion of these bcl-2-transgenic memory B cells, despite having a typical memory phenotype, retained their VH...

Cellular Signal Transduction Pathways and Their Implications for Autoimmunity

The immune system is maintained by a fine balance between activation and inhibition (Fig. 2). On the one hand, it must possess adequate reactivity to generate an effective class="intexttaglink" data-tid="5690" href="/immune-response.html">immune response to target non-self molecules, while avoiding the emergence of autoimmunity on the other hand. Essential to this process is the ability to control the timing and site of B cell activation and to limit the extent of activation precisely. All of this is sufficiently regulated by a number of extrinsic and...

Prolactin

Prolactin functions as the lactogenic master hormone but is also an immunomodulator that affects apoptosis, activation, and proliferation of immune cells. Prolactin PRL is a peptide hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary and by cells of the immune system. It binds to surface receptors of the cytokine superfamily PRLR , which are expressed in the breast and the uterus in the female and in the prostate in the male, and are also found on lymphohematopoietic cells. 69 Prolactin induces the...