How to stop cats spraying in the house

Cat Spray No More

Cat Spraying no more is a product that will guide the users on the way to prevent the various mess made by their cats. It is true that a cat that pees in the house can make their home smell like a litter box; it can be upsetting and stressful for the users and can become incredibly expensive if the users are forced to continually clean carpets and floors, or replace furniture. However, Cat Spraying No More is one that will help in the reduction of these problems because it will point the users towards the right things to do and what not to do as regards their cats. This product will stop their cat peeing and spraying outside the litter box for good. This professionally created and proven system will work whether their cat has just started peeing where they should not or if they've been doing it for years. This product is a cheap one that can be learnt by anyone. It comes with certain bonuses that will change the way the users see things as regards cat. They are Cat Training Bible, 101 Recipes for a Healthy Cat, The Cat Care Blueprint, Pet Medical Recorder Software. Continue reading...

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Advertising Use Of Animals In

The use of live animals in advertising takes many different forms. Domestic animals and wild animals are often trained for use in television commercials. While the advertising industry purports to adhere to standards set by the American Humane Association in regard to the treatment of animal actors, some would argue that the manipulation (i.e., training) of an animal for use in advertising is unethical. The use of wild animals in commercials is particularly controversial. Animal rights* advocates maintain that when an animal is shown in a setting that is completely unrelated to its natural environment, a message about that animal's nature is conveyed that is both false and damaging to an accurate public understanding of the particular animal's nature. Even when domestic animals are used in advertising in ways that portray them more accurately, such as domestic dogs* or cats* in some animal food commercials, many proponents of animal rights believe that the individual animals used are...

Reduction Refinement and Replacement the Three Rs

Animal Welfare Information Center and Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, Environmental Enrichment Information Resources for Laboratory Animals, 1965-1995 Birds, Cats, Dogs, Farm Animals, Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents (Washington, DC U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1995) Balls, M., A.M.

Geographic Distribution

The worldwide prevalence of FIV infection in domestic cats was determined by serosurvey and confirmed by sequence analysis (Figure 1(b)). In general, FIV subtypes are distributed according to the geographic location. Subtype B FIV was the predominant global subtype with higher prevalence in USA, Canada, eastern Japan, Argentina, Italy, Germany, Austria, and Portugal. Subtype A was the next predominant subtype with prevalence in

Host Range and Virus Propagation

Domestic FIV has limited host range with productive infection found only in felid species. In contrast, nondo-mestic FIV sequence was recently identified in Hyaenidae species. Puma FIV-pco and lion FIV-Ple cause persistent infection in laboratory cats without clinical disease. Domestic FIV has been found in the wild cat population, Tsushima cat (Felis bengalensis euptilura), and may present problems for the conservation of this endangered species. FIV of domestic cats infects macrophages, endothelial cells, glial cells, B cells, CD8+ T cells, and CD4+ T cells. In vitro infection has been demonstrated in feline astro-cytes, fibroblastic Crandell feline kidney cells, feline T cell lines, macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), and low-level-to-defective infection in human cell lines. Experimental inoculation with domestic FIV grown in macaque PBMC resulted in FIV infection of macaques. However, there has been no evidence of zoo-notic transmission and productive infection of...

Genetics and Evolution

Due to the wide genetic variability between worldwide isolates, FIV is classified into five subtypes (A-E). Studies on mutation rates in FIV env and gag show positive selective pressure for env mutations, consistent with reports that HIV env has a high mutation rate compared to gag and pol. PCR analyses of FIV variants isolated within individual cats over a 3 year period indicate that sequence variation in env increases over time, with later isolates showing divergence of 0.5-1.5 . Hence, the divergence of the variants within individual cats appears to be twofold less than those variants from an HIV-1-positive individual. Superinfections and recombinations have been reported for FIV much like those reported for HIV-1. Phylogenetic analyses suggest domestic FIV originated from a lineage associated with the wild cat lentivirus (see the section titled 'Taxonomy and classification').

Serologic Relationships and Variability

Sera from cats infected with different FIV strains reacted to prototype FIVPet. The cross-reactivity of the infected sera has been the basis for the commercial FIV diagnostic kit. Sera from wild cats infected with nondomes-tic lentivirus cross-reacted predominantly to CA p24 and lesser degree to MA p15 of domestic FIV, and vice versa. Sera from HIV-1-positive subjects cross-reacted to domestic FIV p24 and vice versa. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies to ungulate lentiviruses, MVV and CAEV, also reacted to domestic FIV at p24 and p15, demonstrating the evolu-tionarily conserved epitopes on p24 and p15. In general, FIV-specific VNAs can neutralize closely related strains but not divergent strains. Preliminary studies suggest that a loose correlation exists between the genotype based on env sequence and the VNAs elicited by infected cats.

Clinical Features and Infection

The immunological hallmark of FIV infection is depletion of peripheral CD4+ T cells and reduced CD4 CD8 ratios, leading to B- and T-cell dysfunctions and hypergammaglobulinemia. The clinical stages of FIV infection are similar to human AIDS in several ways. The acute stage of experimental FIV infection was characterized by immunological abnormalities followed by depression, fever, diarrhea, neutropenia, and persistent generalized lymphadenopathy. FIV was primarily detected in lymphoid tissues followed by dissemination of the virus into nonlymphoid organs. Both antibodies against FIV and virus recovery from PBMC persisted throughout infection. The FIV load in the blood was lower and CD4+ T-cell decline was slower at the asymptomatic stage than acute stage. By late symptomatic stage, the animals were severely immunosuppressed and displaying wasting syndrome, neurological disorders, and persistent secondary opportunistic infections. The virus load was extremely high at this stage, and...

Prevention and Control

Experimental FIV vaccine trials, ranging from inactivated single-subtype virus vaccine to proviral DNA vaccine, were performed with minimal-to-no success against homologous (identical to vaccine strains) and heterolo-gous strains. A commercial dual-subtype FIV vaccine, consisting of inactivated subtype A and D viruses, was released in USA in 2002. This vaccine was effective against homologous strains, heterologous subtype A strains, and subtype B strains. This vaccine induced VNAs to closely related FIV strains from subtypes A and D. The vaccine protection against subtype B viruses was achieved in the absence of VNAs to challenge viruses, suggesting the importance of vaccine-induced cellular immunity. Both the prototype and commercial dual-subtype vaccines induced strong FIV-specific CD4+ T-helper and CD8+ CTL responses. Since there is no evidence of FIV zoonosis, the efforts to develop FIV-specific antiretroviral drugs have been limited. Only few antiretroviral drugs for HIV-1...

Recognition of Humans by Animals

Rats are not the only animals capable of discriminating one human from another cats,* chickens,* cows, sheep, rabbits, seals, emus, rheas, llamas, pigs,* prairie dogs, chimpanzees,* and domestic dogs all can tell one human from another. As scientific studies continue to replace anecdotes, the evidence for human recognition among animals will become more widely accepted, impacting research design, the assessment of intelligence, and, ultimately, animal welfare.*

Geographic Distribution and Host Range

Cardioviruses have a worldwide distribution and are associated with a wide variety of species including humans, other primates, domestic animals, rodents, birds and mosquitoes. A study done in Hawaii in 1978 found EMC virus-neutralizing antibodies in humans (6 of individuals tested), cats (3 ), cows (20 ), pigs (23 ), mongooses (36 ), rats (36 ), boobies (9 ) and shearwaters (20 ). The natural reservoir of

Serologic and Evolutionary Relationships

There are three coronavirus serogroups. One group includes HCoV-229E, TGEV, PRCoV, CCoV, FCoV, and others. A second group includes MHV, BCoV, SDAV, HEV, HCoV-OC43 and others. Avian IBV strains make up the third serogroup. Phylogenetic analysis of coronavirus N and S genes correlate well with the division of coronaviruses into these three groups. Nucleic acid sequence analysis also shows that certain pairs of coronaviruses that cause different syndromes in the same host should probably be considered strains of a single virus. Thus, PRCoV and TGEV of swine, which cause epizootic respiratory and enteric disease, respectively, are highly homologous, except for a deletion of more than 675 nucleotides in the S gene of PRCoV. The feline coronavirus FeCoV causes epizootic enteric disease in cats, and mutant FIPV viruses that arise within FeCoV-infected animals cause fatal systemic disease.

Transmission and Tissue Tropism

Among the occasional, or 'accidental', hosts of cowpox virus, the most frequent route of infection appears to be through the skin, probably through a cut or abrasion. Domestic cats, however, can be infected experimentally by oronasal inoculation, and respiratory spread may have been involved in some outbreaks of cowpox in big cat collections. Virus replication in cattle and humans is mainly limited to the epidermis at the site of entry, and possibly also to draining lymph nodes. In cats, virus can be isolated not only from skin lesions but also from lymphoid, lung and turbinate tissue. Skin inoculation of cats is followed by virus replication both at the site of entry and in draining lymph nodes, there is development of a viremia, and virus can be isolated from the white cell fraction of blood, from the spleen and other lymphoid organs. After about 7-10 days, virus can be

Clinical Features of Infection

Cowpox in domestic cats is a more severe disease than in cattle or humans. There is usually a history of a single primary lesion, generally on the head or a forelimb, but by the time the cat is presented for veterinary attention widespread skin lesions have usually developed. The primary lesions vary enormously in character and secondary bacterial infection is common. The widespread secondary lesions first appear as small erythematous macules, which develop into papules and ulcers over several days. These scab over, and the cat usually recovers within 6-8 weeks. Cats may be slightly pyrexic in the early stages of the

Attitudes among Children

Pet keeping is particularly common among middle-childhood children (around 8 to 12 years) (see COMPANION ANIMALS AND PETS). This is probably the age at which children's emotional interest in animals is at its highest and when, especially for girls, big-eyed, cuddly, furry animals are particularly attractive. After this age, in the teenage years, interest in moral issues surrounding animals and their use by humans becomes more prominent. This is the time when young people are most likely to take ''stands'' on animal issues (and, indeed, other issues such as political ones) by, for example, adopting vegetarian or vegan diets (see VEGETARIANISM) or becoming involved in environmental or animal rights* campaigns. As interests outside the home take prominence in teenagers' lives, interest and involvement in pet keeping often wane a little. But childhood experience of pets nevertheless appears to retain an influence. In an recent study it was found that university students who had grown up...

Crosscontamination and adequate cooking

Touching farm animals has been identified as the source of STEC transferred either directly to humans or food cross-contaminated without washing hands (Belongia et al., 2003). Cats are the primary source of Toxoplasma gondii and may contaminate humans directly or through human consumption of infected food animals (Dubey, 1986).

Parvoviruses Parvoviridae

These are small structureless single-stranded DNA viruses of 18-26 nm diameter. Some have caused severe acute gastroenteritis in cats, dogs, mink and calves. Pathogenesis clearly differs from most other enteric infections, as primary virus replication after ingestion occurs in lymphoid tissues, followed by viremia. Secondary replication (within a few days) occurs within the intestinal epithelium, where infection of crypt cells is widespread. No equivalent infectious agents have been described in humans. A heterogeneous collection of small round featureless viral particles of similar size has been described in diarrheal feces from humans. The particles have a size range of 22-26 nm diameter, with no discernible surface features and no sharply delineated outer edge. They resemble parvoviruses in morphology, size and buoyant density. These particles (Ditchling, W, Paramatta 'cockle agents') have been detected in stools of patients involved in approximately one-third of outbreaks of...

Coronavirus Coronaviruslike Particles Coronaviridae

Coronaviruses are enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses, visible in feces by electron microscopy as large pleomorphic particles (80-120 nm diameter) with a characteristic corona (crown) projecting as a single or double fringe of 10-20 nm length (Fig. 6). Coronaviruses are undisputed causes of epidemic diarrhea in newborn piglets transmissible gastroenteritis firus (TGEV), calves, foals, mice, rabbits, turkeys, dogs and cats. Large pleomorphic fringed particles resembling coronaviruses have been identified in humans in outbreaks of gastroenteritis among army personnel and hospital nurses, and in newborn babies with bloody diarrhea and necrotizing enterocolitis. Pleomorphic particles resembling coronaviruses have frequently been observed in symptomatic and asymptomatic adults and children living in crowded unhygienic conditions. The significance of many of the fringed particles seen in human feces in relation to enteric symptoms is controversial. In some circumstances, the particles may...

Dha Biosynthesis And Early Development

The accumulation of DHA in the brain is especially important during brain growth periods (Green & Yavin, 1998), and although no known systematic study has been undertaken which attempts to compare rates of DHA biosynthesis to the development of the CNS or brain growth in any species, there is evidence to suggest that the capacity to synthesize DHA may be correlated with early brain development in some species (Rodriguez et al., 1998 Pawlosky et. al., 1996 Salem et al., 1996 Greiner et al., 1997 Su et al., 1999). Using stable isotopically labeled fatty acids and mass spectrometry, the biosynthesis of DHA has been demonstrated in both human infants (Salem et al., 1996 Carnielli et al., 1996 Sauerwald et al., 1996) and in fetal baboons (Greiner et al., 1997 Su et al., 1999). An example that illustrates the inherent capacity to synthesize long-chain PUFAs during the early developmental period was provided by felines (Pawlosky & Salem, 1996). Adult felines do not actively synthesize...

Supplying Dha To The Brain Rodent And Feline Models Of Dha Synthesis

Early studies in domestic felines demonstrated that cats had a low A-6 desaturase activity, which severely limited their capacity to synthesize arachidonic acid from linoleic acid (Hassam et al., 1977 Sinclair et al., 1979). Owing to a low desaturase activity, it may be assumed that synthesis of long-chain n-3 PUFAs arising from LNA would also be very limited. It was later shown that a low essential fatty acid diet could stimulate the synthesis of both long-chain n-6 and n-3 PUFAs via a A-6 desaturase (Pawlosky et al., 1994). In the liver, the route for the biosynthesis of DHA from LNA is initiated on smooth endo-plasmic reticulum. Through a series of alternating enzymatic processes that desaturate and elongate LNA, DPAn-3 is produced. It is believed that DPAn-3 is then elongated to 24 5n3 and desaturated (by a A-6 desaturase) to 24 6n-3 (Luthria et al., 1996). This fatty acid is transferred to peroxisomes, where it is partially oxidized to form DHA, which is then reincorporated into...

Transmission and Tissue Tkopism

Based on experimental transmission studies, the major route of FIV transmission is through bites from infected cats. This route of transmission is consistent with the epidemiological studies as well as with the fact that cats shed significant amount of virus in saliva. FIV transmission by ingestion of virus via grooming, as well as presumably when licking bleeding wounds of an infected cat, cannot be excluded, as oral administration of infected blood can result in experimental FIV infection. Sexual transmission has yet to be reported as a natural route of transmission however, FIV infection has been demonstrated by experimental vaginal and rectal inoculation and FIV has been isolated from vaginal swabs and semen of experimentally infected cats. Another route of infection is through virus found in the colostrum milk of infected queens. FIV has been shown to be transmitted to newborn kittens nursed by queens experimentally infected shortly before giving birth. Findings from experimental...

Clinical Features and Pathology

Of those cats which become persistently viremic following FeLV exposure, over 80 will die within 3.5 years. Most young cats infected with FeLV die from degenerative diseases rather than from tumors. Profound immunosuppression associated with thymic atrophy is a common finding in kittens. Immunosuppression is also a feature of infection in older cats but its pathogenesis is complex and not fully understood. Highly immunosuppressive (feline autoimmune deficiency syndrome, FAIDS) variants have been isolated. These are defective for replication and genomes accumulate as unintegrated forms in lymphoid tissue. Other diseases seen in FeLV-infected cats include enteritis, immune complex glomerulonephritis, pancytopenia and hemolytic anemia. Erythroid hypoplasia, an acute disease involving failure of red cell development past the erythroid burst-forming unit (BFU)-E-stage, is specifically associated with FeLV subgroup C.

Envelope Gene Variation and Pathogenicity

The variant viruses generated from FeLV-A are generally dependent on the continued presence of the prototype for their propagation in vivo. The relationship of subgroup variation to oncogenesis is complex. FeLV-B recombinants are more common in tumor-bearing than in infected asymptomatic cats. This higher frequency might reflect merely longer-standing infection, but some FeLV-B-contain-ing isolates have an altered spectrum of neoplastic disease. For example, FeLV-GMl, which contains a replication-defective FeLV-B component, induces mainly myeloid leukaemia.

FeLV Oncogenesis Virus Evolution and Mutagenesis of Cellular Oncogenes

Multicentric fibrosarcomas of young cats are relatively rare, but are generally FeLV positive and frequently involve a novel sarcoma virus. Similarly, transduction of c-myc has been observed in up to 20 of naturally occurring thymic lymphosarcomas in FeLV-positive cats. In all, nine different host cell genes have been shown to be transduced (Table 2). The transducing viruses induce tumors with short

Domesticated Companion Animals

Throughout the history of humanity, animals have had a place in human social communities and have been valued as guardians, work partners, and companions by individuals and families. Keeping animals such as dogs* and cats* as companions is so familiar to us that generally people do not regard it as an animal rights* issue so long as an animal is well cared for by the humans who are responsible for the animal's well-being.* Companion-animal keeping, however, is controversial among advocates of animal rights. The issues involved can be divided into two general categories the harm or benefit to individual companion animals and the harm or benefit to populations of animals from which companion animals come. The latter view also addresses the significant harm that has been done to populations of animals through artificially selective breeding and the practice of inbreeding for looks and behavioral characteristics that are regarded as desirable in particular breeds of dogs and cats....

Pathology and Histopathology

Major histopathological changes during acute stage of experimental FIV infection were observed in the lymphoid tissues. In the first three weeks pi, lymphoid hyperplasia was observed in the lymph nodes, tonsils, spleens, and gut-associated lymphoid tissues. A majority of the FIV-infected cells were found in the germinal centers of lymphoid follicles of these tissues. Some infected cells were observed in the paracortex and medullary cords of lymph nodes, and in periarterial lymphoid sheaths and red pulp of the spleen. Shortly after, cats developed myeloid hyperplasia in the bone marrow and cortical involution, thymitis, and follicular hyperplasia of the medulla in the thymus. Both T cells and monocytes macrophages were infected with FIV at an early phase of the acute stage, followed by infection of B cells. By early symptomatic stage, lymph nodes displayed follicular hyperplasia, involution, and lymphoid depletion, and by late phase, destruction of nodal architecture with involution...

Taxonomy and Classification

HBV and related viruses make up the virus family designated Hepadnaviridae for hepatotropic DNA viruses. This virus family includes hepatitis B virus of man, woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) of Marmata monax, ground squirrel hepatitis virus (GSHV) of Spermophilus beecheyi, duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) found in several varieties of domestic ducks, and similar viruses in tree squirrels, Richardson ground squirrels, snow leopards and German herons. Less well documented findings in other rodents, marsupials and cats suggest that other hepadnaviruses may have been detected. There may be many undiscovered members of this virus family since naturally occurring infections can be relatively silent for many years.

The Need For Good Literature

I always doubted whether any of those who were against the teaching of lettersound correspondences had ever tried to teach a dyslexic child on a one-to-one basis. In the case of children for whom learning to read is a real struggle, books which are a sufficient intellectual challenge to them may contain words which are too difficult for them to decode, whereas easy phonics-based reading books will have a better chance of giving them a taste of success. It is good sense that dyslexic children should be encouraged to make a clear distinction between books aimed at helping them to decode print and books which are up to their intellectual level. I have in my time apologised to intelligent dyslexic children who were struggling with their reading, making it clear that I did not suppose that reading about cats on mats was up to their intellectual level and explaining that the reading and spelling of easy words was necessary before they could advance to harder ones.

Policies in the United States

At the college level, only a small fraction of animal experiments (those involving cats,* dogs,* hamsters, rabbits, guinea pigs, and farm animals) are legally subject to oversight review by institutional animal care and use committees* (IACUCs) under provisions of the federal Laboratory Animal Welfare Act. The many colleges that use only rats or mice or birds for student instruction (species not covered by the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act) do not have required oversight committees. This omission acts as a serious detriment to humane standards.

Dissection and Vivisection Laws

At more advanced levels of education, such as medical and veterinary training, growing sensitivity to animal protection, increasing costs of animals, and improved alternatives technology are generating more animal-friendly approaches. According to the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (202-686-2210), at least 34 medical schools in the United States now use no animals in their curricula. Of the 20 respondents to a 1995 survey of 31 veterinary schools in the United States and Canada conducted by the Association of Veterinarians for Animal Rights (AVAR),* 16 schools (80 ) have implemented curriculum changes to accommodate students who do not wish to harm healthy animals. A 1994 survey found that 25 of 37 U.S. medical institutions (68 ) no longer use cats* and kittens in intubation training.

Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay for Fertility Assessment

SCSA data on thousands of semen samples from humans (Evenson 1997, 1999a Evenson et al., 1991, 1999 Fossa et al., 1997 Larson et al., 1999, 2000 Grajewski et al., 2000), bulls (Ballachey et al., 1987, 1988 Evenson, 1999b), stallions (Evenson et al., 2000b), boars (Evenson et al., 1994), and exotic cats (unpublished) show the clinical value of this assay for human animal fertility assessment.

Host Range and Viral Propagation

Humans are the only known host for the virus but dogs can be infected and show parotid swelling, though they do not pass on the virus. The virus can infect a variety of animals experimentally, including monkeys, cats, dogs, ferrets and a number of rodent species such as rabbits, suckling rats and mice, hamsters and guinea pigs. Its adaptation to growth in 8-day-old embryonated eggs allowed the biological activities of the virus to be studied before the advent of tissue culture. The virus infects a wide range of cells in culture and causes a distinct cytopathic effect in most cell cultures with either rounding of and

Host Range and Propagation

CPXV has a wide host range both in vivo and in vitro. It has been isolated from cattle, humans, domestic cats (perhaps the most common source of human infection), dogs, a horse, and a variety of zoo animals including cheetahs, ocelots, panthers, lynx, lions, pumas, jaguars, anteaters, elephants, rhinoceroses, and okapis. All of these are, however, accidental hosts, and the virus circulates mainly in wild rodents. The main reservoir hosts appear to be voles (Clethrionomys spp. and Microtus spp.) and wood mice (Apodemus spp.) throughout the virus' range. House mice (Mus musculus) and rats (Rattus norvegicus) are infected rarely and are probably accidental hosts (explaining the limited geographic range of the virus), although they may, like cats, act as liaison hosts and transmit the infection onward to man. Other rodents may also act as reservoirs toward the eastern range of the virus. CPXV has been isolated from wild susliks and gerbils (Rhombomys spp., Citellus spp., and Meriones...

Geographic and Seasonal Distribution

Are distributed as widely as their hosts. Limited studies indicate that in most countries the viruses are endemic, although vaccination has partially controlled reported clinical disease by CPV, FPV and MEV amongst many domesticated animal populations. Serological studies indicate that MVC is widely distributed amongst dogs in the USA. The virus has been isolated in the USA, Germany and Italy but its distribution has otherwise not been extensively studied. A seasonal distribution with greatest incidence of disease in the summer has been described for FPV in cats, most likely related to seasonal breeding patterns. The incidence of disease may be related to the population density of the susceptible host in endemically infected areas, these are mostly young seronegative kittens or puppies. MEV disease is observed mostly during the summer, again due to the densities of susceptible kits, as mink breed and whelp once per year. Incidence of disease appears to be related to the density,...

Discharge And Home Healthcare Guidelines

Teach the patient and significant others about the course of the disease, the treatment options, and how to recognize complications. Explain that the patient or parents need to notify the physician if any of the following occur fever, chills, cough, sore throat, increased bleeding or bruising, new onset of bone or abdominal pain. Discuss the patient's home environment to limit the risk of exposure to infections. Encourage the patient to avoid close contact with family pets because dogs, cats, and birds carry infections. Animal licks, bites, and scratches are sources of infection. The patient should not clean birdcages, litter boxes, or fish tanks. Additional sources of bacteria in the home include water in humidifiers, standing water in flower vases, and water in fish tanks. Encourage the patient to have air filters in furnaces and air conditioners changed weekly. Explain that raw fruits, vegetables, and uncooked meat carry bacteria and should be avoided. If the patient becomes...

Tissue Tropism and Pathogenicity

According to available in vitro data, cell tropism relates to the strain properties (capsid amino acids). Different tropisms among variant strains are also a striking feature of other parvoviruses. An example is the sudden appearance of canine parvovirus in the late 1970s probably due to mutations in a feline parvovirus (See also Parvoviruses (Parvoviridae) Cats, Dogs and Mink). This flux in parvovirus strains and

Replication And Infectivity

Cowpox virus is probably maintained in rodent reservoirs in nature, but can occasionally infect humans, elephants, cattle, cheetahs, cats, and other animals. 2 Human infections with cowpox were known for centuries, but have been brought to public attention since the early vaccination attempts by Edward Jenner. Although most

History and Classification

Astroviruses were first described in the UK in 1975 by Madeley and Cosgrove studying an outbreak of diarrhea in newborn babies in an obstetric hospital nursery. Astroviruses are small, round nonenveloped plus-stranded RNA viruses 28-30 nm diameter (Figure 4) occasionally exhibiting virions with a superficial star shape. They are members of the genus Astrovirus in the family Astroviridae. They have been detected in humans (children and adults) and a range of mammalian (sheep, cattle, pigs, dogs, cats, and mice) and avian (turkeys, ducks) species, usually

Materials And Methods

Bacterial strains were isolated from wounds caused by the bites of dogs, cats, and humans, as well as other animals and saved at 70 C for various periods of time in the R. M. Alden Research Laboratory culture collection. Isolates were taken from frozen stock and transferred twice to assure purity and adequacy of growth. Agar dilution testing was performed according to NCCLS guidelines Brucella blood agar was used for most isolates. Antimicrobial agents, azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, and roxithromycin, were supplied by the respective manufacturers and reconstituted according to the manufacturers' instructions into serial twofold dilutions. The plates were inoculated using a Steers replicator and incubated for 24-48 h in the appropriate atmosphere. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was defined as the lowest concentration of an antibiotic that yielded no growth, a barely visible haze, or one discrete colony.

St Louis Encephalitis Virus

With SLEV is usually asymptomatic but a low proportion of patients develop encephalitis with an approximately 10 case fatality rate. Outbreaks of varying magnitude occur at irregular intervals throughout the USA, but there are regional differences in occurrence of the infection depending on host and breeding-site preferences ofthe mosquito species concerned. Asymptomatic infection occurs in domestic animals such as horses, cattle, goats, sheep, pigs, cats, dogs and poultry, as well as in wild birds and small mammals including raccoons, opossums, rodents, and bats, but only birds are thought to play a significant role in the circulation of the virus. SLEV was isolated from the brain of a gray fox with encephalitis, and forest mammals including sloths are thought to be involved in transmission cycles in South America.

Stereotypies In Animals

Stereotypies are sometimes ignored by those who keep animals and may be taken to be normal behavior by those people if they see only disturbed animals. For example, zoo keepers may see route tracing by cats or bears, laboratory staff may see twirling around drinkers by rodents, and farmers may see bar biting or sham chewing by stall-housed sows without realizing that these indicate that the welfare of the animals is poor. A greater awareness of the importance of stereotypies as indicators of poor welfare is resulting in changes in animal housing. More complex environments that give the individual more control and hence result in the occurrence of fewer stereotypies are now being provided in good animal accommodation (see ENRICHMENT FOR ANIMALS). These environments also give opportunities for a larger proportion of the full behavioral repertoire to be expressed, and for the patterns of movements in the repertoire to be varied. The consequent reduction in frustration and increase in the...

Extrapolation from Animals to Humans

Differences in the toxicity of specific substances between humans and laboratory animals cause considerable uncertainty in the application of animal data to humans. The differences can sometimes be isolated to differences in absorption, distribution, biotransformation, and excretion. For example, 2-naphthalamine is converted to the carcinogen 2-naphthyl hydroxylamine by dogs and humans. This is excreted by the kidneys and causes bladder cancer. However rats, rabbits, and guinea pigs do not excrete this metabolite and do not get bladder cancer from the original compound. Ethylene glycol is metabolized by two pathways with the separate end products oxalic acid or CO2. Cats metabolize more of the ethylene glycol to oxalic acid, whereas rabbits produce more CO2. Consequently, ethylene glycol is more toxic to cats than to rabbits. The LD50 for dioxin (TCDD) is 5 mg kg in hamsters but only 0.001 mg kg in guinea pigs. This large range in toxicity between species has produced considerable...

Host Range and Geographic Distribution

Purified GLV readily infects many virus-free isolates of G. lamblia trophozoites, but not any other parasitic protozoa tested, including Tritrichomonas foetus, Trichomonas vaginalis, Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Entamoeba histolytica, and Eimeria stiedae. The virus has also been shown not to infect two transformed human intestinal cell lines. It is therefore believed that giardiavirus has a rather narrow host range. It probably infects only G. lamblia in nature. On the other hand, the cellular host for this virus, G. lamblia, parasitizes many mammals other than humans. Viruses that are identical in shape and size of genomic dsRNA and share dsRNA sequence homology with one another have been detected from many G. lamblia strains and isolates obtained from humans, guinea pigs, cats, beavers, llamas, and sheep. The human isolates were collected from Belgium, Poland, England, Israel, Ecuador, Puerto Rico, and various states in the USA. Since G. lamblia is found in almost all parts of the...

Epidemiology And Transmission

T. tenax is spread by direct as well as indirect mouth-to-mouth contact, sharing of oral hygiene utensils such as a toothbrush may be an important source of transmission.1-1-1 A zoonotic transmission may also be possible, as a PCR-based molecular analysis of isolates obtained from dogs and cats confirmed the presence of T. tenax in these animals. 14

Host Range and Cross Species Infection

There is potentially a wide host range of HEV infection. In addition to swine and chickens, antibodies to HEV have been reportedly detected in several other animal species including rodents, dogs, cats, sheep, goats, cattle, and nonhuman primates, suggesting that these animals have been exposed to HEV (or a related agent) and thus might serve as reservoirs. However, the source of seropos-itivity in these animal species, with the exception of pigs and chickens, could not be definitively identified since virus was either not recovered from these species or the recovered virus could not be sequenced to confirm its identity. A significant proportion of wild rats caught in

Characteristics Of T Cruzi

T. cruzi is a member of the family Trypanosomatidae (order Kinetoplastida), which also includes Trypano-soma brucei, the etiological agent of African sleeping sickness, and Leishmania species, which cause cutaneous visceral leishmaniasis. Chagas' disease is a zoonosis and the parasite has been detected in more than 150 species of mammals. The opposum Didelphis, which is found throughout South America, plays a central role in the transmission between sylvatic (forest) and domestic habitats, where animals such as dogs, cats, and rodents serve as important reservoirs. T. cruzi is transmitted by blood-feeding reduviid bugs of the subfamily Triatomi-nae. In the insect vector, T. cruzi undergoes differentiation from the noninfectious epimastigote form into the metacyclic trypomastigotes that are capable of initiating an infection in the host (Fig. 1). Trypomastigotes can invade a large number of mammalian cell types including macrophages, muscle cells, and nerve cells. Epimastigotes (Fig....

Viruses Occurring in Europe

Cowpox virus is an orthopoxvirus in the Poxvir-idae. It has a wide host range. Domestic cats are the most important source of human infection, transmitting the virus from wild rodent reservoirs to people. In addition to cattle, this virus has produced severe, generalized infections in a variety of incidental animal hosts in zoos and circuses, including elephants and large cats, which may die. Humans develop typical poxvirus lesions (vesicle and pustule formation),

Clinical Features of Infection and Pathology

Access to neurons and remains latently established in the olfactory bulb, trigeminal ganglia, and brain stem or, after venereal transmission, in the sacral ganglia. PrV infection of pregnant sows may result in abortion or delivery of stillborn or mummified fetuses due to endo-metritis and necrotizing placentitis with infection of trophoblasts. In susceptible species other than swine, PrV infection is invariably fatal, sometimes after a rapid, peracute course without preceding overt clinical signs. Pruritus is a lead symptom of PrV infection in these species which, particularly in rabbits and rodents, may result in violent itching and automutilation. The death of mice, rats, cats, or dogs on farms is often a telltale sign of the presence of PrV prior to the appearance of symptoms in pigs.

Mosquito Borne Flaviviruses Causing Livestock or Wildlife Diseases

Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) was isolated in 1933 from human brain as the causative agent of a large outbreak of encephalitis in St. Louis, Missouri, and was subsequently found to be transmitted by culicine mosquitoes, which are capable of breeding in drainage water in urban settings. The virus is widely distributed in North, Central, and South America, but the disease is seen mainly in the USA where it was considered to be the most important arbovirus pathogen prior to the introduction of West Nile virus (WNV) in 1999. There is some regional variation in the mosquitoes involved, but the main vectors are members of the Cx. pipiens complex, plus Cx. tarsalis and Cx. nigripalpus. Human infection with SLEV is usually asymptomatic but a low proportion of patients develop encephalitis with an approximately 10 case fatality rate. Outbreaks of varying magnitude occur at irregular intervals throughout the USA, but there are regional differences in occurrence of the infection depending...

Neural systems involved in vigilance state regulation REM sleep

Aserinsky and Kleitman in the 1950s first documented the rapid eye movements indicative of REM sleep in humans, and coined the term REM sleep 113,114 . REM sleep mechanisms involve brain regions and systems that differ from those involved with NREM sleep induction and maintenance. Jouvet and colleagues, employing transections, determined that regions of the brain rostral to the midbrain and caudal to the medulla were not necessary for the brainstem activity seen during REM sleep 115,116 . Lesion and transection studies in cats of the dorsolateral pons abolished the REM state. As described previously, this area includes the wakeful-ness-active noradrenergic, serotonergic and wakeful-ness REM-active cholinergic neurons 117,118 .

Prions And Prion Diseases

But can prions jump the species barrier The answer appears to be 'yes, but'. It depends on the height of the barrier. BSE, for instance, is believed to be caused by scrapie-infected sheep brains being used in the preparation of cattle cake. In the laboratory, injections of BSE-infected brain extracts can cause prion encephalopathies in mink, cats, antelope. It is, moreover, easy to inoculate laboratory mice with BSE and show that most (if not all) succumb to the disease. It should be noted, however, that it takes 1000 times more intracerebral inoculate of BSE to kill a mouse than a cow. Furthermore, although scrapie has been present in sheep for centuries, it has never been known to infect shepherds or humans in general. The barrier is too high. Thus the likelihood of BSE jumping the species barrier from cattle to humans is, hopefully, small.

Cognitive theories of sleep function memory synaptic plasticity and neurodevelopment

There is stronger evidence of a rich exchange between the thalamus and the cortex during sleep that may promote synaptic plasticity 208,228,229 . For example, in vivo recordings in cats have shown that experimentally induced thalamic volleys (approximating spindles) or anesthesia-induced spindles produce augmenting responses in cortical neurons that persist for several minutes (for review, see 230 ). More recent work has shown that simulated sleep rhythms (in anesthetized cats) can depress or potentiate cortical post-synaptic responses, depending on the proportion of excitatory and inhibitory post-synaptic potentials and the level of background firing 231 . Similar plasticity has also been reported in vitro, where experimentally induced spindles can produce short-term potentiation (STP), LTP, or LTD in cortical neurons as a function of post-synaptic depolarization and the number of stimulus pulses 232,233 .

Animal Rights Movement1

Early campaigns focused upon experimentation, targeting well-documented cases of laboratory animal suffering with protest and legislation. In 1975 Henry Spira and United Action for Animals investigated Museum of Natural History-sponsored research involving blinding, deafening, and mutilating the sex organs of cats.* Demonstrations highlighting the research's apparent futility and high cost and the animals' suffering* eventually convinced Mayor Ed Koch and 120 members of Congress to question it, and the National Institutes of Health halted its funding.

Investigations of Possible Vectors of the Disease

Apart from the species mentioned above, a large range of other species have been infected under experimental conditions. These include mice, guinea-pigs, rabbits and even cats, dogs, mink, monkeys, snakes, birds, chickens and embryonated eggs (Skinner 1954 Cottral and Ba-chrach 1968 Hyslop 1970 Sarhu and Dardiri 1979). However, in the case of, for example, mice, a useful laboratory model for FMD studies, the susceptibility is highly dependent on age (only very young mice being susceptible) and the genotype of the strain of mice (Skinner 1951, 1952, 1953 Bachrach 1968) and, moreover, the virus has to be directly injected into the animal and does not produce vesicles but rather infection and necrosis of the skeletal muscles (Platt 1956). Furthermore, infection of the species mentioned above, in particular, guinea-pigs (Henderson, 1949), rabbits and eggs, require multiple passage of the virus to adapt the virus to the new host. Consequently, infection of these species is possible but is...

Some Common Zoonotic Viruses Around the World

Rabies is one of the oldest reported zoonoses. Rabies virus infection causes nervous system disease that ends in death. Animals can become infected without nervous system involvement or disease, develop antibodies, and survive, but play no role in transmission. Classical rabies is found all around the world except in Antarctica, Britain, the Hawaiian Islands, Australia and New Zealand. Transmission occurs by the bite of an infected mammal that has virus in its saliva. Aerosol (droplet) transmission to humans has been reported, although rarely. Dogs and cats are the main reservoirs, especially in the tropical developing countries where more than 99 of all human deaths due to rabies occur. In the industrialized countries, wild mammals are the main reservoirs and the species involved vary from region to region. Translocation of rabid wild animals by hunting groups has been a cause of rabies spread in the USA. The principal species are in North America, skunks, raccoons and foxes in...

Vaccines and Antiviral Drug Development

Because of the economic importance of CoV infection to livestock and domestic animals, a variety of live-attenuated and killed CoV vaccines have been tested in animals. Vaccines have been developed against IBV, TGEV, CCoV, and FIPV. However, these vaccines do not seem to provide complete protection from wild-type virus infection. In some cases, the wild-type CoV rapidly evolves to escape neutralization by vaccine-induced antibodies. In studies of vaccinated chickens, a live-attenuated IBV vaccine has been shown to undergo RNA recombination with wildtype virus to generate vaccine escape mutants. Killed virus vaccines may also be problematic for some CoV infections. Vaccination of cats with a killed FIPV vaccine has been shown to exacerbate disease when cats are challenged with wild-type virus. Therefore, extensive studies will be required to carefully evaluate candidate vaccines for SARS-CoV. A variety of approaches are currently under investigation for developing a SARS-CoV vaccine,...

Mechanisms of Continence and Defecation

These mechanisms underscore that defecation is an integrated somato visceral reflex. Indeed, the central nervous system plays a greater role in regulating anorectal sensomotor functions compared with other regions of the gastrointestinal tract. The elaborate somatic defecation response depends on centers above the lumbo sacral cord, and probably craniad to the spinal cord itself. However, Garry observed that colonic stimulation in cats induced colonic contraction and anal relaxation, even after destruction of the lumbo sacral cord, and concluded that the gut seems not to have wholly surrendered its independence 61 .

The Disease In The Flea

The disease in fleas also has a distinctive pattern. Small mammals, such as urban and sylvatic (or wood) rats, as well as squirrels, prairie dogs, rabbits, voles, coyotes, and domestic cats, are the principal hosts for Y. pestis. More than 80 different species of fleas are involved as plague vectors. Fleas are bloodsucking insects, and when a flea bites a plague-infected host (at the bacteremic septicemic stage) it ingests the rod-shaped bacteria these multiply in the blood clot in the proventriculus (foregut) of the flea. This bacteria-laden clot obstructs the flea's bloodsucking apparatus and, as a consequence, the flea is unable to pump blood into the midgut, where normally it would be digested. The flea becomes hungrier and in this ravenous state bites the host repeatedly with each bite, it regurgitates plague bacteria into the wound. In this way, infection is initiated. Y. pestis can also be pathogenic for the flea, and fleas with their foregut blocked rapidly starve to death. If...

Significance Of Fleas

Fleas are important to humans because of their potential as disease vectors, in addition to the annoyance they produce merely by biting. Pathogen transmission is facilitated by their habit of feeding sequentially on several hosts. The best known disease associated with fleas is bubonic plague the plague bacterium, Yersiniapestis, is transmitted almost exclusively by rodent fleas. Murine typhus is another disease for which cat fleas have been implicated in the transmission cycle. The flea-borne typhus causative agent, Rickettsia typhi, is transmitted from its rodent reservoir by several flea species, including C. felis. Fleas probably play a role in maintenance and transmission of several other disease organisms such as Bartonella henselae, causing cat scratch disease. The cat flea is the intermediate host for the dog tapeworm, Dipylidium caninum, which can affect small children as well as dogs and cats. Flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) is a severe condition found primarily in dogs, but...

Development Of Neuroprotective Pharmacotherapy For Spinal Cord Injury

The lead author and his colleagues became interested in the LP hypothesis of secondary SCI during parallel investigations of the effects of high-dose methylpred-nisolone (MP) (15 to 90 mg kg IV) on spinal cord elec-trophysiology, as those might serve to improve impulse conduction and recovery of function in the injured spinal cord (Hall, 1982). Consequently, it was decided to test the possibility that a similar high dose of MP, which enhanced spinal neuronal excitability and impulse transmission, might also be required to inhibit posttraumatic spinal cord LP. In an initial set of experiments in cats, it was observed that the administration of an IV bolus of MP could indeed inhibit posttraumatic LP in spinal cord tissue (Hall and Braughler, 1981), but the doses required for this effect were much higher (30 mg kg) than previously hypothesized or than those empirically used in the clinical treatment of acute CNS injury or tested in the NASCIS trial. Further experimental studies, also...

Laboratory Animal

The most energetic efforts to develop alternatives are in toxicity testing. The formation of the European Community has resulted in international legislation and funding for animal welfare and alternative methods the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods is spearheading an international coordinated effort to end the use of animal testing for cosmetic products in Europe. (See also ANTIVIVISECTIONISM CATS CHIMPANZEES DOGS INSTITUTIONAL ANIMAL CARE AND USE COMMITTEES MICE.)

Avian Influenza in Thailand

Thailand first recognized the massive die-offs of poultry by late 2003, and the government officially reported the outbreak of H5N1 pathogenic influenza virus on January 23, 2004. At present, the country had already passed three waves of the epidemics. Outbreaks mostly occurred in the central and eastern parts of the country where water reservoirs and wetlands are abundant and poultry population is dense. The outbreaks also happened when the weather was wet and cool. Poultry vaccination is prohibited in Thailand. Pre-emptive depopulation and several means of biosecurity measures have been applied to control the outbreaks. Free-grazing ducks, fighting cocks and backyard chickens remain to be the major problems of the country. Of all three outbreaks, there were 22 human cases with 14 deaths which made the fatality rate 63.6 . The disease was more fatal in children than adults. The infection also spread to other mammalian species tigers, leopards and cats. Phylogenetic analysis revealed...

Upright St Johns Wort

Topsell reported in 1607 that the root of the herb Valerian is very like to the eye of a cat and wheresoever it groweth, if cats come thereto, they instantly dig it up for the love thereof, as I myself have seen in mine own garden, for it smelleth moreover like a cat . They certainly love it, the root seeming to act on them as an intoxicant as they roll over and over on the plant. There is no evidence that there is any medicinal reason for their behaviour (M Baker. 1980), unlike Catmint (Nepeta cataria). However disagreeable to modern taste, the smell used to be held in quite high esteem, for the root was put among clothes as a perfume in the 16th century (Fluckiger & Hanbury) (hence perhaps the name English Orris), and it is still used as a perfume in the East (Lloyd). Rats like it too, and it was much used for baiting traps (C P Johnson). In fact, it has been suggested that the secret of the Pied Piper's success in rat-charming lay more in the...

Canine Adenoviruses

Interestingly, in spite of a limited number of inclusion-body-hepatitis-like conditions in felids, focused attempts to find a distinct feline adenovirus remain unsuccessful. It is likely, however, that cats living in close proximity with humans can harbor HAdV-1 or HAdV-5 from species HAdV-C.

Activism For Animals

Unlike their 19th-century predecessors, 20th-century activists could claim some clear victories. Henry Spira, head of the New York-based Animal Rights International, achieved antivivisection's first major success by forcing the cessation of experiments on cats at the Museum of Natural History in New York City after over a year of protest in 1977. Spira's Coalition to Abolish the Draize Test fought for and eventually achieved radical changes in product safety testing worldwide. In the standard Draize test, a liquid or solid substance is placed in one eye each of a group of rabbits, and changes in the cornea, conjunctiva, and iris are then observed and scored. Both injury and potential for recovery are noted. Consumer protests against widespread use of the Draize test created the momentum that led to the development of alternatives to many types of whole-animal testing. Campaigns against fur wearing led by PETA and other organizations resulted in significant drops in fur sales by the...

History

Since the isolation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 1983, the search for its counterpart in domestic and laboratory animals was initiated in a number of laboratories. Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) was isolated in 1969 from a Louisiana dairy cow (called R29) during an intensive search for bovine leukemia virus (BLV). However, the viral sequencing of the frozen cell preparation from this cow was not performed until 1987, when this isolate (BIVR29) was determined to be a lentivi-rus. Unlike the long history of BIV discovery, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) was isolated in 1986 from two laboratory cats inoculated with tissues derived from stray cats found in Petaluma, California. The stray cats

Epidemiology

Global distribution of BIV infection in dairy and beef cattle has a seroprevalence of 1.4-33 (Figure 1(a)). Clinical signs were more frequently observed in BIV-infected dairy cattle than in BIV-infected beef cattle. This may be due to fewer stress factors in beef cattle than in dairy cattle. In some countries, BIV infection was higher in the dairy cattle than the beef cattle, because of the management practices (hand-feeding pooled colostrums milk to dairy calves) and the longer lifespan (more risk of exposure) of the dairy cattle than the beef cattle. The global prevalence of FIV infection is 1-26 in the high-risk populations (symptomatic cats) (Figure 1(b)) and 0.7-16 in the healthy (minimal to no-risk) populations. FIV infection is found more frequently in cats 5 years of age than in younger cats and rarely in cats 1 year of age. Furthermore, free-roaming cats have the highest incidence of infection as compared to indoor cats. Male cats are 2-3 times more likely to be infected than...

Immune Response

Both the exposure dose and the FIV strain infecting the cats determine the nature of humoral and cellular immunity generated against the virus. Some strains do not elicit high or even significant VNAs even though high antibody titers to SU and TM are produced. Upon experimental infection with a moderate dose of FIV, anti-FIV antibodies were detected as early as 3 weeks pi, followed by VNAs starting 6-9 weeks pi. A decrease in primary proliferative response to only foreign antigen (none to T-cell mitogens and recall antigen) was observed at 5 weeks pi, the earliest time point tested. Hence, selective defects in primary antigen-specific response of naive CD4+ T-helper cells are the early signs of T-cell dysfunction. Meanwhile, PBMC developed CTL responses to FIV Gag and Env at 7-9 and 16 weeks pi, respectively. The time of CD4 CD8 inversion depended greatly on the FIV strain used, with a moderate dose of pathogenic strains causing CD4 CD8 inversion as early as 4-6 weeks pi. In general,...

Future

FIV infection causes an important disease in domestic pet cats. The commercial vaccine was effective against strains from global subtypes A and B, and should be able to contain the global spread of FIV. However, the inability of current FIV diagnostics (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot assay) to distinguish vaccinated cats from FIV-infected cats has caused a dilemma in the use of this vaccine. This problem can be resolved by developing sensitive molecular diagnostics or a vaccine that does not conflict with current FIV diagnostics. Identifying the protective vaccine epitopes should assist in designing a vaccine that is devoid of diagnostic epitopes. Moreover, FIV research on vaccines will provide new insights to HIV vaccine development for humans. The recent discovery of fatal pathogenic FIV strains (10 acute mortality) demonstrates the pathogenic evolution of FIV similar to HIV-1 immunopathogenesis. Hence, FIV infection is not only important for feline...

Intelligence

Some scientists, like Donald Griffin, are not troubled by the lack of an exact definition for words such as intelligence, consciousness, or thought. They believe that we have enough of an intuitive sense of thinking, for example, to look for evidence of it in animals. Griffin's strategy is to look for examples of seemingly ''clever'' behavior, whether in dogs, cats,* spiders, or wasps, and use these as evidence of animal thinking. Griffin has taken quite literally the suggestion by George Romanes, a 19th-century student of animal intelligence, who viewed observable behavior as the ''ambassador of the mind.'' In its most extreme form, this view holds that all behavior in whatever species reflects a conscious thought process. Not all scientists agree with Griffin (see BEHAVIORISM).

The Viruses

The family Caliciviridae is a group of small (27-40 nm) unenveloped round viruses with a linear, positive strand, unsegmented RNA genome. 1 The family includes vesiviruses that infect cats (feline calicivirus) and pigs (vesicular exanthema of swine), the lagoviruses of hares and rabbits (rabbit hemorrhagic disease), and the human caliciviruses (genera Norovirus and Sapovirus). Hepatitis E virus has been removed from the family Caliciviridae and is currently of ''unclassified status.'' 2

Catmint or CATNIP

(Nepeta cataria) Cats are much delighted with catmint, for the smell of it is so pleasant unto them, that they rub themselves upon it, and wallow and tumble into it, and also feed on the branches very greedily (Gerard). The cats will eat it The cats will not know it (Barton & Castle).

Berghhenry

Born to an aristocratic shipbuilding family in New York, Henry Bergh (1813-1888) helped to change the way Americans thought about animals. As a youngster he fought to stop boys who brought cats* and dogs* to the river in sacks to drown them. During his service in Russia, Bergh witnessed a peasant beating his cart horse, and he jumped from his own carriage and stopped him. Bergh underwent a transformation that would change the rest of his life and change life for animals in the United States. Upon leaving his post in Russia, Bergh stopped in London to visit the earl of Harrowby, the president of the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA),* to learn the organization and functions of that society. When he returned to New York in June 1865, he began the business of organizing a similar society in America. Bergh garnered the moral and financial support of many of his influential friends, and on April 10, 1866, he secured a charter from the state of New York for the...

Flea Suppression

Because fleas must have blood from a mammalian host to survive, treating host animals is the most efficient and effective means of suppressing fleas. There are several on-animal products that are effective for flea control. Many contain pyrethrins, which are safe, effective products but kill only fleas on the animal at the time of treatment and do not provide residual control. Other over-the-counter compounds include spot-on permethrin products, which are limited to canine use because they can be lethal to cats. To forestall flea infestations, pets can be started on flea developmental inhibitors early in the season. Products containing insect development inhibitors can be applied topically, given orally (once monthly as a pill for dogs or a liquid added to a cat's food), or given as a 6-month injectable formulation for cats. Female fleas that feed on blood of treated animals subsequently are unable to reproduce.

Immunity

Cats recovered from feline calicivirus infection or immunized with feline calicivirus vaccine appear to remain relatively free of disease following subsequent challenges. This appears to be the case despite the considerable degree of antigenic variability recognized among feline caliciviruses. It is practice to recommend annual vaccination.

Feral Animals

The term ''feral animals'' generally refers to those individuals who belong to domesticated species (see DOMESTICATION), such as dogs* and cats,* but who themselves have not adapted to domestic life or to interactions with humans. Many of these animals were born never knowing the care of humans, but some may have once, years ago, been family pets (see COMPANION ANIMALS AND PETS). These animals typically live on the fringes of society. They are not just strays former pets who were recently lost or abandoned but animals who have survived in the wild on wits and an occasional bowl of food left on the back porch, caught somewhere between a wild and domestic existence. Feral cats are probably the most well known of the feral animals. Although it is impossible to say exactly how many exist, Alley Cat Allies (ACA), a feral-cat advocacy group, estimates that there are approximately 60 million feral cats living in the United States. Litters of unneutered cats allowed to roam outside and breed...

Rabies

Rabies is a fatal viral disease of animals that can also be transmitted to humans. Although it attacks primarily the central nervous system, infective particles are present in the saliva of rabid animals. Thus, it is most frequently transmitted by an animal bite, which injects the virus into the new host. About 35,000 cases a year are reported worldwide, all of them fatal, as there is no cure once symptoms develop. However, because of an effective vaccination program for dogs, cats, and other at-risk domestic animals and the availability of a vaccine for people bitten by wild animals or unvaccinated pets, there are typically fewer than five cases per year in the United States.

Virulence

It is not known whether different strains of CPXV vary in virulence for most accidental hosts, including man. In a small-scale experiment, no differences in the ability to cause infection or a primary lesion in domestic cats could be detected between the Brighton Red strain and isolates from a cheetah and a domestic cat. Differences in virulence of different strains do exist for newborn laboratory mice and chick embryos, but these differences are not associated with the ability to infect various accidental hosts and it is not known whether they have any significance in the maintenance of different strains of CPXV in different reservoir tests.

Invasiveness Scales

Recognizing and evaluating animal pain involves assessment of many factors. A number of people have described species-specific signs of pain in rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, dogs,* cats,* and monkeys. The signs include changes in posture or appearance, vocalizing, temperament, depression, locomotion, and immobility, as well as clinical signs in cardiovascular, respiratory, nervous, and musculoskeletal systems. A report of a United Kingdom working group recommended that a scoring system be used that ranks various factors such as whether or not the animal is conscious (see ANIMAL COGNITION, Conscious Experience of Animals) throughout the procedure the use of restraint (its duration and whether it is continuous or discontinuous) tissue sensitivity organ risk mortality level of pain distress deprivation of normal physiological function or activity and other factors. The higher the combined score, the greater the severity. All of these indicators translate into minor, moderate, or severe...

Pet Theft

In the late 1940s and early 1950s, as government funding for biomedical research increased, the demand for animals to use in research also grew. Commercial breeders of dogs* and cats* were virtually nonexistent. To fill the demand for dogs and cats, the research community turned to the city pound or shelter* or to dealers who acquired animals from pounds or other sources and then resold them to research facilities. This practice became known as ''pound seizure.'' As controversial as pound seizure was, it was not as controversial as pet theft. Unscrupulous individuals stole dogs and cats from suburban neighborhoods or rural farms. They found a large supply of free-roaming, unidentified pets and a huge demand from animal dealers who asked few questions about the sources of the animals. The person who stole the animals became known as a ''buncher'' He traveled around an area gathering up ''bunches'' of animals and then sold them to a dealer, who then sold them to a research facility. In...

Reservoirs

Pet animals, such as cats and dogs, have been suspected of being reservoirs for human infections with Y. enterocolitica, because of their close contact with humans (34). However, strains of Y. enterocolitica 4 O 3 have only occasionally been isolated from dogs and cats (45,56,58,74-77). These strains have mostly been isolated from apparently healthy dogs (76,77). Dogs can asymptomatically carry Y. enterocolitica in the pharynx and excrete the organism in feces for several weeks after infection (78).

Bipyridyliums

Cases of accidental or suicidal fatalities resulting from paraquat poisoning have been documented. Pathological changes observed are lung, liver, and kidney damage. The most striking change is a widespread cellular proliferation in the lungs. Ingestion of paraquat results in GI upset within a few hours of exposure, followed by the onset of respiratory symptoms and subsequently death by respiratory distress. The LD50 for paraquat in guinea pigs, cats, and cows is 30 to 50 mg kg. Rats are more resistant, with an LD50 of 125 mg kg. The LD50 for humans is estimated at about 40 mg kg. Diquat produces acute and chronic effects that differ from those produced by paraquat in that the lung toxicity is not seen. Hyperexcitability leading to convulsions and distention of the GI tract and discoloration of intestinal fluids occur. Long-term ingestion of diquat at 0.05 causes cataracts. Studies have shown that the mechanism of action of dipyridyls is through free-radical-induced damage.

Reproductive Control

There is also a surplus of pets (dogs* and cats* see COMPANION ANIMALS AND PETS) in the United States. The most common method for controlling reproduction in pet animals is the surgical neuter operation, called a spay procedure in female animals and a castration in male animals. The spay procedure consists of surgically removing both ovaries and the uterus (ovariohysterectomy). The castration procedure is performed on male dogs and cats and consists of surgically removing both testes. Spaying and castrating do not influence behaviors such as play behavior, fear-related ag In order to control reproduction, it is desirable to neuter animals prior to puberty to prevent unwanted litters of puppies or kittens. Recent research suggests that it is safe to neuter as early as 6 to 8 weeks of age. In a survey of 500 pet-owning households, nearly 20 of all neutered pets had been allowed to produce offspring before sterilization. If neutering occurs after a pet has had one or two litters, the...

West Nile Virus

In North America, WNV infection was confirmed in more than 300 species of birds, with death rates approaching 100 in corvids (crows, magpies, and jays), and with robins constituting important hosts for the infection of the mosquito vectors. It is notable that the virus spared African bird species in the New York zoo where deaths of local species were first observed. Infection was also recorded in 30 species of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians. Approximately 10 of infected horses manifested clinical illness, with a high proportion of these developing fatal encephalitis. Vaccine for horses became available in 2005. Although fatal infections were recorded in dogs and a wolf, infection rates were low in cats and dogs. Fatal disease was observed in farmed alligators in the USA and Mexico, with infection resulting from the feeding of infected horse meat, and also from transmission between alligators in crowded conditions. Serological evidence of infection was also found in small wild...

Vermin Control

Crushed roots of WHITE BRYONY used to be stuffed into rat holes in barns, to drive the vermin away (Porter. 1969). The bulb of SQUILL is effective as a rat poison because the vermin like it and will readily eat it (Kingsbury. 1967). As Red Squill Powder, it has long been used in America as a rat poison. They like VALERIAN, too, and it was much used for baiting traps (C P Johnson). In fact, it has been suggested that the secret of the Pied Piper's success in rat-charming lay more to the valerian in his pockets than to his music (M Baker. 1980). Cats may love CATMINT, but rats hate it. Plant it thickly around the walls of a rat-infested house, and they will soon be cleared (Quelch). ANISE is said to be a good mice bait, if smeared in traps it will destroy lice, too. In Lapland, branches of LABRADOR TEA are put among grain to discourage mice (Grieve. 1931), just as in Ireland, sprigs of CORN MINT used to be put in corn stacks to keep mice away (E E Evans. 1942) (so was SPEARMINT in...

Host Range Virus

Cdcf Aspirateur

CDV can infect most carnivores but in some it may result in only a mild or subclinical infection, for example, in domestic cats. It causes severe disease in all members of the Canidae (dog, wolf, fox), Mustelidae (ferret, weasel, mink), Procyonidae (raccoon, panda), as well as in collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu, order Artiodactyla). More recently, CDV has been shown to be responsible for high mortalities in both wild and captive big cats and in hyenas (Crocuta crocuta). Failure to recognise the disease earlier in these species may have been due to a lack of awareness of a possible viral etiology and or the availability of diagnostic tools to detect the virus. Outbreaks of CDV in Siberian and Caspian seals have extended its host range to include these species. PDV is known to infect many species of seal in the North Atlantic and Arctic oceans but its full host range is unknown. There is also serological evidence that terrestrial carnivores in Canada, including polar bear (Ursus...

DHA n3 C226

Finally, it is important to note that there is another experimental paradigm that results in depletion of brain DHA levels other than n-3 dietary restriction. Chronic consumption of high levels of alcohol results in a specific depletion of DHA from the brain. When cats are given 1.2 g ethanol kg d (a value not different than is the case with chronic human alcoholics), their brain DHA levels are reduced by about 20 (Pawlosky and Salem, 1995). About a 30 reduction in brain DHA levels has also been observed in elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease compared to normal geriatric controls (Kyle, et al., 1999, Prasad, et al., 1998). It is interesting to note that human infants fed standard infant formulas without supplemental DHA also have about a 30 lower level of brain DHA at about 4 mo of life compared to infants fed their mother's DHA-containing breast milk (Farquharson, et al., 1992).

Reservoirs Of Ehec

Examples of wildlife and pets in which EHEC have been found include whitetail deer (22,69-71), reindeer (72), boars (73), geese (29), dogs (74), cats (75), and rabbits (76). There is a possibility for EHEC infection following captive animal contact (76). Recent research by Belongia and colleagues suggests a reduced occurrence of clinical EHEC illness among children living in farms, owing in part to repeated EHEC antigenic stimulation (65). Although EHEC are found in companion animals (77), there have not been, to the best of our knowledge, reports of EHEC infection from contact with household pets.

Biology

D. immitis is a filarial nematode in the superfamily Filarioidea (order Spirurida, class Secernentea). The males are 12 to 20 cm in length and 0.7 to 0.9 mm in diameter, with a spirally coiled posterior end. The females are 25 to 31 cm in length and 1.0 to 1.3 mm in diameter. D. immitis was first found in the United States, but it occurs globally, with a tendency for increased prevalence in humid warm regions conducive to abundant mosquito populations. In the United States, the prevalence can be as great as 45 in dogs within 150 miles of the Gulf of Mexico coast, Atlantic coast north to New Jersey, and Mississippi River and its tributaries. The prevalence elsewhere in the United States is generally less than 5 . Although dogs are the primary host, D. immitis has been found in coyotes, wolves, dingoes, foxes, sea lions, harbor seals, wolverines, ferrets, and cats. The number of nematodes per dog is variable, ranging from single nematodes to as many as 250. Cats are less tolerant, with...

Protozoa

Human host is the most important however, the protozoa are found in dogs, cats, and other mammals. The cyst of E. histolytica is the infectious stage, and the protective cyst wall is resistant to many environmental conditions and is eventually excreted in feces. This organism is an intracellular parasite, which multiplies within the intestinal mucosal cells of its host, the cat. The organism can eventually invade other cells in other parts of the body of the cat it infects. Entrance to the host is by ingestion of oocysts from cat feces or by inadequately cooked meat, particularly pork, lamb, or beef. The prevalence of T. gondii in cats is dependent on eating raw meat. In the U.S., 1 to 6 women per 1000 acquire toxoplasmosis that is associated with congenital diseases. In addition, T. gondii can affect the brain, skeletal muscle, and retina. Common problems include ocular and neurological problems, jaundice, abortions or stillbirths, and malformation. Immunosuppressed individuals or...

Pathology

Unusual syndromes associated with coronaviruses include feline infectious peritonitis, rabbit myocarditis and rat sialodacryadenitis. FECV causes enteritis in kittens and inapparent infection in adult cats, while the closely related FIPV can cause infectious peritonitis, with ascites, wasting and death in a small percentage of infected cats. A cardiotropic rabbit coronavirus causes dilated myocardiopathy and death within 7-12 days after intravenous inoculation of rabbits with serum from an infected rabbit. Rat coronaviruses infect the respiratory tract, salivary and lacrimal glands, causing sialodacryadenitis, and can also infect the urogenital tract, interfering with breeding.

Domestication

The first species to undergo the change from wild to domestic life was probably the wolf (Canis lupus), the ancestor of the dog.* The oldest known archaeological remains of a probable domesticated wolf come from a 14,000-year-old site in central Europe. Wild sheep (Ovis orientalis) and goats (Capra aegagrus) appear to have been domesticated more or less simultaneously in the Near East around 11,000 years ago, while remains of domesticated cattle (Bos primigenius) and pigs* (Sus scrofa) first occur in the archaeological record around 8,000-9,000 years b.p. (before present) at various sites in Asia. Horses (Equus ferus), asses (Equus africanus), camels (Camelus spp.), water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and chickens* (Gallus gallus) all appear to have been domesticated in different parts of Asia and North Africa between 7,000 and 5,000 years ago, while the first domesticated cats* (Felis silvestris) appeared in ancient Egypt between 4,000 and 5,000 years ago. Meanwhile, in the New World,...

Conclusions

See also Ascoviruses (Ascoviridae) Baculoviruses (Baculoviridae) Granuloviruses, Nucleopolyhedrovirus Nonoccluded baculoviruses Densonucleosis viruses (Parvoviridae) Entomopoxviruses (Poxviridae) Nodaviruses (No-daviridae) Parvoviruses (Parvoviridae) Cats, dogs and mink, Molecular biology, General features Picornaviruses - insect (Picornaviridae) Reo-viruses (Reoviridae) General features, Molecular biology Tetraviruses (Tetraviridae) Iridoviridae -invertebrate.

Growth Promotion

And related antibiotics are thus used under veterinary prescription to treat respiratory, intestinal, systemic, genital, and skin infections in most animal species (11). The molecules used in France and in European countries belong to the macrolide group with both 14-membered ring (erythromycin, oleandomycin) and 16-membered ring (spiramycin, tylosin, tilmicosin, josamicin) molecules, to the lincosamides (lincomycin, and clindamycin in dogs and cats), and to the pleuromutilin group (tiamulin). This last group is specific to veterinary medicine and is tentatively presented here along with the MRAs because its therapeutic uses are similar, targeted at the same infectious microorganisms Actinobacillus, Mycoplasma, Pasteurella, Serpu-lina), but its structure with a cyclopentacyclooctene ring differs noticeably from that of the other MRAs. Streptogramins are no longer in therapeutic use and azalides are absent from the veterinary market. Tilmicosin, a semisynthetic derivative of...

Functional Sculpting

It should be noted that these experiments are only effective on kittens during the sensitive or critical period (see above) of their development. They are ineffective with adult cats. During the sensitive period the neural circuitry responsible for the orientation detector cells in the primary visual cortex is in a 'plastic' state open to environmental moulding responsive to use and or disuse.

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