Natural Candida Cure and Treatment

Yeast Infection No More

In the ebook Yeast Infection No More, Linda Allen starts with a basic 12 hourtreatment which is designed to provide powerful, effective and total relief from the symptoms of yeast infection almost immediately, and certainly in no more than a maximum of 6 to 12 hours. The Yeast Infection No More program offers the users a unique 5-Step holistic system that tackles the root cause of their yeast infection in order to help them eliminate it naturally and without any drugs or creams. The Yeast Infection No More main guide is probably the most comprehensive yeast infection book ever released and it really contains every little thing about this subject. More here...

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A Devonshire charm for the thrush was to take three RUSHES from any running stream, and pass them separately through the mouth of the infant, then plunge the rushes back in the stream. As the current bears them away, so will the thrush go from the child (Burton). A French charm for thrush in infants was to put a piece of PRIVET in flower over the chimney piece. When this dries up, the child's thrush will also have dried (Loux). In Indonesia, root juice of the Red Silkcotton Tree (Bombax ceiba) serves as a mouthwash and gargle to treat thrush in infants (L M Perry), and in Alabama, the root of POKE-ROOT was used for the complaint, by, of all things, putting it in whisky and giving it to the child to drink (R B Browne). In the same area, PERSIMMON bark was stewed and mixed with honey for use as a mouthwash (R B Browne). SAFFRON tea is used in American domestic medicine as a mouth wash in cases of thrush. Mohegan Indians used the mashed leaves of CREEPING LADY'S TRESSES (Goodyera repens)...

Salt Induced Activation of Enzymes in Organic Solvents

Et al. demonstrated that adding buffer salts or KCl also increased the catalytic activity of lyophilized Candida antarctica lipase fourfold over that with no added salt (6). Moreover, Bedell et al. found that including KCl in the lyophilizate dramatically enhanced thermolysin-catalyzed peptide synthesis in tert-amyl alcohol (7). These findings suggest that salt-induced activation of enzyme catalysis in organic solvents may be a general phenomenon, at least for hydrolytic enzymes. Furthermore, Bedell et al. also found that the enhancement in catalytic activity for both thermolysin and subtilisin Carlsberg is not a result of reduced substrate diffusional limitations in a suspended enzyme particle, but rather the result of to a mechanism inherent to the biocatalyst itself. 1. Other enzymes can also be activated. Enzyme activation by salts has been shown to occur for other proteases such as chymotrypsin and thermolysin, as well as a variety of lipases including those from Candida...

Indicated Supporting Diagnostic Data

This test is done most often to confirm the presence of a dermatophyte fungus, candida, or the organisms of tinea versicolor. The skin surface of the affected area is swabbed 3. Candida will show short pseudohyphae and round spores, with and without budding (see Photo 52). Answer KOH examination should be performed when you suspect a yeast infection such as tinea versicolor (Pityrosporum obiculare) or monilia (Candida species). When combined with physical findings, a positive test is diagnostic. If a KOH examination of this patient reveals short plump, non-branched hyphae and clusters of round spores, this would confirm a diagnosis of tinea versicolor. The pigmentary change in this disorder resolves with adequate treatment of the yeast infection.

Clinical manifestation

Thrush discrete or confluent white plaques on oral mucosa common on the tongue erythema and fissures at the corners of the mouth Candida intertrigo red macerated intertrig-inous areas with satellite pustules Vulvovaginitis pruritic, white, cheesy discharge beefy red vulva Chronic mucocutaneous variant white adherent plaques of thrush or the angular cheilitis of perleche oral involvement may extend to the esophagus nails are thickened, fragmented, and discolored, with significant edema and erythema of the surrounding periungual tissue skin lesions often are acral or in the scalp, with ery-thematous, hyperkeratotic, serpiginous plaques

Purification of Lipase

Commercial lipase from Candida rugosa is purified according to the method of Basri et al. (15). The purification procedures employed are the conventional method and the one-step gel filtration on Superose 6 column using fast performance liquid chromatography (FPLC). The conventional method consists of the following steps water extraction, ammonium sulfate

Statistical Analysis of the Phylogenetic Tree

Once the phylogenetic tree has been generated, the next step is to statistically test its topology. One method that is commonly used to test phylogenetic tree topologies is the statistical method of bootstrapping (12). This method calculates the variability of the tree topology by resampling (with replacement) the original multiple sequence alignment a set number of times (i.e., a number between 100 and 2000) to generate a new set of artificial multiple alignments. This new data set is in turn used to generate a set of trees, from which a consensus tree is produced. In the resulting consensus tree, at each branch node on the tree, the fraction of bootstrap trials (referred to as the bootstrap value) that confirmed that node is shown. For example in Fig. 1, 96 of 100 bootstrap trials found that the asexual yeast species (referred to as the anamorph) Candida holmii and its sexual form (referred to as the teleomorph) Saccharomyces exiguus were distinct from all other species examined in...

Microbial Pathogens and Endotoxin

In intestinal-derived candidiasis in mice, administration of IL-4 and IL-10 caused a Th2 shift in the Peyer's patches, and this was associated with a greatly increased susceptibility and fatal outcome of disease (76). On the other hand, exogenous IL-10 did not influence outcome when administered to mice that had established cellular (Th1-mediated) immunity to Candida and were rechallenged with the organism.

Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection

Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is the most common nosocomial infection. It comprises > 40 of all institutionally acquired infections 69 . Several catheter-care practices are universally recommended to prevent or at least delay the onset of CAUTI. These include avoiding unnecessary catheterizations, considering a condom or suprapubic catheter, having a trained professional insert the catheter aseptically, removing the catheter as soon as no longer needed, maintaining uncompromising closed drainage, minimizing manipulations of the system, separating catheterized patients, and considering adopting a novel anti-infective catheter 70-73 . However, few of these practices have been proven effective by randomized controlled trials. CAUTIs comprise perhaps the largest institutional reservoir of nosocomial antibiotic-resistant pathogens such as E. coli, Enterococci, P. aeruginosa, Klebsiella, Enterobacter spp., and Candida spp. Novel urinary catheters impregnated with...

Conditions That May Simulate Tinea

Bacterial intertrigo, candidiasis, erythrasma, or Gram-negative toe web infections may be difficult to distinguish from intertriginous tinea of the feet. Wood's lamp exam will show coral-red with erythrasma and green-blue with intertriginous pseudomonas. Otherwise a KOH preparation or fungal culture are indicated.

Primary Nursing Diagnosis

Bacterial cystitis is usually treated with a 7- to 10-day course of antibiotics. Shortened and large single-dose regimens are currently under investigation. Most elderly patients need a full 7-to 10-day treatment, although caution is used in their management because of possible diminished renal capacity. Reinforce the need for patients to complete the therapy. Inform women of the possibility of developing a vaginal yeast infection during therapy, and review preventive measures.

Production Of Pigments

Microbial production of pigments has usually been carried out in SmF, though SSF processes have also been applied. Candida flareri, C. guilliermundii, Debaromyces subglobosus, Hansenula polymorpha, Saccharomyces, Torulopsis xylinus, Ashbya gossypi and Eremothecium ashbyii have commonly been used for the production of riboflavin, a yellow pigmented B vitamin. Monascus pigments have good properties as food colorants possessing reasonable light and chemical stability, tinctorial strength, and water solubility when complexed with appropriate agents.

The Effects Of Leptin On The Immune System 51 The Innate Immune Reponse

As mentioned earlier, the pattern of leptin release during an acute-phase response mirrors other cytokine gene expression, particularly IL-6 (11-13). It has been shown that LPS, IL-1, TNF-a, and other inflammatory stimuli increase gene expression and serum concentration of leptin as early as 6 h after the initial stimulus. The induction of gene expression makes leptin an ideal candidate to be a key player in an immune inflammatory response. It is of particular interest that LPS binds to a Toll-like receptor (TLR-4) on adipocytes and induces adipocyte expression of TLR-2 and secretion of leptin and other proinflammatory cytokines (102). TLR engagement provides an elegant mechanism whereby the production of leptin is induced at the start of an immune response before cognate recognition of a foreign antigen has occurred, which will, in turn, upregulate Th1 cognate immune responses if appropriate (see Section 5.2). This further illustrates the well-accepted concept of a critical interplay...

Enantioselective Esterification of Methyl Branched Carboxylic Acids

Commercial extracellular lipase (E.C. from Candida rugosa (CRL) with a specific activity stated as 900 U mg solid and 4865 units mg protein (obtained from Sigma, St. Louis, MO). One unit is the amount hydrolyzing 1.0 mol h of olive oil at pH 7.2 and 37 C. Store the lipase at 4 C and dry conditions.

Case Definition of AIDSDefining Illnesses

The AIDS case definition includes a confirmed diagnosis of HIV-1 infection and one or more of the following AIDS-defining illnesses, diagnosed presumptively or definitively according to the criteria listed below Candidiasis of the bronchi, trachea, or lungs Gross inspection by endoscopy or at autopsy or by microscopy (histology or cytology) on a specimen obtained directly from the tissues affected (including scrapings from the mucosal surface) not from a culture. Candidiasis, esophageal Definitive diagnosis Same as is for candidiasis of the bronchi, trachea, or lungs. Presumptive diagnosis Recent onset of retrosternal pain on swallowing and oral candidiasis diagnosed by the gross appearance of white patches or plaques on an erythematous base or by the microscopic appearance of fungal mycelial filaments in an uncultured specimen scraped from the oral mucosa. Cervical cancer, invasive

Direct Effects Of Invertebrates On Fungi Mycophagy

Mycelia growing across the surface of soil can be completely destroyed by high intensity invertebrate grazing, but less intense grazing can result in dramatic changes in mycelial growth and activity (e.g. Kampichler et al., 2004 Harold et al., 2005 Bretherton et al., 2006 Tordoff et al., 2006 Wood et al., 2006 Figure 1). Despite the plethora of studies on fungal-invertebrate interactions, only recently has attention turned to saprotrophic Basidiomycota, and then largely to cord-formers (Chapter 1) grazed by Collembola. Mycelial morphology and foraging patterns often change dramatically as a result of grazing, changes varying depending on fungal species (Tordoff et al., 2006 Figure 1), resource status (Harold et al., 2005), grazing intensity (density) and invertebrate (Collembola) species (Kampichler et al., 2004). For example, Folsomia candida had a large impact, Proisotoma minuta often a similar impact, but Protaphorura armata often had little impact (G.M. Tordoff et al.,...

Invertebrate Effects On Fungal Community Structure

Invertebrates have differential effects on different species of fungi, resulting from different extents and sites of grazing, secretion of various chemicals including antibiotics, and from physical effects. Consequently, they can affect the species balance within fungal communities. For example, Collembola grazing alters the vertical distribution of Marasmius androsaceus and Mycena galopus in spruce (Picea sitchensis) needle litter (Newell, 1984a, 1984b) Onychiurus latus fed preferentially on M. androsaceus in laboratory and field tests caused the restriction of this species to the uppermost litter horizon. In inter-specific mycelial confrontations in agar culture and trays of soil in the laboratory, the balance was shifted in favour of one species over another when grazed by the Collembola F. candida for example, in the absence of F. candida, R. bicolor overgrew P. velutina, whereas with Collembola grazing P. velutina was able to breach the R. bicolor advancing front (T.D. Rotheray...

Effects On Invertebrate Behaviour

Figure 2 Preferential grazing by invertebrates in interaction zones. (a-e) Interactions between mycelia growing from 2 x 2 x 2 cm wood inocula across compressed non-sterile soil. (a) Considerable grazing by Folsomia candida (Collembola) of Resinicium bicolor (left) in the region of interaction with Hypholoma fasciculare. (b) Localized F. candida grazing (arrowed) of H. fasciculare near interaction front. (c) Grazing by F. candida of both H. fasciculare (left) and R. bicolor in the interaction zone. (d) F. candida grazing of Phanerochaete velutina and R. bicolor. Note that grazing of P. velutina is largely in regions (arrowed) where cords of R. bicolor had overgrown P. velutina. The R. bicolor cords in these regions were completely removed by grazing. (e) Fungus gnat grazing (arrowed) largely in the interaction zone between non-mating compatible homokaryons of Stereum gausapatum in agar culture. Note grazed regions (arrowed) in interaction zone. (f) Grazing (arrowed) by F. candida in...

Invertebrate Effects On Fungal Physiology And Metabolism

There seems to have been little research performed on effects of invertebrates on Basidiomycota physiology and metabolism, yet such effects are sometimes likely to be large, in view of the dramatic changes to morphology mentioned above. Grazing by F. Candida altered the partitioning of 15N added to soil close to the wood inoculum (G.M. Tordoff et al., unpublished) less 15N was transferred to new mycelial growth in grazed systems than in ungrazed systems, presumably related to slower growth and altered mycelial morphology. Changes in extracellular enzyme activity have been noted P. velutina and Stereum hirsutum exhibited differential responses to the presence of the nematode Panagrellus redividus (Dyer et al., 1992). Protease activity increased while esterase and acid phosphotase activities were reduced in P. velutina. In contrast, there was increased protease and acid phosphotase activity in S. hirsutum.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases Introduction

Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are a diverse group of viral, bacterial, protozoal, and ectoparasitic infections that have a common route of transmission through sexual intercourse. Infectious organisms associated with STDs include Chlamydia trachomatis Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis syphilis herpes simplex papillomavirus (genital warts) genital herpes and HIV. Infection by each of the above organisms has its own pattern of clinical patterns medications treatments prognosis transmission dynamics host response to infection and patterns of sexual contact.

Organosilicon Compounds as Novel Substrates of Hydrolases in Organic Solvents

Lipase OF 360 from Candida cylindracea (Meito Sangyo, Tokyo, Japan) (see Note 1). 6. Hydrolases lipase OF 360 from Candida cylindracea (Meito Sangyo), lipase KLIP-100 from Pseudomonas sp. (Kurita Kogyo, Tokyo, Japan), lipoprotein lipase Type A from Pseudomonas sp. (Toyobo, Osaka, Japan), and cholesterol esterase Type A from Pseudomonas sp. (Toyobo).

Enzymatic Preparation of Optically Active Organosilicon Compounds in Organic Solvents

Hydrolases lipase OF 360 from Candida cylindracea (Meito Sangyo), lipase Saiken 100 from Rhizopus japonicus (Osaka Saikin Kenkyusho, Osaka, Japan), lipase (Steapsin) from hog pancreas (Tokyo Kasei, Tokyo, Japan), lipoprotein lipase Type A from Pseudomonas sp. (Toyobo), and cholesterol esterase Type A from Pseudomonas sp. (Toyobo).

Regioselective Carbohydrate Acylation

The potential of lipases as catalysts for the acylation of carbohydrates is currently of considerable interest, as the reaction occurs selectively at the primary hydroxyl group of the sugar. The need for protection and deprotection steps of the nonfavorable secondary hydroxyl groups is avoided, allowing a reduction in the number of steps. In recent years, various reports have been published on the enzymatic transesterifications of carbohydrates using activated donors, such as trihaloethyl, vinyl, and oxime esters or acid anhydrides (31). For example, 6-0-acyl derivatives of alkyl glucopyranosides, useful as biodegradable nonionic surfactants, were synthesized from fatty acids and the corresponding 1-0-ethyl-glucopyranosides in the presence of a thermostable lipase from Candida antarctica (CAL) (32,33) (see Subheading 3.7.). This lipase also catalyzed the regioselective acylation of 1-0-octyl-a-D-glucopyranoside by ethyl acrylate using zeolite CaA for selective adsorption of the...

Description Medical Nonmalignant Breast

Mastitis is usually caused by the introduction of bacteria from a crack, fissure, or abrasion through the nipple that allows the organism entry into the breast. The source of organisms is almost always the nursing infant's nose and throat other sources include the hands of the mother or birthing personnel and maternal circulating blood. The most common bacterial organism to cause mastitis is Staphylococcus aureus others include beta-hemolytic streptococcus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and rarely, streptococcus. Community-acquired and nosocomial methicillin-resistant S. aureus have also been found to cause mastitis. The actual organism can be cultured from the milk. Common predisposing factors relate to milk stasis and include incomplete or inadequate drainage of a breast duct and alveolus that occurs as a result of missed feedings prolonged delay in infant feeding abrupt weaning of the infant and blocked ducts caused by tight clothing or poor support of pendulous breasts....

Primary Adrenal Insufficiency Addisons Disease

In an autosomal recessive pattern, with hypoparathyroidism, mucocutaneous candidiasis, and adrenal insufficiency being the most infamous triad of endocrine gland failures. Type II is familial half the time and is linked to HLA antigens B8 (DW3), DR3, and DR4. In type II patients, adrenal insufficiency is present in 100 of patients, with autoimmune thyroid disease, 70 , or insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes mellitus, 50 , in decreasing order of occurrence. Although these syndromes are uncommon, it is important to be aware that one autoimmune gland failure is associated with a higher risk of a second gland failure.


Enzyme a soluble or immobilized lipase (e. g., lipases PS and F free , PS-C and PS-D immobilized from Amano Japan or immobilized Mucor miehei Lipozyme IM-60 and Candida antarctica Novozyme 435 lipases from Novo (see Note 6). These immobilized enzymes are also currently marketed by Bohringer Mannheim (Germany).

Preparation of Cell Suspensions see Note

Candida albicans yeast cells attached to the surface of a poly-L-lysine coated microscope slide. Specimen was prepared as described in Subheading 3.1.1. Bar 10 pm. Fig. 1. Candida albicans yeast cells attached to the surface of a poly-L-lysine coated microscope slide. Specimen was prepared as described in Subheading 3.1.1. Bar 10 pm.

Discharge And Home Healthcare Guidelines

Be sure the patient understands all medications, including the dosage, route, action, and adverse effects. If the patient is to be discharged while she or he is still on antibiotics, emphasize the need to complete the medication regimen. Teach the patient the signs of resistance (new onset of fever and abdominal pain) and superinfection (oral candida infection, yeast infection in the moist areas of the skin).

Identification of E faecalis in GPCPCPositive Blood Culture Bottles

The number of candidemia cases has increased during the past decade because of the increasing population of immunocompromised patients, organ transplantations, and the common use of intravascular devices. Furthermore, species distribution is changing such that the prevalence of C. albicans is decreasing because of the emergence of other Candida species, in particular Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis. 18 Whereas C. albicans is often susceptible to fluconazole, C. glabrata and other emerging species, such as Candida krusei, have a different resistance pattern. Therefore rapid and accurate methods for species identification of yeast in blood cultures are important for the selection of appropriate antifungal therapy. Rapid identification of C. albicans and differentiation from other yeast species are particularly important as they allow the majority of cases caused by C. albicans to be treated safely and cost-effectively with fluconazole, such that only the remaining cases caused...

Antifungal and antiviral agents

Polyene antibiotics such as amphotericin and nystatin (both produced by species of Streptomyces) act on the sterol components of membranes their use is limited, because human cells can also be affected by their action (to use a term we learnt earlier in this chapter, they have a low therapeutic index). Nystatin is used topically against Candida infections, while amphotericin B is generally used against systemic infections of fungal origin. The latter substance can have a wide range of serious side-effects, but in some cases infections are so severe that the physician is faced with no alternative. Synthetic compounds such as the imidazoles have a similar mode of action to the polyenes they are effective against superficial mycoses (fungal infections of the skin, mouth and urino-genital tract). Griseofulvin, a natural antibiotic produced by a species of Penicillium, is another antifungal agent whose use is restricted it works by interfering with mitosis and not surprisingly has a range...

Treatment of Hypocalcemia

Screening for hypocalcemia should be performed routinely following thy-roidectomy and neck dissection, in the setting of osteopenia in excess of that expected for age, and in the setting of malabsorption or hypomagnesemia. Individuals with the phenotypic appearance of Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy should have serum calcium (and probably PTH) measured. Persons with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis should be screened for hypocalcemia since polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type 1 may present with cutaneous manifestations prior to development of hypoparathyroidism.

Microbial associations with animals

Another example of a host's staple diet being indigestible without the assistance of resident microorganisms is provided by the brightly coloured African bird the honey guide. The honey guide eats beeswax, and relies on a two-stage digestion process by bacteria (Micrococcus cerolyticus) and yeast (Candida albicans) to render it in a usable form.

Immunodeficiency states

Gram-negative organisms (isolated in 5-20 of shunt infections, particularly in infants) Other pathogens Pseudomonas spp., Streptococcus spp., Propionibacterium acnes, Coryne-bacterium diphtheriae, Candida Candida albicans. Although 40-60 of AIDS patients develop oropharyngeal or esophageal candidiasis, it rarely affects the brain in patients with AIDS Candida albicans

Design of a Mixed Culture System

For this purpose, screen the microorganisms from some sources such as fermented food, because the fermented food is a good source for bacteriocin producing LAB as well as lactic acid-assimilating yeasts and bacteria. For nisin production, the carbon source is maltose and a yeast K. marxianus was isolated from kefir grains. For another candidate, the carbon source is lactose and a yeast Candida vinaria was isolated from cheese. This design is important step for a successful application of the method to other bacteriocin production process.

Medical Care For Leukemia

Prevention and Treatment of Oral Ulcers (Stomatitis) Peridex is the most commonly used mouth rinse to prevent or treat Candida and bacterial infections. Other mouth rinses that can be used include normal saline or baking soda solutions. Antifungal and antibacterial mouthwashes (nystatin) are used after mouth rinses 30 minutes after using Peridex. Use a soft sponge toothbrush (Toothette).

Applications in Biology and Medicine

The diagnostic power was attributed to differences in the cell membrane lipid composition, which was in agreement with known biology. Thompson et al. (44) used a similar approach to discriminate between spores and vegetative cells of Bacillus megaterium. In a model drug-cell interaction experiment Cliff et al. (45) imaged frozen hydrated Candida glabrata yeast cells incubated in the presence of the antibiotic clofazimine. The drug was detected only on the outside of unfractured cells, implying that it does not penetrate the cell wall. This study suggests that TOF-SIMS analysis of pharmaceuticals on cell surfaces and within cells could provide a valuable new tool for pharmacological studies.

Antimicrobial C3a Biology Biophysics and Evolution

Binding of TAMRA-CNY21 to Candida albicans ATCC 90028. Panel 2 shows red fluorescence of Candida cells stained with TAMRA-conjugated CNY21. The corresponding Nomarski image is shown in panel 1 (Sonesson et al. 2006) Fig. 3. Binding of TAMRA-CNY21 to Candida albicans ATCC 90028. Panel 2 shows red fluorescence of Candida cells stained with TAMRA-conjugated CNY21. The corresponding Nomarski image is shown in panel 1 (Sonesson et al. 2006) 4.2 C3a Kills Candida Candida is a dimorphous fungi colonizing the mucous membranes of the mouth and vagina in a saprophytic manner. However, Candida is also known to be involved in several diseases such as cutaneous infections, atopic eczema, oroesophageal candidiasis, candida vaginosis, and septicaemia (Odds 1988 Savolainen, Lammintausta, Kalimo and Viander 1993). In animal models it has been shown that Candida activates the complement system and C3 fragments are deposited at the cell surface of Candida (Kozel 1996 Kozel, Weinhold and Lupan...

Organosilicon Compounds as Novel Substrates

Comparative studies were made by the use of organosilicon compounds having a different chain length between hydroxyl group and the silicon atom Me3Si(CH2)nOH, n 0, 1, 2, and 3 and the corresponding carbon compounds Me3C(CH2)nOH, n 0, 1, and 2) as another substrate (acyl acceptor) in the enantioselective esterification of 2-(4-chlorophenoxy)propanoic acid, whose ( )-enantiomer is useful as a herbicide, with lipase OF 360 of Candida cylindracea (Fig. 1) in benzene. The effects of the silicon atom on the enzymatic reaction in connection with the distance between the hydroxyl group and the silicon atom are discussed (8). Organosilicon compounds and the carbon counterparts examined in this study, except for the case of n 0 (trimethylsilylmethanol and 1,1-dimethylethanol), served as the substrates. In particular, trimethylsilylmethanol (n 1) was found to be a particularly superior substrate, that is, the reaction rate was much higher than that with the corresponding carbon compound, and the...

Basic Protocol Using The Neighbor Program From The Phylip Package To Construct A Phylogenetic Tree

The option of renaming the outtree file is only given if a file called outtree already exists. If no such file exists, NEIGHBOR automatically writes the output to a file called outtree, which may be a source of confusion. Inferred trees are unrooted and written in Newick format (UNIT 6.2). For example, the BIONJ tree in Figure 6.3.4 is made of three subtrees, containing (Candida_tr, Candida_al, and Saccharomy), (Taphrina_d and Protomyces) and (Athelia_bo, Spongipell, and Filobasidi), respectively, as can be shown from its TreeView representation (Fig. 6.3.5 see UNIT 6.2 for discussion of TreeView and Newick). Each subtree is made up of two subtrees or taxa the numbers in Figure 6.3.4 indicate the branch lengths. Both trees in Figure 6.3.4 have identical topologies (even when the way they are encoded in Newick format looks quite different) but (slightly) different branch lengths.

Background Information

Fluorescent probes include a wide range of dyes that label DNA of membrane-damaged cells. Tetrabromofluorescein (eosin Y) is a fluorescein derivative that has been used to identify nonviable Candida blastospores (Costantino et al., 1995). In addition, the intracellular penetration of enzymes such as DNase or trypsin can indicate the loss of membrane integrity and thus nonviability (Frankfurt, 1990 Darzynkie-wicz et al., 1994 Johnson, 1995). Along the same lines, the penetration of probes for cyto-plasmic markers (actin, tubulin, or cytokeratin) has been used to identify cells with damaged plasma membranes (O'Brien and Bolton, 1995). Costantino, P.J., Budd, D.E., and Gare, N.F. 1995. Enumeration of viable Candida albicans blasto-spores using tetrabromofluorescein (eosin Y) and flow cytometry. Cytometry 19 370-375.

Single Cell Production An Example of Bioprocess Design

From 1985 to 1991, a research team at CINVESTAV-IPN developed a high-cell-density process for food-grade Candida utilis production from sugarcane molasses. A continuous, 10.5-m3, jet-loop fermentor was designed to take advantage of its intrinsic high oxygen transfer rate and energy efficiency. This fermentor was provided with a computer system for online data acquisition and for controlling the molasses flow rate in response to inferred ethanol production rates. The operating costs were minimized because of the efficient conversion of molasses into biomass and of the low water consumption in the fermentation stage. The capital costs were kept down due to the high productivity achieved in the fermentation process. An overview of the most important aspects of the process developed is presented below.

MagNA Pure Lc Instrument

Our group 10 demonstrated that the MagNA Pure technique provides rapid automated DNA isolation from numerous pathogenic fungi revealing high sensitivity and purity. Although the fungal cell wall is highly resistant to mechanical, chemical, and enzymatical treatment, we could achieve a sensitivity of 1 colony forming unit mL blood for Candida albicans.

Distinguishing Chemical From Enzymatic Interesterification

Costs aside, does treatment by means of chemical or enzymatic interesterifi-cation in identical applications result in the same final product Kalo et al. 117 compared the changes in triacylglycerol composition and physical properties of but-terfat interesterified using either sodium methoxide or a nonspecific lipase from Candida cylindracae and found only small differences in both interesterified butterfats. The compositional changes induced by both chemical and enzymatic means were similar, with the trisaturate triacylglycerol content being slightly higher in the en-zymatically modified product. In terms of physical properties, the chemically inter-esterified butterfat was slightly harder than its enzymatically modified counterpart. Hence, for randomization purposes, the methods appeared to yield similar results for the modification of butterfat. However, the product's butter flavor must be taken into account. The harsh process conditions of chemical interesterification result in...

Tertiary prevention of hypothyroidism Avoiding Complications

Although autoimmune thyroiditis is not a complication of hypothyroidism per se, patients affected with it are also at risk of developing a relatively small set of associated autoimmune disorders. The polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type II includes hypothyroidism, primary adrenal insufficiency, and type I diabetes (57). Less commonly, hypothyroidism may occur in the autoimmune dystrophy syndrome (or polyglan-dular autoimmune syndrome type I). Autoimmune thyroid disorders are associated with increased risk of developing pernicious anemia and gastric achlorhydria caused by intrinsic factor and parietal cell autoimmunity. Patients with autoimmune thyroiditis should be monitored for vitamin B12 deficiency with periodic complete blood counts and, whenever the disorder is seriously suspected, serum vitamin B12 measurement. Vitiligo, leukotrichia (prematurely gray hair), and alopecia areata have also been associated with autoimmune thyroiditis although these disorders are often...

Vinas Sabu Production

Kumnuanta. Raw cassava starch-digestive glucoamylase of Aspergillus sp. N-2 isolated from cassava chips J. Ferment. Technol. 64 405-410, 1986. Pandey, A., S. Benjamin, C.R. Soccol, P. Nigam, N. Krieger, V.T. Soccol. The realm of microbial lipases in biotechnology. Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem. 29(2) 119-131, 1999. Benjamin, S., A. Pandey. Candida rugosa lipases molecular biology and its versatility in biotechnology. Yeast 14 1069-1087, 1998. Benjamin, S., A. Pandey. Coconut cake a potent substrate for production of lipase by Candida rugosa in solid-state fermentation. Acta Biotechnol. 17 241-251, 1997. Benjamin, S., A. Pandey. Mixed-solid substrate fermentation a novel process for enhanced lipase production by Candida rugosa. Acta Biotechnol. 18 315-324, 1998. Cordova, J., M. Nemmaoui, M. Isma'ili-Alaoui, A. Morin, S. Roussos, M. Raimbault, B. Benjilali. Lipase production by solid state fermentation of olive cake and sugar cane bagasse. J. Mol. Catal. B...

Simple Procedure for the Screening of Enzyme Reactions

The following enzymes (100mg of each) (1) Lipase AP6 (Aspergillus niger, Amano), (2) lipase AY-30 (Candida cylindracea, Amano), (3) Candida cylindracea lipase (Meito-Sangyo), (4) lipase GC4 (Geotrichum candidum, Amano), (5) lipase MAP (Mucor meihei, Amano), (6) lipase MAP (Mucor meihei, Amano), (7) lipase N (Rhizopus niveus, Amano), (8) Lipase OF (Candida cylindracea, Meito-Sangyo), (9) Lipase R (Humicola sp., Amano), (10) Lipase R-10 (Humicola lanuginosa, Amano), (11) Candida rugosa lipase (Sigma, L1754), (12) PPL type II (Sigma, L-3126).

Fungal Cell Walls

The fungal cell wall is composed mainly of carbohydrates together with some protein and lipids. The cytoplasmic membrane, unlike the membrane of bacteria, contains sterols. The most important carbohydrates are mannan, glucan, chitin, and cellulose. The wall of some molds is primarily a chitin-glucan structure, whereas mannan is more predominant in yeasts, resulting in mannan-chitin or mannan-glucan cell wall structures. The digestive juice of the garden snail Helix pomatia, available commercially as glusulase, is high in P-1, 3- and P-1, 6-glucanase activity and is frequently used to digest the cell wall of molds and some yeasts. Novozyme 234 (Novo Industries) will yield protoplasts of Aspergillus and Penicillium (1). Novozyme 234 is notably effective for digesting the cell wall of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, while glusulase Nee-154 (DuPont Endo Laboratories) is used with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both Novozyme 234 and the yeast lytic enzyme from Arthrobacter luteus (ICN Biomedicals),...


Baker's yeast was originally obtained from the brewing industry the top yeast S. cerevisiae was conveniently skimmed from the top surface of fermentation tanks. During the mid-1800s the brewing industry converted to strains of the bottom-settling yeast Saccharomyces carlesburgensis, which precipitated the establishment of the baker's yeast industry. Producing baker's yeast using sucrose derived from molasses requires vigorous aeration of the culture medium so that a maximum amount of carbon flows to cell mass production and not to ethyl alcohol formation. Vigorous aeration of S. cerevisiae strains in the presence of an abundant level of carbohydrate (about 3 ) results in the metabolic dominance of fermentation and is known as the crabtree effect (4). This in turn results in a significant level of ethyl alcohol and a notably reduced level of cell mass. The baker's yeast industry is able to overcome the crabtree effect using incremental feeding which involves the pulsed addition of...

Hydrolytic Enzymes

Modification of Lipase from Candida with SS-PEG (3,22) Methoxypolyethylene glycol succinimidyl succinate (SS-PEG, mol wt 5000) is available from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO) or Shearwater Polymers, Inc. (Hunstville, AL). Lipase MY (E.C., triacylglycerol lipase), a crude preparation, from Candida cylindracea was purchased from Meito Sangyo Co., Ltd. (Nagoya, Japan). The Candida lipase is unstable in alkaline conditions, so the modification should proceed in a neutral solution such as PBS.


Lipases from Candida rugosa (Type VI), benzonitrile, 4-biphenylcarbonitrile, undecyl cyanide, hydrocinnamonitrile, 4-phenyl-butyronitrile, sodium cyanoborohydride, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, benzaldehyde, octaldehyde, dodecyldehyde, glycine, monomethoxypolyethylene glycol (PEG) of different molecular weights, p-nitrophenyl chloroformate (pncf), triethylamine, and trinitrobenzene sulfonate (TNBS) are from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO). All other chemicals used were of the highest purity available.

Type Of Pathogen

Candida species are primarily saprophytic eukaryotic organisms and only occasional opportunistic pathogens. Many species exhibit a bitrophic existence, spending much of their life as common commensals of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and mucous membranes of humans only to become pathogenic because of debilitation of the host. Indeed, the most significant source of Candida causing candidosis is endogenous. 2 Despite the main cause of invasive candidosis (IC Candida albicans) being considered as an obligatory animal saprophyte, 2 Candida species, including C. albi-cans, are frequently isolated from nonanimal environments. Indeed, Candida is an important cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections, with 97 of candide-mias attributed to C. albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. 3 RANGE OF INFECTIONS Superficial Candidosis For an informative review of superficial candidosis including the symptoms, predisposing factors, and treatment for...

Molecular Testing

Owing to these culture limitations, most diagnostic molecular mycology techniques have focused on detecting IC, with little work performed on detecting superficial candidosis. 18,19 Although it is likely that the methods used to detect IC could detect a case of VC or OC, it is uncertain whether the result gained would provide any additional information, at extra expense, over culture. This is not the case for IC, where the samples tested should be from a sterile site and are unlikely to be culture-positive. With this in mind, the rest of the review will follow the current trend and concentrate on molecular testing for IC. The field of diagnostic molecular mycology has, to a certain degree, been led by the Tubingen group, which has published methods using traditional molecular tech-niques, 20 polymerase chain reaction enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA) methods, 21 and real-time PCR methods 22 for detecting Candida but has also highlighted some of the limitations...


The catalytic activity of lipases is reversible and depends on the water content in the reaction mixture. At high water content, the hydrolytic reaction prevails, whereas at low water content, the synthetic reaction is favored. The lipases that have received attention for their ability to synthesize ester bonds have been obtained from yeasts, bacteria, and fungi. Lipases can be classified into three groups based on their specificity (Macrae, 1983). The first group contains nonspecific lipases these show no specificity regarding the position of the ester bond in the glycerol molecule or the nature of the fatty acid. Examples of enzymes in this group are lipases of Candida cylindracea, Corynebacterium acnes, and Staphylococcus aureus. The second group contains lipases with position specificity for the 1- and 3-positions of the glycerides. 1,3 Specificity is common among microbial lipases. This positional specificity is the result of the inability of the sterically hindered ester bond of...

Specific History

Chronic focus of infection Dental abscess (usually the patient has poorly maintained dentition on physical exam, with one or more sensitive teeth however, occult abscess formation without signs or symptoms has also been reported), chronic sinusitis, chronic dermatophytosis, candidiasis, intestinal parasitosis, diverticulitis.


Lipases are wide-spread, being found in microbial flora, in the pancreas of mammals such as pigs and humans, and in higher plants such as castor beans and rape seed. Microbial lipases are used for the production of desirable flavor in cheese and other foods, and for the interesterification of fats and oils to produce modified acyl glycerols, which cannot be obtained by conventional esterification (74). The most important species of microorganisms for the synthesis of lipase in SSF include Candida species, Pseudomonas species, and Rhizopus species, with Candida rugosa being the most commonly used. Aspergillus lipases are highly selective for short chain acids and alcohols (69). C. rugosa lipase is more selective for propionic acid, butyric acid, butanol, pentanol, and hexanol (64). The production of flavor esters by the lipases of Staphylococcus warneri and S. xylosus has been reported (75). Mucor miehei and Rhizopus arrhizus lipases are more selective for long chain acid and acetates....


L-glutaminase can be produced by many bacterial strains, such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp., Acinetobacter sp., Bacillus sp., Proteus morganni, P. vulgaris, Xanthomonas juglandis, Erwinia carotovora, E. aroideae, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloacae, and Klebsiella aerogenes. It can also be produced by Aerobacter aerogenes, fungi such as Aspergillus sojae and A. oryzae, and yeast cultures such as Hansenula, Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, Candida scottii, Cryptococcus albidus, C. laurentii, Candida utilis, and Torulopsis candida (31).


Generally tannase is obtained form microbial sources. A wide number of bacterial, fungal, and yeast cultures have been reported to produce the enzyme in SmF or SSF. Among these, Aspergillus awamori, A. niger, A. oryzae and A. japonicus have been considered as the best producers (104). Fusarium solani, Rhizopus oryzae, Trichoderma viride, and Candida sp. are other important sources of the enzyme. Tannase production in SSF using polyurethane foam showed superiority of SSF in comparison to SmF. The addition of high tannic acid concentrations increased total tannase activity, whereas the supplementation of


The goal of manufacturing vitamin C directly by fermentation has remained elusive. By employing a metabolic selection strategy, Genecor International Company has now identified a 2-KLG to ascorbic acid activity in two yeast species, namely Candida blankii and Cryptococcus dimmnae. Another direct route from D-glucose to L-ascorbic acid in microalgae has been developed (Chotani et al., 2000). Additional bioengineering is required to advance toward the direct fermentation of glucose to vitamin C without the need to isolate 2-KLG. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) was produced commercially for many years by both fermentation and chemical synthesis, but today fermentation is the main route. Overproducers include two yeast-like molds, Eremothecium ashbyii and Ashbya gossypii, which synthesize riboflavin in concentrations up to 20 g L (Demian, 2000a). New processes using Candida sp. or recombinant Bacillus subtilis strains that produce greater than 30 g riboflavin per liter have been recently...


The enormous progress in the cloning of carotenogenic genes offers the opportunity of modifiying and engineering the carotenoid pathways in either noncarotenogenic or carotenogenic microorganisms (Sandmann et al., 1999 Sandmann, 2001). Carotenoids have been successfully synthesized in noncarotenogenic yeast Candida utilis, which has systematically been genetically modified as a producer host for lycopene, -carotene, and astaxanthin (Misawa and Shimada, 1998). The foreign bacterial carotenoid biosynthesis gene was altered according to the codon usage for C. utilis and expressed under the control of a constitutive promoter derived from the host. This engineered strain yielded around 8 mg of lycopene per gram of dry weight (Misawa and Shimada, 1998).

Fungi and disease

Aspergillus fumigatus is an example of an opportunistic pathogen, that is, an organism which, although usually harmless, can act as a pathogen in individuals whose resistance to infection has been lowered. Other opportunistic mycoses include candidiasis ('thrush') and Pneumocystis pneumonia. The latter is found in a high percentage of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, whose immune defences have been compromised. The causative organism, Pneumocystis carinii, was previously considered to be a protozoan, and has only been classed as a fungus in the last decade, as a result of DNA RNA sequence evidence. It lives as a commensal in a variety of mammals, and is probably transmitted to humans through contact with dogs.


The word itself is OE mistiltan, where mistil is the name of the plant, and tan means a twig, or perhaps a shoot of a plant is better. Bearing in mind the fact that the German word Mist means dung, it is not surprising that there seems to be a connection between the name of the plant and the time-honoured belief that mistletoe seed cannot germinate until it has passed through a bird, a belief that started with Pliny. That bird, at least in popular belief, can only be the mistle-thrush, which is known as Grive du Gui in France, Misteldrossel in Germany, and Viscado in the Italian speaking parts of Switzerland (Swainson. 1886). The berries, of a clammy or viscous moisture (hence the generic name, (Viscum)), are such whereof the best Bird-lime is made, far exceeding that which is made of the Holm or Holly bark (Gerard). Bird Lime was used up to medieval times for catching small birds in the branches of trees, and also for catching hawks, which were decoyed by a bird tethered between the...


To cure sore lips one is advised to chew privet leaves and let the juice flow over the sore lip (Vickery. 1995). A cure for mumps is to boil privet berries till the juice is out of them, and tip the juice into a small bottle with cream from the top of the milk. When it has been cool for at least three hours, take a teaspon-ful of the juice and one berry, once daily and after food (Vickery. 1995). A French charm for thrush in infants was to put a piece of privet in flower over the chimney piece. When this dries up, the child's thrush will also have dried (Loux).


(Rubus idaea) An ever popular and healthy fruit. Even to dream of them was reckoned a good sign, for it meant success in all things, happiness in marriage, and the like (Gordon. 1985). Raspberry leaves were used in the same way as those of bramble, for sore throats and stomach upsets. The leaves of Raspis may be used for want of Bramble leaves in gargles .(Parkinson. 1629). The leaves, boiled with glycerine and the juice drunk, is an Irish remedy for thrush (Maloney), and raspberry leaf tea was an old remedy for relieving morning sickness it was also said to help labour, in fact it is a general country drink taken to ensure easy childbirth. It should be started, so it is said, three months before the birth is due, and taken 2 or 3 times a week (Page. 1978 Beith). Powdered leaves, in tablet form, can be bought - they help relaxation in childbirth, so they say, and the fruit will have the same effect. Gerard wrote that the fruit is good to be given to those that have weake or queasie...


Oral candidiasis, PCP perirectal HSV Ora candidiasis, PCP, CMV retinitis, chronic hepatitis PCP, esophageal candidiasis PCP, esophageal candidiasis, HSV CMV retinitis oral candidiasis oral candidiasis Esophageal candidiasis, Esophageal candidiasis Esophageal candidiasis Esophageal candidiasis Esophageal candidiasis Esophageal candidiasis, Esophageal candidiasis, Esophageal candidiasis, Esophageal candidiasis,


Triclosan is a chlorinated bisphenol, which dissolves well in some detergents such as anionic soaps, and alcohol. It is only sparingly soluble in water. Concentration of 0.2 -2 are effective against gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria but with variable and poor activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This agent is also active against mycobacteria and Candida spp., but it has limited activity against filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus spp. 49,72 . Because of acceptable antimicrobial activity, use of triclosan has risen dramatically in the past few years. Today it is used as an additive to hand soaps, dish-washing products, cosmetics, and toothpaste. It is also used as an additive to plastics, polymers, and textile and implant devices to confer these materials with antibacterial properties.

Alternative Assays

A number of assays have been described for measurement of neutrophil phagocytosis by other techniques. The important point of distinction between internalized and membrane-bound particles was addressed by Fattossi et al. (56). In this assay, fluorescein-conjugated heat-killed Candida albicans were opsonized by purified antibodies and used as targets for human polymorphonuclear gran-ulocytes (PMNs). The procedure is based on the observation that the target cells lose their green fluorescence upon incubation with EB through the resonance energy transfer phenomenon occurring between the two fluorochromes. PMNs are incubated with the opsonized target for 20 min at 4 C or 37 C in the presence of cytochalsin B, an inhibitor of the phagocytic process that does not affect membrane binding of fluorescein. EB is added, and the green and red fluorescence associated with PMNs is evaluated. EB does not penetrate intact cell membranes, so internalized particles are not affected by EB and remain...

Shaw George Bernard

Low-feeling'' it is illogical not to extend such sympathy to animals. Shaw's circle included his close friend Henry Salt,* for whose anthology Killing for Sport (1915) he wrote a preface, and his wife, Kate Salt, who provided both secretarial support and inspiration, not least of all as the model for the female lead in Candida. In 1925 Shaw was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature.


The most common cause of PTH deficiency is surgical hypoparathyroidism, the result of removal of parathyroid tissue or disruption of blood supply to the parathyroid glands. Infiltrative diseases iron overload (45), copper deposition (46) are uncommon causes of hypoparathyroidism. DiGeorge syndrome is a sporadic disorder associated with incomplete development of branchial pouches and varying degrees of parathyroid hypoplasia. DiGeorge syndrome results from mutations of an unknown gene at chromosome 22q11 (47). The autosomal recessive type 1 polyglandular syndrome includes hypoparathyroidism in association with mucocutaneous candidiasis and adrenocortical insufficiency. The syndrome is caused by a mutation in AIRE, autoimmune regulator gene of unknown function (48). Profound hypomagnesemia can lead to impaired secretion of PTH as well as target organ resistance to PTH. Finally, activating mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor can cause autosomal dominant hypocalcemia with normal PTH...

Reaction Conditions

Oleic acid (4.80 g, 17.0 mmol), ammonium carbamate (0.80 g, 10.2 mmol), dry di-isopropylether (25 mL), immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (600 mg) and molecular sieve 3 (3 g) are stirred in a closed reaction flask with a septum in the lid at 60 C. The progress of the reaction is monitored by


The causes of vulvovaginitis in children are shown in Table 37.1 The vast majority of cases are due to nonspecific bacterial contamination, although the other causes should be remembered. Candidal infection in children is extremely rare, although because it is a common cause of vulvovaginitis in the adult it is a common misdiagno-sis in children. Candida in children is usually associated with diabetes mellitus or immunodeficiency and almost entirely related to these two medical disorders. The presence of viral infections, for example, herpes simplex or condyloma acuminata, should alert the clinician to the possibility of sexual abuse. Vulval skin disease is not uncommon in children, particularly atopic dermatitis in those children who also have eczema. Referral to a dermatologist is appropriate in these circumstances. Lichen sclerosis is also seen in children and may cause persistent vulval itching. The skin undergoes atrophy and fissuring and is very susceptible to secondary...


Candidiasis usually presents after the first week of life with napkin dermatitis with or without oral thrush. Topical and oral treatment is required to prevent the candidiasis returning as the gut is colonized with can-didia. Maternal nipple candidial infection can occur in breastfeeding mothers.


But the fruit has got genuine medicinal value. It is astringent, and was listed as such in the US Pharmacopeia for a while (Weiner), though the Cherokee Indians had been using a boiled fruit decoction for diarrhoea a long time before that. Southern states domestic medicine used the sap quite a lot. For teething, the juice from a burned branch was put on the gums, and the same procedure was used for earache just let the sap drop in a spoon, and then drop this sap into the ear. It was used for thrush, too - stew persimmon bark, mix with honey, and wash the mouth with the juice. Sometimes a small piece of alum would be added in the cooking (R B Browne). Then there is a real oddity if you have a tootheche, walk round a persimmon tree, and don't think about an opossum, and the tooth will get well. It is a humorous cure, for opossums are nearly always associated with this tree (R B Browne).

Fungal Infections

Candida albicans Candida CNS infection is a manifestation of dissemi nated disease, and is associated with intravenous drug use, indwelling venous catheters, abdominal surgery, and corticosteroid therapy. CNS infection with Candida species often results in scattered intraparenchy-mal granulomatous microabscesses secondary to arte-riolar occlusion. Meningitis is a common feature of CNS candidiasis, resulting from invasion of meningeal microvasculature by small groups of yeast cells


There are three principal groups of enzymes that degrade hyaluronan, all three having different reaction mechanisms 142,143 . The testicular-type hyaluronidase (EC group (also known as hyaluronoglucosaminidase hyaluronate 4-glycanohydrolase) contains three subdivisions that include testicular hyaluronidase, tissue lysosomal hyal-uronidase, and venom hyaluronidase. This group hydrolyzes the P(1-4) linkages between N-acetyl D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid 140 . Transglycosylation activity has also been displayed by this group of enzymes. The leech hyaluronidase group is also known as hyaluronate glycanohydrolase (EC and principally hydrolyzes the P(1-3) linkage between the repeating disaccharide units of hyaluronan. The third group is bacterial hyal-uronidase, which is also known as hyaluronate lyase (EC or This group acts like endo-N-acetylhexosaminidases by cleaving the P(1-4) linkages of the hyaluronan polysaccharide 144 (Figure 13.5). This...


Add nosebleed to that list (Coats. 1975). There is some suggestion that it is good for the eyes. It is called Old Woman's Eye in Dorset (Macmillan) (one of its Italian names is Centocchio), and, more interesting, another Dorset name is St Candida's Eyes. St Candida's well is at Morecombelake, in Dorset, and the water is said to be a certain cure for sore eyes it is on Stonebarrow Hill, where the wild periwinkles are called St Candida's Eyes (Dacombe).


In more recent times it was widely used as an abortifacient (Schauenberg & Paris). Surely there could not have been any physiological action to make women believe that But saffron tea is still used in American domestic medicine as a mouth wash in cases of thrush, and as a drink to cure measles in young children, or, as it was put in Ireland, to bring out the rash (Moloney). Lemon and sugar are added in Alabama (R B Browne). It is still used in East Anglia for fevers in children. It acts as a diaphoretic, that is, it induces sweating and so cools down the patient (V G Hatfield. 1994).

Barrier methods

The diaphragm (and cap) is much less popular than male condoms. Both must be fitted by a doctor or nurse and do not confer the same degree of protection against STI since the vaginal skin is not covered. Selecting the correct size of diaphragm is similar to selecting the right size of vaginal ring for the management of vaginal prolapse (a skill which appears to be a closely guarded secret). On vaginal examination with the middle finger in the posterior fornix, the point at which the symphysis pubis abuts the ulnar border of the index finger is noted. The distance between that point and the tip of the middle finger is a guide to the appropriate size of diaphragm. Latex allergy, recurrent vaginal infections such as bacterial vaginosis or candida and recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) are the only side effects.

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.

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