Treating Chronic Bronchitis

How To Win Your War Against Bronchitis

How To Win Your War Against Bronchitis

Sick And Tired Of Your Constant Cough? Is Your Bad Immune System Leading You To The Path Of Fever And Sore Chest? You Sure Have A Reason To Panic BronchitisThere Is Always A Way Out And, This Is It Finally Discover Some Of The Most Effective Tips That Can Curb Bronchitis, And Its Repeated Bouts Learn How To Keep The Chronic Cough, And Sore Chest Away Breathe Free, And Feel The Whiff Of Fresh Air, With No Hassles

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Relieve Your Bronchitis Cure

When you begin to take the specific natural ingredients outlined in the program you will be amazed at how you will really begin to feel the Phlegm and Mucus clear up nearly immediately! Within minutes of the first step you will feel the natural ingredients in action, targeting the specific root cause of the bronchitis. These ingredients will come in direct contact with the bacteria causing your infection, and get rid of them quickly. You will discover all the secrets I have come across while I was researching how to get rid of my own Bronchitis, and how you will not only get rid of your bronchitis, but actually prevent it from ever coming back again!

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A Somerset bronchitis remedy was to make an ointment of lard and GARLIC, and rub it on to the soles of the feet at night (Tongue), a recipe that was recorded as recently as 1957. Garlic has always been in great demand for chest complaints, and there are similar prescriptions for whooping cough, coughs and colds, asthma, and even tuberculosis. Gypsies in this country have used CUCKOO-PINT, either by root decoction or by an infusion of the dry, powdered flowers, to cure croup and bronchitis (Vesey-Fitzgerald). Another gypsy remedy for this complaint involved peeling the bark, boiling it in a saucepan of water, and then allowing it to cool. After sugar was added, the liquor could be drunk as needed (Page. 1978). FENNEL tea is still taken sometimes for the complaint, and BALM tea has been recommended as an expectorant, as has a tea from dried HOLLYHOCK flowers (both Fluck), and PENNYROYAL tea is often taken (Beith). SWEET CICELY too, is taken for chest complaints and bronchial colds in...

Discharge And Home Healthcare Guidelines

Bronchitis DRG Category 096 Mean LOS 5.2 days Description MEDICAL Bronchitis and Asthma, Age 17 with CC Bronchitis, a form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, is an inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchi. Each year, over 12 million cases of acute bronchitis occur in the United States. It is a common condition worldwide, and among countries that track health-related data, it is one of the top five reasons for physician visits. Bronchitis is a disease of the larger airways, unlike emphysema, which is a disease of the smaller airways. Inflammation of the airway mucosa leads to edema and the enlargement of the submucosal glands. Damage occurs to cilia and the epithelial cells of the respiratory tract. In addition, leukocytes and lymphocytes infiltrate the walls of the bronchi and lead to inflammation and airway narrowing. Hypersecretion of the submucosal glands leads to obstruction of the airways from excessive mucus. The most prominent symptom is sputum production....

Primary Nursing Diagnosis

Most hospitalized patients with chronic bronchitis are on low-flow oxygen therapy. If patients retain carbon dioxide, a high level of oxygen shuts off their drive to breathe and they become apneic. Patients with chronic bronchitis may require chest physiotherapy (PT) to help mobilize their secretions. The physician may prescribe postural drainage, chest percussion, and chest vibration to the lobes that are involved, several times daily. Schedule the chest PT sessions so that they occur at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals to limit the risk of aspiration. General Comments Treatment generally focuses on symptoms such as controlling coughs with preparations such as dextromethorphan and controlling discomfort with analgesics and antipyretics. Routine antimicrobial use is not recommended unless influenza or pertussis is confirmed. Xanthines may also be used to assist with respiratory muscle strength by increasing the contractility of the diaphragm. Steroids are used more often...

The New Macrolides for Treatment of Pediatric Infections Roundtable Discussion

Bronchitis (pertussis in pediatries) Pneumonia, especially in children and adolescents My own bias with regard to the new macrolides in pediatrics is that they will find their greatest usefulness in the therapy of respiratory infections pharyngitis, acute otitis media, acute sinusitis, bronchitis (which really is not a disease in children, except for pertussis), and pneumonia.

Mycoplasma and Chlamydia

A question was raised about whether any treatment was necessary for M. pneumoniae infection and perhaps even C. pneumoniae infection, even when a clinical syndrome of pneumonia was present. The suggestion was that these patients got well spontaneously and the cure rate with antibiotics was falsely inflated. There was little support for this position, although it was acknowledged that asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic pneumonitis due to both organisms was well documented. The fact that prolonged moderately debilitating cough illnesses often followed untreated or inadequately treated C. pneumoniae lower respiratory tract infection argued for appropriate treatment of this infection. There was discussion of a need to diagnose M. pneumoniae or C. pneumoniae infection when pneumonia was not present. In the case of bronchitis caused by these organisms, there is general agreement that specific therapy is useful. Although it is true that children and some adults may have mild infections with...

Medicinal Polygalaceae

The family Polygalaceae consists of 10 families and 750 species of herbs, shrubs, or woody climbers that have attracted a great deal of interest on account of their ability to produce a series of neuroactive oleanane saponins known as polygalasaponins. In addition, Polygalaceae, like the Malpighiaceae, are member of the Polygalales and elaborate also a series of indole alkaloids that are of neuropharmacological interest. In Asia and the Pacific, about 10 species of plants classified within the family Polygalaceae are of medicinal value. Note that these plants are often used to counteract putrefaction, to treat cough, asthma, and bronchitis, to promote fertility, and to treat cerebral dysfunctions.

Polygalasaponin aglycone

It is medicinally used from Korea to Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. In Korea, the plant is used as an aphrodisiac for males and the elderly. In Japan, a decoction of the root is drunk to treat cough, invigorate, and treat tuberculosis. In Taiwan, the plant is an external remedy for snake bites. In Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam, the roots are used to treat bronchitis, amnesia, and to stimulate memory and urination. The antitussive property is very probably owed to polygalasaponins, which are known to abound in the plant (24-26). It would be interesting to know whether the tonic properties mentioned here are owed to serotoninergic mechanisms. What is the alkaloidal content of this herb

Nase I in NonCF Respiratory Diseases

Highly viscoelastic lung mucus causes many other respiratory disorders like atelectasis, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis, bronchitis, and primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), giving rise to suffering and even morbidity. Under these conditions, the high viscidity of the lung secretions is often also due to high DNA concentrations, a result of a neutrophil-dominated airway inflammation. Consequently, rhDNase I may be of benefit to these patients. However, unlike the situation in CF, only a few controlled clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy of rhDNase I in these non-CF respiratory diseases. Most of the evidence of benefits are based on case reports or the experience of small groups of patients 124 . In summary, rhDNase I has been applied with success in the treatment of atelectasis 125-131 , PCD 132,133 , bronchiolitis 134 , and empyema thoracis 135 . On the other hand, non-CF patients with bronchiectasis or bronchitis do not benefit from rhDNase I 136-139 .

Clinical manifestation

Characteristic coarse facies early non-specific papular or pustular eruption, favoring the scalp, proximal flexures, and buttocks eczematous eruption recurrent staphyloco-ccal abscesses, often described as cold abscesses because of lack of pain, heat, or redness cellulitis recurrent bronchitis, caused by S. aureus or Haemophilus influ-enzae other systemic bacterial infections chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and onychomycosis skeletal abnormalities frequent painless bone fractures scoliosis hyperextensible joints

Gender Ethnicracial And Life Span Considerations

Establish a history of persistent cough, chest pain, dyspnea, weight loss, or hemoptysis. Ask if the patient has experienced a change in normal respiratory patterns or hoarseness. Some patients initially report pneumonia, bronchitis, epigastric pain, symptoms of brain metastasis, arm or shoulder pain, or swelling of the upper body. Ask if the sputum has changed color, especially to a bloody, rusty, or purulent hue. Elicit a history of exposure to risk factors by determining if the patient has been exposed to industrial or air pollutants. Check the patient's family history for incidence of lung cancer.

Real World Applications Research and Clinical

In addition to the detection of previously known pathogens, DNA microarrays have also been effective for the detection of novel viral species. In the case of SARS, total nucleic acid from a supernatant from an infected vero cell culture revealed a coronavirus signature consisting of oligonucleotides originating from avian infectious bronchitis, human and bovine coronaviruses, and, interestingly, several astroviruses. At first glance, the hybridization signal from astrovirus-derived oligonu-cleotides would seem to be aberrant. In fact, this is expected, since several astroviruses and coronaviruses share conserved sequences at the 3' end of their genomes. These particular sequences were represented on the microarray since the panviral design algorithm purposely selected conserved sequences within and among viral families.

Recombinant Avipoxvirus Vaccines

Shortly after the development of methods for isolating recombinant VACV in the early 1980s, FWPV was developed as an equivalent recombinant vector for use in poultry. Several commercial vaccine and laboratory attenuated strains were used as vectors against a number of important poultry pathogens, especially avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, infectious bronchitis virus, avian hem-orrhagic enteritis virus, Marek's disease virus, turkey rhinotracheitis virus, REV, and infectious bursal disease virus, as well as Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Commercial recombinant FWPV vaccines against Newcastle disease virus and avian influenza virus have been licensed for commercial use in the USA. Those against avian influenza have also been licensed for use in Mexico indeed, between 1997 and 2003, approximately 459 million doses of a recombinant fowlpox-H5 vaccine were used in Mexico as part of a program to control H5N2. The same recombinant and similar viruses developed in China are being...

Bacteriological Efficacy

Causative organisms were detected in 67 out of 76 patients with bronchitis or bacterial pneumonia. A total of 36 patients (46 ) had infection caused by a single organism and 31 (40 ) by multiple organisms, but in 9 (14 ), causative organisms were unknown. In four patients with bronchitis and five with pneumonia, causative organisms were not eradicated during treatment. One hundred seven strains were isolated from the 67 patients and their eradication rates are listed in Table 3. Bronchitis Table 3 Bacteriological Effect Classified by Causative Organisms (Pneumonia and Bronchitis) Table 3 Bacteriological Effect Classified by Causative Organisms (Pneumonia and Bronchitis) Clarithromycin possesses antibacterial efficacy against nearly all organisms which can cause lower respiratory tract infection. Currently available fi-lactams fail to treat mycoplasmal or chlamydial disease. Clarithromycin appears to be a reasonable drug for empiric therapy of respiratory tract infections before the...

Nonrespiratory Functions Of The Lung

Mucociliary Transport

Top is moved up and out of the airways. Diseases such as cystic fibrosis and chronic bronchitis can affect mucous secretion. Second, alveolar macrophages provide an additional mechanism for removing particles deposited deeper in the lungs, where the blood-gas barrier must be very thin for gas exchange. Macrophages originate in the bone marrow and circulate in the blood as monocytes before settling in the respiratory zone of the lungs, where the epithelium is not ciliated. They roam the airway surfaces by ameboid action and engulf foreign particles by phagocytosis. Most foreign substances are destroyed by lysozymes inside the macrophage. However, carbon and mineral particles may be stored in residual bodies in the macrophage, which then settles in the interstitium. The effects of mineral dusts are especially insidious, leading to a progressive destruction of lung tissue, and even lung cancer in the case of asbestosis. Normal macrophages that do not settle in the interstitium leave the...

Clinical Note continued

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a general term for patients with emphysema (see Chapter 19) and chronic bronchitis. Va Q heterogeneity is the main cause of hypoxemia in this disease too, but at least two different patterns of Va Q distributions are seen that correlate roughly with the arterial Pco2. Some COPD patients maintain Paco2 in the normal range by increasing total ventilation in the face of Va Q mismatching as described in the text. Other COPD patients hypoventilate, so their Pao2 is low and Paco2 is elevated (suggesting a problem with ventilatory control see Chapter 22). The COPD patients with normal Paco2 tend to have less chronic bronchitis and high Va Q regions in their lungs, consistent with emphysema destroying part of the alveolar capillary bed. In contrast, COPD patients with elevated Paco2 typically have advanced chronic bronchitis and low Va Q regions in the lungs, consistent with increased airway resistance in the inflamed airways.

Haemophilus influenzae Enterococci and Anaerobes

Considerable amounts of clinical data were available for both clarithromycin and azithromycin, demonstrating their reliable microbiological and clinical efficacy in the treatment of patients with acute otitis media (in which antibiotic concentrations in middle-ear fluid do appear to be adequate), acute sinusitis, bronchitis, and lower respiratory tract infection in children. Clearly, H. influenzae is not the only or even the most common pathogen in these conditions, but the overall good results imply that these macrolides are generally effective for this organism as well as the others. However, we

Pathology and Histopathology

AHF and BHF are typical hemorrhagic diseases and have very similar pathologic features, some of which differ from Lassa fever. Patients with AHF manifest a skin rash and petechiae, and gross examination of organs at necropsy also show petechiae on the organ surfaces. Ulcerations of the digestive tract have been described, but the bleeding is not massive. Microscopic examination shows a general alteration in endothelial cells, mild edema of the vascular walls, with capillary swelling and perivascular hemorrhage. Large areas of intra-alveolar or bronchial hemorrhage are often seen with no evidence of inflammatory process. Pneumonia with necrotizing bronchitis or pulmonary emboli is observed in half of the fatal necropsied cases. Hemorrhage and a lymphocytic infiltrate have been observed in the pericardium, occasionally with interstitial myocarditis. The lymph nodes are enlarged and congested with reticular cell hyperplasia. Splenic hemorrhage is common. Medullary congestion with...

Future Perspectives

The use of recombinant DNA technology can be expected to lead to the production of safer, more effective vaccines, as they can be more readily tailor-made to requirements and subsequently modified as required. Genetic engineering also offers the opportunity to construct multivalent vaccines in which the genes for several different antigens can be inserted into the same vector. In addition to the present recombinant vaccines available, which consist of the NDV HN or F gene sequences inserted into attenuated fowlpox or Marek's disease virus vectors, it should be possible to include the coding sequences for the surface glycoproteins of other poultry pathogens such as infectious bronchitis virus, infectious bursal disease virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, and so on.

Effects on Particular Organs or Organ Systems

The mucociliary escalator is responsible for removing many of the particles trapped in the bronchial tubes, including infectious microorganisms. However, some toxic substances, notably tobacco smoke, paralyze it for 20 to 40 minutes. Mucus stagnates, but the irritation actually increases mucus secretion. These effects can partially or totally block smaller bronchi and exposes the habitual smoker to the possible indirect effects of lower respiratory tract infections and chronic bronchitis (inflammation of the bronchi). The inhaled irritants described above can have a similar effect.

Materials And Methods

Fifteen centers were enrolled into the study, including the following London Belfast, UK Toulouse Paris, France Barcelona Madrid, Spain Wein-garten Munich, Germany Genoa Catania, Italy New York Worcester, MA Portland, OR Cleveland, OH Johnson City, TN, USA. Each center collected up to 400 isolates from patients with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infection and sent them to the central laboratory in London for susceptibility testing. After reidentification, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the macrolides were determined using a microbroth incorporation technique with an inoculum of approximately 2 X 104CFU (colony-forming units) contained in 50-jnl Mueller-Hinton broth, supplemented with lysed horse blood (final concentration 2 v v) and NAD (final concentration 10 mg L) for isolates of H. influenzae and 5. pneumoniae. Breakpoint MICs published by the NCCLS (2) were used for qualitative interpretation of susceptibility.

DescriptionSurgical Major Chest Procedures

Systemic effects of the lung tumor that are unrelated to metastasis may affect the endocrine, hematologic, neuromuscular, and dermatologic systems. These changes may cause connective tissue and vascular abnormalities, referred to as paraneoplastic syndromes. In lung cancer, the most common endocrine syndromes are SIADH, Cushing's syndrome, and gynecomastia. Complications of lung cancer include emphysema, bronchial obstruction, atelectasis, pulmonary abscesses, pleuritis, bronchitis, and compression on the vena cava.

Host Range Tissue Ttopism and Virus Propagation

Most coronaviruses cause epidemic disease in only one species, although limited replication, usually without disease, may result from experimental inoculation of other species. Coronaviruses typically cause respiratory or enteric diseases, although several can also cause hepatitis, infectious peritonitis, nephritis, myocarditis, sialodacryadenitis, or neurological, reproductive or immunological disorders. The viruses were named for their natural host and sometimes for the associated disease for example, avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) sialodacryadenitis virus of rats (SDAV) bovine coronavirus (BCoV) porcine hemag-glutinating encephalomyelitis virus (HEV) turkey bluecomb coronavirus (TCoV) human respiratory coronaviruses (HCoV) transmissible gastroenteritis virus of swine (TGEV) porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV) canine coronavirus (CCoV) feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) and feline enteric coronavirus (FeCoV) and rabbit coronavirus...

Clinical Features and Infection

Complications of acute measles are relatively rare, and result mainly from opportunistic secondary infection of necrotic surfaces such as those in the respiratory tract. Bacteria and other viruses can invade to cause pneumonia or other complications such as otitis media and bronchitis. The most severe complications caused directly by measles virus are giant cell pneumonia and subacute measles encephalitis, both of which occur in the immunocompromised patient as well as acute measles encephalitis and SSPE in which no underlying susceptibility factor has been Pneumonia, bronchitis, otitis media Measles encephalitis (AME) Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE)

Genetic Considerations

The course of acromegaly is slow, with very gradual changes over 7 to 10 years. Reviewing a patient's old photographs may reveal the progressive changes in facial features. Determine if the patient has had a change in hat, glove, ring, or shoe size because of an overgrowth of the hands and feet. Ask the patient if he or she has had headaches or visual disturbances, which in acromegaly are caused by the growth of the adenoma, which exerts pressure on brain tissue and cranial nerves III, IV, and VI. Establish a history of altered sexual function, which may be an indicator of decreased gonadotropin production. Ask about the presence of pain in the hands, feet, and spine, which is probably caused by bone growths also ask about problems with chewing, swallowing, or talking, which may be caused by tongue, jaw, and teeth enlargement. Note the presence of a deepening of the voice, recurrent bronchitis, excessive sweating, heat intolerance, fatigue, and muscle weakness. Check for a...

Human Demographics and Behavior

Following the recognition of the human coronavirus SARS, research on coronaviruses intensified, and this led to the discovery in 2004 of two previously unrecognized human viruses, one found by Hong Kong University, called HKU1 virus, and another reported almost simultaneously from the Netherlands, called NL63, and from Yale University, called New Haven coronavirus. The latter viruses probably represent two isolates of the same virus species. They are clearly associated with lower respiratory tract infection in children, but initially it was claimed that New Haven coronavirus was also associated with Kawasaki disease in children. This intriguing claim was rapidly investigated and refuted by several different groups in Japan, Taiwan, and elsewhere, and the cause of Kawasaki disease, which has features resembling a virus infection, remains unknown.


In Somerset bramble tips are used for bronchitis simply by peeling a shoot and nibbling it if the cough starts (Tongue.1965). Bramble vinegar, (made with the fruit) used to be made in Lincolnshire for coughs and sore throats (Gutch & Peacock), and the decoction of the tips with honey was an old sore throat remedy (Hill. 1754) (so is blackberry jam (Page. 1978)). Langham's The garden of health was written in 1578, and we can find something very similar there the new sprigs . doe cure the hote and evill ulcers of the mouth and throat and the swellings of the gums, uvula and almonds of the throat, being iften chewed . Equally efficacious is the use for diarrhoea, for both leaves and the root bark contain a lot of tannin, and so are astringent enough to be useful. Is that why bramble leaves are chewed to stop toothache (Hatfield. 1994).

Cats Foot

Nearest crossroads and burnt them, so that no other girl, not even her own sister, could steal them, and by so doing, alienate her bridegroom. There have been a few medicinal uses. Herbalists prescribe it for treating bronchitis and bilious conditions (Schauenberg & Paris). And a tea made from the dried plant is drunk for diarrhoea (Fluck). The astringent properties implicit in that treatment will also explain its use for quinsy and mumps (Grieve. 1931). One of the names given to it in America, is Ladies' Tobacco (Leighton), which must mean that experiments have been made in smoking the dried herb, and that it was found to be very mild in character - hence Ladies' .

Catmint or CATNIP

Pillows are stuffed with the dried leaves, for the smell is supposed to help the sleepless (Sanford), just as catmint tea, infused from the dried herb, is helpful in fevers, for producing quiet sleep, and for nervous headaches (Brownlow). The tea was also given for stomach-ache, especially for babies with colic (R B Browne, Stout, H M Hyatt). They say in Alabama that catnip tea is good for baby's head (R B Browne). This tea has even been given in cases of pneumonia (Sanford), herbalists still recommend it for chronic bronchitis (Schauenberg & Paris), and it is taken for a cold in Ireland, the instructions being to boil catmint

Diagnoses with CC

Cor pulmonale is right-sided hypertrophy of the heart caused by pulmonary hypertension. Cor pulmonale is estimated to cause approximately 5 to 7 of all types of heart disease in adults, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to chronic bronchitis or emphysema the causative factor in more than 50 of people with cor pulmonale. It causes increases in pulmonary resistance, and as the right side of the heart works harder, the right ventricle hypertrophies. An increase in pulmonary vascular resistance is the result of anatomic reduction of the pulmonary vascular bed, pulmonary vasoconstriction, or abnormalities of ventilatory mechanics.


For medicine for humans, the roots have been used for a long time (and apparently still are (Le Strange) ) to make cough candies (Brownlow) they were, too, a long-standing remedy for bronchitis (Clair), and even for hay fever (Conway). The infusion of the fresh roots was used for whooping cough (Thornton), or for asthma (Forey). The existence of names like Elf-wort, or Elf-dock, suggested to Grigson that supernatural belief was mixed up with real medicinal value (Grig-son. 1952). Be that as it may, the tincture is still sometimes taken for loss of appetite (Fl ck) (Gerard too said it is good and wholesome for the stomacke ). From Apuleius as far as Gerard, elecampane was used for worms, even, apparently, by laying the preparation on the stomach. It is not very clear what Gerard wanted his patients to do with it - presumably drink the juyce boyled, for it driveth forth all kinde of wormes of the belly. .


Dried hollyhock flower tea is good for a cold (H M Hyatt), and it is still prescribed for bronchitis, and sometimes as a laxative (Fluck), and the plant is one of the ingredients of an early leechdom for lung diseases (Cockayne). The root decoction, Hill said, is good in the gravel , and the same decoction, Lupton wrote, with honey and butter, being drank, doth marvellously ease the pain of the colic and of the back . Gerard only observed that the decoction of the floures, especially those of the red (of course, for


It has been used as a medicine by both native American Indians and Caucasian immigrants, and also by African Americans, who take the root tea for kidney and liver problems (Fontenot). The Hopi used the powdered dried root (a teaspoonful in half a glass of cold water) as a contraceptive, lasting a week. Two teaspoons of a hot infusion would bring permanent sterility, so they said (Weiner). Another use of the root, pounded, is for a poultice to put on sore eyes. Small doses of the partially dried rhizome are used to treat chronic bronchitis, asthma and rheumatism, the latter also treated by the Pawnees with the powdered rhizome (Corlett).

Current Studies

Bronchial mucosa and bronchial secretions. In a multicenter open, randomized study, samples were collected from 46 patients with superinfection of chronic bronchitis who were undergoing fiberoptic bronchoscopy for diagnostic purposes. Treatment was continued for 5 days, 500 mg once daily, and specimens were randomly taken at 24 1 h, 48 1 h, or 72 1 h after the last dose.

Picnic Thistle

(Cirsium acaulon) The too familiar and ubiquitous stemless thistle is a weather forecaster in the Alps they say that when the flower is open, there is good weather to come, and the opposite when it is closed (Gubernatis). It does have some medicinal use, for herbalists prescribe the root infusion to treat dropsy, bronchitis and also prostate problems (Schauenberg & Paris).


The emergence of new viruses is likely to continue as viruses evolve and find new ecological niches in the human and animal population. It is noticeable that most newly recognized viruses have been RNA viruses, perhaps since RNA evolves at a faster rate than DNA, for which host cells have developed efficient proofreading enzymes. It will be important in the future to detect new viruses before they can emerge to cause disease in the population. The SARS epidemic provides an excellent example. Before the epidemic, only two human coronaviruses were known, human coronaviruses 229E and OC43. Despite the fact that serious coronavirus diseases were well known in other vertebrates, such as feline infectious peritonitis and avian infectious bronchitis virus, it was not until the SARS epidemic that research on human corona-viruses led to the discovery of three new human coronaviruses - SARS, HKU1, and NL63 New Haven.


ILTV is readily transmitted from infected to susceptible chickens, and virus shedding and spread mainly occur via the respiratory and ocular routes. Early cytolytic replication of ILTV in the epithelia of the upper respiratory tract results in syncytia formation and subsequent desquamation. Following the acute phase of infection, which lasts for approximately 6-8 days, ILTV establishes latency in the central nervous system (CNS), in particular in trigeminal ganglia. No clear evidence exists for a viremic phase in the course of lytic infection, latency, or reactivation. Sporadic reactivations from the latent state are usually asymptomatic, but generally lead to productive replication in the upper respiratory tract and virus shedding, which can result in infection of susceptible contact animals. The severity of clinical symptoms of ILT depends on the virulence of a particular ILTV strain or isolate, and mortality rates range from 0 to 70 . Severe epizootic forms of ILT are characterized...

Ribwort Plantain

Ribwort is mentioned as a Highland remedy for boils and bruises (Grant), and in the west of Ireland, for a lump (Gregory. 1925). A leaf tea is used for bronchitis or asthma (Conway), and as a gargle it soothes sore throats (Schauenberg & Paris). A record from South Uist shows that the leaves were applied to relieve sore feet (Shaw). The seeds, left in water for two hours to swell, are a mild purgative (Fluck), and a cold decoction of the plant was a Russian folk remedy for constipation (Kourennoff), but a leaf infusion was used in Norfolk for just the opposite effect - to cure diarrhoea (V G Hatfield). A similar preparation has been used for conjunctivitis, as an eyewash (Wickham). In earlier times, e.g., the Anglo-Saxon version of Apuleius, this plant was prescribed for bite of snake , for a quartan agus , and for uselessness of the ears . As far as the snakebite remedy is concerned, it should be noted that Ribwort was given for hydrophobia in Ireland (Denham). Perhaps the most...


(Helianthus annuus) To dream of sunflowers means your pride will be deeply wounded (Mackay), but to have them growing in the garden will bring good luck (H M Hyatt). The American Indians used the plant medicinally to a large extent. It was considered an antidote to rattlesnake-bite, the method being to chew the seeds in order to make a poultice of them (Stevenson). They also boiled the seeds to get oil to dress their hair, and the whole flower heads were boiled by, among others, the Dakota Indians, for lung trouble (Gilmore), which is interesting, for the plant is used in Russian domestic medicine for the same complaint, listed as bronchitis, laryngitis and pulmonary disorders. The same medicine is used there for nervous disorders (Kourennoff). Russian folk medicine also prescribed the stalks and leaves, infused in vodka, and taken three times a day, for gout. To cure a wart, the Navajo Indians burned some powdered sunflower pith on the wart (Wyman & Harris). Herbalists still use the...

Sweet Chestnut

The nuts, bark and leaves can all be used for coughs of any kind, including whooping cough (Page. 1978). The tannin content of both the bark and leaves make them (and the nuts) useful for diarrhoea, and an infusion can be used as an expectorant for bronchitis. Gypsies say the powdered nuts are good for piles. That may be true, but they even wear the nut in a little bag round the neck as a charm to prevent piles, but the bag, they say, must never be made of silk (Vesey-Fitzgerald).

Yoshikiyo Toyonaga

Acute lower respiratory tract infection in children aged 1 year or older is generally caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Chlamydia pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, pneumococci, or Moraxella catarrhalis. Clarithromycin (CAM) is approved for use against infectious diseases caused by these organisms. In this study, we evaluated the clinical and bacteriological efficacy of clarithromycin in pediatric patients with pneumonia and bronchitis.

Subject Index

Alexander Project, lower respiratory tract infection, macro ides and,523-27 Alfentanil, effect of macrolides on, 186 Amoxicillin, vs. azithromycin, for otitis Azithromycin bioavailability effect of food, 469-73 presystemic, post-absorptive influences on,460-63 bronchitis, 605-8 Chlamydia pneumoniae, 323 Bronchitis, 603-13 (See also Respiratory tract infection) Bronchitis azithromycin, 605-8 clarithromycin, Cefpodoxime Josamycin, azithromycin, contrasted, lower respiratory tract infections, in children, 656-59 Lincosamide resistance, in Streptococcus pneumoniae, 369-75 Listeria monocytogenes, 268-69 Lower respiratory tract infection Alexander Project, macrolides, 52327 Lower respiratory tract infection Streptococcus pneumoniae, macrolides, 523-27 Lyme disease, 212-14 Pasteurella species, streptogramins, 60 Pediatrics azithromycin, 132-43 vs. josamycin, lower respiratory tract infections, 656-59 Chlamydia pneumoniae, azithromycin, 330-34 clarithromycin, 132-43 compliance, 649-55...


Gypsies use an infusion of the dried flowers to allay convulsions and to lower the temperature (Vesey-Fitzgerald). That is why cowslip wine or tea is taken for measles and other fevers (Hampshire FWI), and herbalists prescribe the root decoction or extract to treat ailments like whooping cough, bronchitis and pneumonia (Schauenberg & Paris). The strangest usage must be this Irish one for deafness Take the cowslip, roots, blossoms and leaves, clean them


This is a valuable plant, still in use for some medicinal purposes, for some skin diseases (Schauenberg & Paris), even some cancerous growths (Bai'racli-Levy). Just put the juice on the sore place (Page. 1978). Boiled with whisky and sugar, it is an Irish cure for bronchitis (Wood-Martin), and O S illeabh in mentions its use there for asthma. Watercress tea is drunk for a cold in Trinidad (Laguerre), while it is taken in the Highlands for reducing fevers, and also


Another of Gerard's prescriptions was the greene leaves of Fenell eaten, or the seed drunke made into a tisan, do fill womens brests with milk . Since it is similar to dill in appearance, fennel has picked up some of dill's attributes, like increasing the flow of milk in nursing mothers, settling babies' stomachs, etc., (G B Foster). Fennel tea is still taken for bronchitis (Fluck), and, so it is said, it soothes rheumatic pains (A W Hatfield). It was also part of an ointment to put on the bite of a mad dog, according to the Physicians of Myddfai. Babies with teething difficulties were give fennel tea in America (H M Hyatt). But the most spectacular of its many cures must surely be this one from Ireland it is a remedy for the falling sickness, and said that if the patient fell in the fit, put the juice of absinthe, fennel or sage in his mouth, and there would be an immediate recovery (Wilde. 1890) (because they are green, is the implication in Hutchings's paper).

Theophylline Table

The first clinical report of theophylline-erythromycin interaction appeared in 1977. In this report, the blood levels of theophylline increased 37 and 46 after the addition of 4.5-5.0 mg kg q6h of erythromycin A in two children. In healthy volunteers, after a 10-day course of erythromycin stearate (250 mg tid orally), the half-life of serum theophylline increased from 4.79 to 7.53 h, whereas drug clearance decreased from 91.6 to 54.8 ml h kg. Theophylline metabolites 3-methylxanthine and 1.3 dimethyl uric acid also decreased (7). Other investigators demonstrated prolongation of theophylline T j2 in asthmatics but not in patients with bronchitis and most investigators failed to demonstrate changes in theophylline clearance. Other investigators failed to demonstrate changes in theophylline pharmacokinetics and metabolism both in volunteers and in patients with a variety of respiratory conditions (bronchitis, asthma, chronic bronchoecta-sis, etc.). Some of these controversies may be due...


Gargle for a sore throat (V G Hatfield. 1994). Sucking a sloe is said to cure gumboils (Addison & Hillhouse). And a gypsy remedy for bronchitis involves peeling the bark, boiling it in a saucepan of water, and then allowing it to cool. Add sugar, and then drink it when needed (Page. 1978). In Sussex, the inner bark is scraped off and made into a tea to be taken for various ailments. Equally varied and unspecified are the disorders for which sloe wine used to be taken in Northamptonshire (Friend. 1883). Blackthorn leaves were used in Ireland as an indigestion remedy, or to cure summer fever (O Suilleabhain), while Thornton said that ague could be cured sometimes with the powdered bark. He also reckoned that an infusion of a handful of the flowers is a safe and easy purge , but the Welsh belief that if a person ate the first three blackthorn blossoms he saw, he would not have heartburn all through the year (Trevelyan), can only be classed as superstition, not even a charm.

Great Plantain

Gerard listed many ailments to be treated with Great Plantain ( of all the plantains the greatest is the best ). Among them, fluxes, issues, rheumes, and rottennesse, and for the bloudy flux , which is dysentery, and it is still used in Chinese herbal medicine for that complaint (Chinese medicinal herbs of Hong Kong), and plantain tea is still being recommended for diarrhoea (A W Hatfield). Jaundice is another ailment to be cured with plantain in modern times, but which had already appeared in a much earlier age. The treatment was known in folk medicine, in this case, in Cambridgeshire (Porter. 1969), but undoubtedly over a much wider area as well. The tea is still used for complaints as different as piles and asthma (A W Hatfield), and bronchitis can also be treated in this way. A leaf poultice was used for corns and ulcers (Vickery. 1995), and boils too (Stout), but that is a very old recipe - Reliquae Antiquae has take the rotes of red nettilles and playntayne, and stamp them wele...


An Irish remedy was to use GORSE flowers. They would be packed tightly in a crock, and brown sugar put on top. The crock would be covered, and put in a saucepan to stew slowly (Lucas). Also from an Irish source, sufferers were advised to drink of a potion of GROUND IVY (or dandelion), with a prayer said over it before drinking (Wilde.1890). Watercress too was used in Ireland for the complaint, and so was SEA HOLLY (O Suilleabhain), or DANDELION tea (P Logan), while a tea made from OX-EYE DAISY was used in Scotland, and so was PENNYROYAL tea (Beith). HOLY THISTLE was another Irish source of an asthma treatment (Maloney). HORSERADISH was used in Russian folk medicine - half a pound of fresh root, grated, mixed with the juice of two or three lemons. The dose would be half a teaspoonful twice a day. Another Russian remedy used GINGER. The recipe given is a pound of ginger grated, put in a quart bottle, which was filled with alcohol. This was kept warm for two weeks, shaken occasionally,...


LEEK juice was often used for whooping cough, or indeed any old cough. As Thomas Hill said, leeke amendeth an old cough and the ulcers of the lungs . It was used either on its own or mixed with something else, as in the Welsh custom of joining it with women's milk for coughs, a recommendation that appears both in the Book of Iago ab Dewi (see Berdoe) and in the Physicians of Myddfai. ONION juice was considered essential to cure a cough or bronchitis centuries before its use in various patent medicines (Camp). Coughs, including whooping cough, have long been treated with TURNIPS, too. The usual country practice was and still is to cut a turnip into thin slices, put them in a dish, and put sugar on them. Leave them for a day or two, and give a teaspoonful of the juice for the cough. That is the Wiltshire remedy (Olivier & Edwards), but it is virtually the same across southern England. NETTLES, whose efficacy in chest complaints was widely believed in, was used for anything from coughs...


Yarrow tea made either from the dried herb or from the fresh plant (a handful of the whole plant to a pint of boiling water) is taken for a bad cold (Jones-Baker. 1974), and for bronchitis or measles (V G Hatfield. 1994), or even a depression (Le Strange). Some of the American Indian groups used it in exactly the same way (Barrett & Gifford). The Ojibwe break up a fever by putting the flowers on a bed of live coals, and then inhaling the smoke (H H Smith. 1945). In Britain, there was an odder way of dealing with the problem - For an ague . boil Yarrow in new Milk, 'till it is tender enough to spread as a Plaister. An Hour before the cold Fit, apply this to the Wrists, and let it be on till the hot Fit is over . (Wesley). Equally odd is the relatively recent Alabama superstition - a folk practice to get the bowels moving - you had to boil yarrow and thicken it with meal, and then apply it to the stomach (R B Browne).


RespiGam, an intravenous immune globulin preparation enriched approximately sixfold for neutralizing antibodies to RSV (RSVIg) has recently been approved as a prophylactic use for infants in high-risk categories (BPD, prematurity), with the exception of underlying cardiac disease. Its prophylactic use every 30 days during the RSV season significantly reduced the incidence of hospitalization for RSV lower respiratory tract disease as well as the duration of the hospital stay. However, the use of RSVIg was not effective as a treatment for RSV in high-risk children hospitalized for RSV lower respiratory tract infection.


(Zizyphus jubajuba) A Chinese species, but long cultivated there and also in the Mediterranean area, and in southern USA. They have an edible, olive-sized fruit, known as French jujubes (Willis). These berries have been famous since ancient times for cold cures and for bronchitis. They used to be made


Pennyroyal tea is good for chills and coughs (Vesey-Fitzgerald), extended to include bronchitis and asthma in Scotland (Beith). In Morocco, the dried leaves are powdered and taken with porridge or milk for coughs and colds (Westermarck. 1926). In Wiltshire, it was used as an infusion for all chest and lung complaints (Wiltshire). Wesley recommended it for whooping cough Chin-cough or Hooping-cough give a spoonful of Juice of Pennyroyal mixt with Sugar-candy, twice a day , and Buchan prescribed it for croup. It is used in folk medicine with much confidence in obstruction of the courses, or when these are attended with pain of hysteria (Thornton). In other words, it is a known emmenagogue it is an abortifacient, too (V G Hatfield. 1994). Gypsies used to peddle it in remote country districts for just this purpose (Wiltshire). But this is a very old concept. The Anglo-Saxon version of Apuleius has, for instance, a leechdom for use if a dead-born child be in a wife's inwards, take three...

Ground Elder

In Ludlow, Shropshire, there was a customary Easter dish of leg of pork stuffed with Robin-run-in-the-hedge, which is ground ivy (Burne. 1883). According to Genders. 1972, the principal ingredients of Elizabethan snuffs were ground ivy, camomile and pellitory-of-the-wall. But it is in the domain of medicine that ground ivy is most important, for it is a real cure-all (it was even given to the insane (Leyel. 1937) ). A tea made from it used to be popular for eczema in the north of Scotland. It was said that the fairies taught Donald Fraser, of Ross-shire, to use it (R M Robertson). It was one of the cries of London, and, drunk as a tea, sold as a blood purifier (Thornton), and was always used in this way in Dorset (Dacombe) and Hampshire (Hampshire FWI). And it was used for asthma - an Irish recipe advised the patient to drink of a potion made of ground ivy (or dandelion), with a prayer said over it before drinking (Wilde. 1890). In Scotland, snuff from the dried leaves was used for...

Bee Balm

But it is in the sphere of popular medicine that balm is important. A tale from Staffordshire tells how Ahasu-erus, the Wandering Jew, knocked at the door of a cottage, and found the occupant ill. The Jew was asked in and offered a glass of ale. In return, the patient was told to gather three balm leaves and to put them in a cup of ale, and to drink it, refilling the cup when it was empty, and adding fresh leaves every fourth day. He was cured in twelve days (M Baker. 1980). Aubrey. 1696 mentions a story that is probably the same as the Staffordshire legend, about an old man who was cured of his lameness by taking balm leaves in beer. But balm tea is the most widely used medicine, for stomach upsets or colic in Gloucestershire, but more commonly elsewhere for colds, especially if feverish, for it has the effect of promoting sweating (Conway). It makes a pleasant drink for influenza patients (A W Hatfield. 1973), and has even been recommended for bronchitis (Fluck). Fresh leaves are...

Avian Adenoviruses

Adenoviruses isolated from poultry and waterfowl were initially classified into genus Aviadenovirus. In addition to the criterion of host origin, aviadenoviruses can be distinguished from mastadenoviruses on the basis of a lack of the genus-common complement-fixing antigen. A large number of serotypes have been described from chicken. Some of these viruses have been isolated from other species as well. For example, strains serologically identical to CELO virus have also been found to cause bronchitis in quails. The pathologic roles of aviadenoviruses are not

White Bryony

The roots have been used for a number of other ills, too. In fact, slices of mandrake were sold in London at a penny each early in the 20th century, as a cure-all (letter in Folk-lore. vol 24 1913). They used to provide a poultice to relieve lumbago and sciatica, or rheumatism, by making a liniment from the boiled root (V G Hatfield, 1994), and it could act as a painkiller for other conditions, including apparently, painful tumours (Barton & Castle) ). It was even used in the 14th century as an antidote to leprosy, under the name of Wild Nep (Grieve. 1931). Herbalists still sometimes prescribe it in small doses for coughs, influenza, bronchitis and pneumonia (Grieve. 1931), but in days gone by even epilepsy was treated with it, for an Irish manuscript of about 1450 gave a