Black Berries

Berry Boosters

Berry Boosters

Acai, Maqui And Many Other Popular Berries That Will Change Your Life And Health. Berries have been demonstrated to be some of the healthiest foods on the planet. Each month or so it seems fresh research is being brought out and new berries are being exposed and analyzed for their health giving attributes.

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Blueberries were once called star berries because of the star-shaped calyx on the top of each fruit. Cultivated blueberries can be as large as 3 4 inch in diameter, although the wild varieties are only 1 4 to 1 2 inch in diameter. At least 50 species of blueberries, both cultivated and wild, have been identified. The two types of cultivated blueberries are highbrush and rabbiteye. Highbrush blueberries, V corymbosum L., are grown throughout North America, whereas the rabbiteye varieties, V ashei Reade, are better adapted to southern regions of the United States. Lowbush (wild) blueberries, V angustifolium Ait., grow naturally in Maine, Nova Scotia, and Quebec. These plants produce blueberries that are prized for their intense flavor. The lowbush (wild) blueberry varieties grow to about 3 feet in height, whereas the highbush and rabbiteye cultivars can grow to more than 10 feet if not pruned. The desirable flavor, color, and texture of today's cultivars are the result of...

Evolutionary Aspects Of Diet

The foods that were commonly available to preagricultural humans (lean meat, fish, green leafy vegetables, fruits, nuts, berries, and honey) were the foods that shaped modern humans' genetic nutritional requirements. Cereal grains as a staple food are a relatively recent addition to the human diet and represent a dramatic departure from those foods to which we are genetically programmed and adapted (Cordain, 1999 Simopoulos, 1995a Simopoulos, 1999d). Cereals did not become a part of our food supply until very recently 10,000 yr ago with the advent of the Agricultural Revolution. Prior to the Agricultural Revolution, humans ate an enormous variety of wild plants, whereas, today, about 17 of plant species provide 90 of the world's food supply, with the greatest percentage contributed by cereal grains (Cordain, 1999 Simopoulos, 1995a Simopoulos, 1999d). Three cereals, wheat, maize, and rice, together account for 75 of the world's grain production. Human beings have become entirely...

Primary Nursing Diagnosis

A diet of meats, eggs, cheese, prunes, cranberries, plums, and whole grains can increase the acidity of the urine. Foods not allowed on this diet include carbonated beverages, anything containing baking soda or powder, fruits other than those previously stated, all vegetables except corn and lentils, and milk and milk products. The action of some medications used to treat urinary tract infections (UTIs) is diminished by acidic urine (nitrofurantoin) thus, review prescriptions before giving patients this diet.

Discharge And Home Healthcare Guidelines

Most goiters are classified as simple (or nontoxic). They result from any enlargement of the thyroid gland that is not caused by an inflammation or a neoplasm. Simple goiters can be classified as sporadic or endemic and are not associated initially with either hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Sporadic goiters occur after a person eats certain foods (peaches, strawberries, radishes, spinach, peas, cabbage, soybeans, or peanuts) or takes certain medications (iodides, lithium, propylthiouracil) that decrease thyroxine (T4). Endemic goiters, in contrast, occur because of the patient's geographic location in areas where the soil is depleted of iodine. Endemic goiter that results from soil deficiencies is most likely to occur during autumn and winter.

Measures To Minimize Mechanical Injury

Care should be exercised in handling fresh produce. Staff should be trained on the proper techniques of harvesting, in placing the produce in the container, as well as in the loading and unloading of containers for transport and storage. Loading aids such as trolleys, roller conveyors, pallet, or forklift trucks should be used to reduce handling of individual packages. Handling bananas by the bunch should be avoided as this predisposes the fruits to mechanical injury. Likewise, handling of dehanded bananas in sacks or placement of these fruits directly in the truck or ship's container should be avoided. Bananas are dehanded and packed in boxes for transport. However, for local markets, locally available containers can be used with adequate lining materials, such as bamboo baskets lined with newspaper. During the manual harvesting of fruits and vegetables such as citrus and mangos, harvesting aids like clippers, shears, or picking poles with nets and cutting knives are employed to...

Viral Epidemiology and Control

Most carlavirus-associated diseases are usually very mild or symptomless and few efforts are made to control them. However, crops such as potatoes, certain legumes, and blueberries that may contain more damaging carlaviruses require suitable control measures. Seed potatoes and veg-etatively propagated materials must be screened continuously to certify a virus-free status. Rapid removal of infected plants is particularly important for plants associated with aphid- or whitefly-vectored carlaviruses. PVS is the only carlavirus for which transgenic plants (potato and Nicotiana debney), which are resistant to virus infection, have been reported so far.

Mass distribution of food

Additionally, to meet export demand, low-income countries may cultivate non-indigenous crops that may be more susceptible to indigenous pathogens (Saker et al., 2004). A prime example of this is when Guatemalan producers grew non-native raspberries for commercial export (Saker et al., 2004). In 1996 and 1997, Cyclospora outbreaks in Canada and the United States were attributed to Guatemalan raspberries (Calvin, 2003). In short, the globalization of the food supply has the potential to create new agricultural and ecological challenges.

Medicinal Loganiaceae

Strychnos ignatii Berg. (Strychnos beccarii Gilg, Strychnos cuspidata A.W. Hills, Stych-nos ovalifolia Wall, Strychnos pseudotieute A.W. Hill, Strychnos tieute Lesch. Ignatia amara L. f. Ignatiana philippinica Lour., Strychnos hainanensis Merr. & Chun, Strychnos ovalifolia Wall. ex G. Don.), or lu sung kuo (Chinese), umpas naga, or akar ipoh (Malay), is a climber that grows in open woodlands, on limestone, scrub, or sometimes along river banks up to 800 m in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. The plant grows to a length of 20 m. The stems are grayish-brown, lenticelled, with tendrils. The leaves are simple and opposite the flowers are yellowish, salver-shaped, 1.7 cm long, and papillose. The fruits are cream-green to orange berries up to 10 cm in diameter, containing several seeds that are ovate and flat (Fig. 61).The dried ripened seeds, or St. Ignatius beans (ignatia, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1934), containing 2.5 to 3 of brucine and...

Animal Toxins and Plant Toxicants

Overall, healthy individuals can tolerate naturally occurring toxicants. However, there are several conditions under which natural toxicants can create problems. Inborn errors of metabolism or certain drug interactions can make individuals prone to problems caused by natural toxicants. Whereas nutrients can be beneficial to most, they can be deleterious to some, e.g., consumption of lactose by lactose-intolerant people. Other examples include individuals with celiac sprue, sucrase deficiency, fructose intolerance, galactosemia, and phenylketonuria. Individuals taking drugs that inhibit monoamine oxidase enzymes can be affected when eating cheeses or drinking wines, which are high in tyramine. Individuals with sensitivities due to allergies can be affected by foods. Hypersensitivity to a particular substance produces anaphylactic shock. Examples of foods that cause allergies include milk, wheat, nuts, citrus, strawberries, fish (shellfish), and egg. Some individuals have bizarre food...

Effect of dreams on wakinglife

Many examples of creative inspiration from dreams have been reported over the years (for overviews see 1,103 ) Wild strawberries (a film by Ingmar Bergman), the story of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde by Robert Louis Stevenson, the pop song Yesterday by Paul McCartney, and the paintings of Salvador Dali all provide excellent examples. Kuiken and Sikora 104 and Schredl 95 found that 20 and 28 of the participants (student samples), respectively, reported creative inspirations from dreams at least twice a year. In a large-scale study with over 1000 participants 105 , about 7.8 of the recalled dreams included a creative aspect. Reported were dreams stimulating art, giving an impulse to try

Genetic Modification in Animals and Plants

GM traits that have already been introduced into plants include resistance to insects, insecticides, and herbicides larger fruits salt tolerance slowed ripening additional nutrients easier processing insecticide production and the ability to take its own nitrogen from the air, lowering reliance on fertilizer. Specific products of genetic manipulation include insect-resistant corn, frost-resistant strawberries, rice that makes beta-carotene (a

Medicinal Menispermaceae

A series of benzylisoquinoline and aporphine alkaloids. The cardinal features of Menisper-maceae are the transversal section of the stem, which shows a yellow wood with broad medullary rays, and muricate and horseshoe-like seeds in glossy little berries. In regard to the pharmaceutical usefulness of Menispermaceae, the dried transverse slices of roots of Jateorrhiza palmata Miers (calumba, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1954) and the dried stems of Tinospora cordifolia (tinospora, Indian Pharmaceutical Codex) have been used to promote appetite and digestion. Examples of drugs obtained from Menispermaceae are picrotoxin and tubocurarine. Tubocurarine, from curare-producing Amazonian Menispermaceae, is anticholinergic at the neuromuscular synapse and abrogates the tone of skeletal muscles, hence its use in general anesthesia (tubocurarine chloride, British Pharmacopoeia, 1963).

Global and International Surveillance

International surveillance can also be used for the detection of international outbreaks of food poisoning caused by the distribution of foodstuffs across a wide number of countries. An outbreak of hepatitis A in England was caused by frozen raspberries grown and frozen in another country and another outbreak of hepatitis A, this time in Czechoslovakia (before it became separate republics) was caused by strawberries used to make ice cream the strawberries had been imported from another Eastern European country. There are now well-established trans-European surveillance systems for salmonella infections and legionnaires' disease.

Foods for special uses

A recent trend is toward the consumption of 'functional foods,' which are foods or dietary components designed to support health and reduce the risk of chronic, diet-related illnesses and conditions, including cardiac disease, osteoporosis, and cancer (Hasler, 1998). Most examples of functional foods are plant based, such as oats, soy, flaxseed, garlic, tomatoes, broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables, citrus fruits, grapes, olive oil, and cranberries. Fatty fish and eggs from chickens fed flaxseed are good sources of omega-3-fatty acids. Fernandez-Gines et al. (2005) reviewed meat products that are formulated with additional plant products and have reduced or modified lipid content as functional foods.

Geographic Distribution

Been found throughout the USA, where it causes economically significant losses in highbush blueberries. Horseradish latent (HRLV) and thistle mottle viruses (ThMV) have only been found in Europe. Peanut chlorotic streak virus (PC1SV) is widely distributed in India, while soybean chlorotic mottle virus (SoyCMV) has only been recovered from a few samples in Japan. The symptoms of SoyCMV, however, are similar to the potyvirus, soybean mosaic virus, and consequently, infections caused by SoyCMV might have been mistaken for other viruses that infect soybean.

Fruits and Vegetables Fruits

During the past 30 years there have been many studies on the application of irradiation for improving shelf life of fresh fruits. These include tropical fruits such as bananas, mangos, and papaya subtropical fruits such as citrus and grapes and temperate fruits such as pome fruits, stone fruits, and berries. Cumming reported recently that low-dose radiation (0.2 kGy) delayed ripening of green bananas for up to 10 to 12 days.190 There was only minimal changes in pulp texture and vitamin C losses were lower than the controls. Earlier work by Ferguson et al.191 showed retardation of yellowing at a dose of 0.2 kGy and an increased preference for the flavor of the irradiated bananas 7 days after treatment. Thomas reported on shelf life extension of 10 to 12 days for some varieties.189 Several studies have shown that gamma radiation at low levels extends the shelf life of mango fruit by slowing down rates of ripening and senescence. Irradiated fruit remain edible for longer periods before...

Natural Cloudy Juices

It is common to produce natural cloudy juices and concentrates as standard products from specific fruit varieties such as citrus, exotic fruit and also from apple, pear and berries. Freshly squeezed juices can be bottled as such. The juice is heated (85 -90 C) and hotfilled into clean bottles. The bottles are closed and then immediately cooled with water as quickly as possible to avoid deterioration of the juice due to the high temperature. The high filling temperature sterilises bottles and product.

Byproducts of irradiation

Result from the breakdown of triglycerides amino acids that make up proteins and compounds (hydrocarbons) commonly found in the waxy coverings of fruits such as apples, pears, and berries. Others are fatty compounds identical to those found from cooking meat by common methods such as grilling. The other 10 of radiolytic compounds are chemically very similar to natural components in food. The chemistry of irradiation is very predictable, and the products of an individual component such as proteins are not affected by the type of food or other food components present. Radiolytic products have been critically tested for toxicity and no evidence of hazards has been found.

Plantmicrobe interactions

The influence of microbes on the welfare of plants is not confined to the ground and may even affect the weather. An often quoted example is that drawn from Pseudomonas syringae which produces a protein known to act as a point of nucleation of ice crystals. Plants which harbour this bacterium run an increased risk of frost damage especially if their tissue is particularly susceptible as is the case with strawberries. P. syringae has been subjected to genetic engineering which successfully reduced the problem. A description of the project is given in Chapter 9.

Diseases and their Economic Significance

Grapevine berry inner necrosis, reported in Japan, and originally called mosaic disease, is one the most economically important virus diseases of grapevines in Japan. The diseased grapevines grow less vigorously, sprout late in spring, and show inner necrosis in shoots, shortened internodes and various mosaic patterns on leaves. Berries are small, show external discoloration and interior necrosis.

Medicinal Sapindaceae

Sapindus Mukorossi Gaertn

The family Sapindaceae consists of 140 genera and 1500 species of trees widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. Classic examples of Sapindaceae are the fruit trees Nephelium lappaceum L. and Litchi chinensis Sonn., which provide rambutan and litchi, respectively. Chemically Sapindaceae are well known to abound with saponins and tannins. An example of ornamental Sapindaceae is Koelreuteria paniculata L., or golden rain tree, cultivated in temperate regions. The berries of Sapindus saponaria L., were used as soap by South American Indians, hence the origin of the word Sapindus from sapo and Indus or the soap of the Indies.

Unlucky Plants And Trees

Reason why it should never be picked, and in Wales it is Blodyn Neidi, snake flower, another sanction, for if you pick it you will be attacked by snakes (Vickery. 1985). Another Welsh name is Blodyn Taranan, thunder flower. Thunder and lightning will be the result if you gather them. The reason for these sanctions is that campions often grew in the corn, and if children were allowed to search for them, they could very well damage the crops in doing so. HERB ROBERT is another of these flowers that are unlucky to pick. It is called Snake Flower in Somerset, and there are other snake names for it. If you pick it, snakes would come from the stems (Vickery. 1985). But more significantly, the name 'Death-come-quickly' is recorded from Cumbria, for this is one of the flowers that, if picked by children, would result in the death of one of the parents. So with GERMANDER SPEEDWELL, a normally cheerful little plant. But it has its sinister side, as names like 'Tear-your-mother's-eyes-out' will...

Mass production of food

Large food companies have a lot at stake so one might argue that they would be even more diligent about minimizing the frequency and extent of pathogen contamination in their food products. Firms that face a large public recall of product or that are implicated in a foodborne illness outbreak may suffer business losses, such as from lost reputation, reduced stock prices, plants closed for cleanup or permanently shut down, food poisoning lawsuits, premiums raised for product liability insurance, and demand for product reduced enough to threaten entire markets or industries (Buzby et al., 2001). One example of a whole industry being affected by a foodborne illness outbreak is the Guatemalan raspberry industry. After repeated Cyclospora outbreaks in the United States and Canada from contaminated raspberries, only 3 Guatemalan raspberry producers

Food Intolerance and Allergy

Mast Cell Diagram

The mechanism is well established for certain drugs however, no histamine-releasing substances have been isolated from such offending foods, e.g., strawberry allergy. Individuals affected by the ingestion of strawberries exhibit true food allergy symptoms, such as hives, but the symptoms are not IgE-mediated. One symptom mimics anaphylaxis.

Veterinary Uses Of Plants

It is well-known as being severely toxic to animals (Forsyth), causing cirrhosis of the liver, from which the animal cannot recover. The trouble is that animals will not usually eat it, so it flowers and seeds undisturbed, and the effect is eventually to produce more ragwort than grass in a pasture. The condition is known in Canada as the Pictou cattle disease, and the scientific name is seneciosis. The problem is that the plant seems to have been used as a curing agent this is St James's Wort, and St James is the patron saint of horses. The use of Ragwort in veterinary practice seems to be confirmed by other names, such as Staggerwort, that is, the herb that cures staggers in horses. Sir Edward Salisbury, for one, stated clearly that staggers was actually caused by Ragwort. If both views are correct, here is an example of homeopathic magic at work, of like curing like. East Anglian horsemen favoured the use of FEVERFEW on their charges. A way to control unruly...

Medicinal Rubiaceae

The family Rubiaceae consists of about 450 genera and 6500 species of tropical and subtropical trees, shrubs, climbers, and herbs that are known to abound with iri-doid glycosides (monoterpenoid alkaloids, tannins, and anthraquinones). When looking for Rubiaceae in field collection, one is advised to look for plants with opposite simple leaves with an interpetiolar stipule, tubular flowers, which are often white, and capsules, berries, or drupes. The flowers are white and in pairs. The fruits are red berries at axil of leaves (Fig. 87). In China, it is used to treat rheumatism, mitigate headache, and heal piles. D. indicus Gaertn. is known to abound with anthraquinones, but its pharmacological potential remains unexplored to date (20,21). Note that damnacanthal is a common component of the Damnacanthus species. Faltynek et al. made the interesting observation that damnacanthal inhibits the enzymatic activity of tyrosine kinase, which is involved in the propagation of metastases (22)....

Divinations Marriage divinations

MISTLETOE is used at Christmas time, either by putting a sprig (taken from the parish church, in Welsh practice (Trevelyan) ) under the pillow, to have a dream of the future husband, or, as with an Irish game, picking ten berries on Christmas Eve. Nine had to be kept, and the tenth thrown away. The nine were put to steep in a liquid composed of equal proportions of wine, beer, vinegar and honey. Then the berries had to be swallowed like pills on going to bed. These, too, would induce dreams about the future (Wood-Martin) (but mistletoe does not grow in Ireland ). In Alabama (R B Browne) and Kentucky (Thomas & Thomas), they used to hang mistletoe over the door to see who would be the first girl to walk in, and she would be the future wife. Another Kentucky divination was to name mistletoe leaves for a boy and a girl, and then put them on a hot stove. If the leaves hopped towards each other, it was taken as a clear sign of marriage between the two. ONIONS were also used at this...

Needs For Further Research And Development

Little information is available for the degree of care required when handling fruits and vegetables. The often repeated instruction to handle agricultural products like eggs is sometimes irrelevant. According to Liu,180 due to the different characteristics of fruits and vegetables, care in handling may vary considerably. Handling products more gently than eggs may apply to strawberries and raspberries but not to commodities that possess tough rinds. Extra care and precautions taken in handling are expensive, which may not be necessary for some commodities. Information on the level of compression, abrasion, and impact forces a commodity can withstand and practices that can cause damage is needed. Such information could be used to design appropriate packaging materials, handling equipment, and systems without unnecessarily adding costs, and for instruction of workers in the field and packinghouse for proper care in harvesting and handling without unnecessarily adding costs. Fischer, D.,...

Biological Control Through Augmentation

Outdoor releases of several species of predators and para-sitoids are regularly made by growers in various countries. Egg parasitoids in the genus Trichogramma (Hymenoptera Trichogrammatidae) have been used extensively throughout the twentieth century to suppress pest weevils and caterpillars in cotton, corn, and sugarcane, especially in China, Russia, and tropical sugar-producing countries. Predators of mealybugs for release on citrus crops in parts of California have been reared by a growers' cooperative since 1926. One of the more common current uses of augmentative biological control on outdoor crops is the release of various species of predatory phytoseiid mites for control of pest spider mites, an approach that has been used most often with strawberries and with foliage plants grown outdoors in shade houses. outdoor crops The scientific use of augmentative natural enemy releases in outdoor crops is best established in northern Europe for control of European corn borer (Ostrinia...

Recommended Refrigerated Storage Conditions

Its quality is impaired and shelf life is shortened as the injury itself is irreversible. Sanford and co-workers173 reported that weight loss and the incidence of shriveling or splitting in lowbush blueberries are major attributes that contribute to the loss of market value arising from mechanical damage and too low a storage temperature. Ballinger and co-workers174 recommended that for the fresh market, blueberries should not be exposed to temperatures exceeding 10 C and should be preferably kept at or near 1 C. The major qualitative characteristics that contribute to low commercial yield of fruits are loss of firmness, loss of bloom, and loss of the blue anthocyanin coloration either through leakage from the berry or chemical disruption of the pigment.173 Sanford and co-workers173 found 0 C storage to result in optimum conditions of the product. Short storage life is a problem in raspberries due to their fragile structure and rapid deterioration. Even under recommended storage...

Christmas Decorations

Parson Woodforde recorded in his diary for 24 December 1788 that this being Christmas Eve I had my Parlour Windows dressed of as usual with Hulver-boughs well seeded with red Berries, and likewise in Kitchen. He had got the timing right, for it is bad luck to take holly into the house before Christmas Eve (or hawthorn, blackthorn or gorse at any time, possibly because of the connection with the Crown of Thorns) (Palmer). Only a man could bring it in (Baker. 1974) (for holly is a male emblem), and it could not remain in the house after 6 January. If the rules were not kept, it was considered in Oxfordshire, you will have the devil in the house, or, from Cardiganshire, and referring to the MISTLETOE, a ghost will sit on every bough (Winstanley & Rose). Wherever else it was put, and in America it was bad luck to put them upstairs (Whitley & Bullock), it was always the custom to put a spray of berried holly in the window (Crippen), possibly as a visible protection, for houses were...

Pharmaceutical Use Of Ergotis Teff

There are many different species of millet, which is tiny, has an oblong-spherical shape, and ranges from pale yellow to reddish orange. Unlike most grains, which form ears, most varieties of millet form panicles, or berry-shaped heads. Millet berries are small and range from white, gray, or yellow to red or reddish brown. Common millet is grown worldwide and is used mainly for human consumption and animal feed. Foxtail millet is also grown in a variety of areas and is often used for birdseed or, in Russia, to make beer. Pearl millet is grown primarily in India. Groats or wheat berries These are other names for wheat seeds sold whole. Because they have undergone very little milling, these are among the most nutritious of wheat products.

Cultivating Ferns

Ferns today are the garden's graceful greenery. They are flowerless plants, reproducing by spores (which incidentally do not cause hay fever) rather than seeds. (The asparagus fern with its little white flowers and red berries is actually a member of the lily family.) So we grow them for their elegant foliage of varying heights, shapes, and textures with an ornamental foliar structure that varies from the simple strap-shaped fronds of the Hart's tongue fern (Phyllitis scolopendrium) to the plumose froth of the finely divided British Polystichum setiferum cultivars. While newly planted ferns must be kept moist, established ferns are a low-maintenance delight and, despite their delicate appearance, are tough. Look for rhododendrons to curl and the grass to brown before your ferns will signal trouble. They bring as their gift to the garden the serenity of forest woodlands, peace in a shady nook, and the ability to give a unifying green calm to a colorful garden palette.


(Pimento dioica) It is called Allspice because it seems to combine all the flavours of nutmeg, clove, cinnamon, and juniper berries, making it a favourite ingredient for mulled wine (Leyel.1937). The ripe berries have been used in Jamaica for flavouring a special drink based on rum, and known as pimento dram (Brouk). There used to be something called a spice plaster to put on parts affected by rheumatism or neuralgia. The way to make it was to crush an ounce or so of whole allspice, and boil it down to a thick liquor, which was then spread on linen ready to be applied (A W Hatfield). One sometimes comes across the belief in America that a necklace of allspice worn round a baby's neck will help teething (H M Hyatt).

Salt And Diet

The role of dietary manipulation to treat dropsy had been practiced for centuries. It had been used, with varying degrees of success, by nature healers, herbalists, and medical practitioners 1,8,351. The favorable results of these dietary regimens had been attributed to its various constituents (asparagus, celery, berries), its limited fluid content (dry diets), or high potassium content (potato diet). Mention of an association between salt intake and fluid retention was made by Caelius Aurelianus in the 5th century C.E., who noted that drinking large quantities of water, particularly salt fluid, could cause dropsy. Stephen Hales (1677-1761), famous for being the first to estimate blood pressure in a horse, produced dropsy by injecting water into the vein of his experimental animals 20 . These observations notwithstanding, the role of dietary manipulation in the management of dropsy remained equivocal and poorly defined.


Shrubs and berries containing caffeine and its analogs were described as diuretics in several herbals of the past. What prompted Koshlakoff to use caffeine is uncertain. In the early 1920s, Alfred N. Richards (1876-1966), then professor of pharmacology at the University of Pennsylvania, was frustrated by his

Bears Breech

Both the leaves and berries have been used in medicine. Pomet described the berries as cephalick, nemotick, alexipharmick, and anti-colick they mol-lifie, discuss, expel Wind, open Obstructions, provoke Urine and the Terms, facilitate the travel of Women in Labour, and help Crudities in the Stomach. They are good for the Nerves in Convulsions and Palsies, give ease in the most extream Colicks, and take away the After-Pains of Women in Child-Bed. Evelyn, earlier, had called them emollient, sovereign in affectioins of the nerves, collics, gargarisms, baths, salves, and perfumes taken in wine they are good against all venom and poison and the juice pressed out of the leaves is a remedy for pain in the eares, and deafnesse, if it be dropped in with old wine and oile of Roses .(Evelyn, Gerard). We are told, too, that pigeons and blackbirds when suffering from loss of appetite, eat bay leaves as a tonic (Hulme. 1895), and they heal stingings of bees and wasps, and do away all swellings...


It is said that a preparation of MULLEIN flowers in olive oil, made for earache (see EARACHE), can be used to cure children of bed-wetting. The dose would be a few drops in warm water (Genders. 1976). HORSETAIL tea, being rich in silicic acid, can be used for urinary problems, including bed-wetting (M Evans). Alabama children were given a tea made from the berries of THREE-LEAF SUMACH to cure them of bed-wetting, and PUMPKIN seeds were also used there for the same purpose (R B Browne). This is strange, because the same tea is known as an efficient diuretic. Similarly, DANDELION, the best known of all diuretics, the recipient of vernacular names like Pissabed, was also used to stop the misfortune. The flowers were given to Fenland children to smell on May Day to inhibit bed-wetting for the next twelve months (Porter. 1969). Perhaps these are examples of homeopathic magic. An infusion of ST JOHN'S WORT also was used. In Russian folk medicine, CENTAURY and St John's Wort were mixed in...


MISTLETOE berries, of a clammy or viscous moisture, are such whereof the best Bird-lime is made, far exceeding that which is made of the Holm or HOLLY bark (Gerard). It was made by drying and pounding the berries soaking them in water for twelve days, and pulverizing them again. Bird-lime was used up to medieval times for taking small birds in the branches of trees, and also for catching hawks, whch were decoyed by a bird tethered between the arches of a stick coated with the stuff (J G D Clark. 1948). It is reported that the bark of the root of the (WAYFARING TREE) buried a certaine time in the earth, and afterwards boyled and stamped according to Art, maketh a good Bird-lime for Fowlers to catch birds with (Gerard). In Africa, the latex of the CANDELABRA TREE (Euphorbia ingens), which becomes sticky when partially dry, is used for the purpose (Palgrave), and another African plant that is used is AFRICAN CORN LILY (Ixia viridflora), which has a sticky sap. The generic name, Ixia,...


An alternative name for WOODY NIGHTSHADE (Solanum dulcamara), and a translation (in reverse) of the specific name, dulcamara, which is really amara dulcis faire berries . of a sweet taste at the first, but after, very unpleasant. Gerard, obviously studying dulcamara, got it the wrong way round, and should have paid attention, if he were still alive, to Shakespeare, who knew the real sequence


Lindley described the applications as stimulating plasters. Nevertheless, they continued to be used through the centuries. Pomet, for example the Root apply'd fresh upon Contusions oer Wounds, stops the Bleeding, and heals the Part so that it has obtain'd the Name of Wound-root. It was called Chilblain-berry, too. The berries and roots steeped in gin were often applied to chilblains (Wiltshire Vickery. 1995). Another name was Blackeye-root (North). Gerard reported that the roots do very quickly waste away and consume away blacke and blew marks that come of bruises and dry-beatings (a French name for the plant is Herbe aux femmes battues (Baumann)). Tetterberry, or Tetterwort would indicate another medicinal use, a tetter being some kind of skin eruption. Then there are Murrain-berry (Britten. 1880), or Murren-berry (W H Long), showing some connection between the plant and the cattle disease of that name, probably foot-and-mouth disease in modern terms.

Black Nightshade

The main folk medicinal use is for skin complaints, an ancient practice. Dioscorides writeth, that Nightshade is good against S Anthonies fire, the shingles, . Gerard wrote, while still warning his readers of the dangers of using such a toxic plant. We find this use against erysipelas, for that is what St Anthony's fire is, in America, too. In Mexico, for instance, the Totonac grind the whole plant, add salt and lime juice to it, and apply it as a plaster (Kelly & Palerm). In South Africa, too, a paste made of the unripe berries is in general use as an application to ringworm (Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk). Sunburn is treated in Indiana by crushing the leaves and stirring them in a cup of cream. When ready, put the cream on the sunburned area (Tyler).


They say in Dorset that an ointment made from bramble tips and primroses is excellent for curing spots and pimples on the face (Dacombe), an interesting remedy in view of the fact that as far away as the Balkans, blackberry roots boiled slowly are the remedy for skin diseases. So are leaves in olive oil (Kemp), and on Chios it is bramble leaves that are used to treat a suppurating wound (Argenti & Rose), while in Scotland a poultice made from the leaves is a recognised cure for erysipelas (Beith). Gerard had the leaves of the bramble boyled in water, with honey, allum, and a little white wine added thereto, make a most excellent lotion or washing water . The same preparation, he went on, was a present remedy against the stone - so, according to Pliny, are the berries and flowers as a decoction in wine. But what did Gerard mean by they heale the eies that hang out . if the leaves be laid thereunto Something else that must be taken with a degree of scepticism is the use against heart...


The human caliciviruses have a worldwide distribution being detected in every country they have been sought. 11 In a community-based study in Holland 20 of cases of gastroenteritis were due to noroviruses and 6 to sapoviruses. 15 Noroviruses were detected in all age groups whereas sapoviruses were found only in children with 19 of cases being found in those under 6 months. 15 Seroprevalence studies in developed countries indicate that antibodies to noroviruses are acquired gradually in childhood, and by adulthood 50 are seropositive.1-11-1 In contrast, in some developing countries norovirus seropositivity reaches 100 by 4 years of age. 11 Virtually all adults have antibody to sapoviruses and in Kenya most children are seropositive by 2 years of age. 11 Sapovirus infections appear to be endemic particularly in infants and, in temperate countries, predominate in the cooler winter months often before the rotavirus season. In contrast, noroviruses, while also able to cause sporadic...


(Rhamnus cathartica) The black berries are a powerful purgative, but are dangerous to children (P North) in large doses they could cause intestinal haemorrhage (Fluck). It is a rough purge, said Hill. 1754, but a very good one, and they have been known as such since Anglo-Saxon times. Syrup of blackthorn, made from the juice of the berries, can still be bought (Fluck), but a hundred years or more ago it was used more for animals than for men (Fluckiger & Hanbury). The berries have got other uses, for dyeing and making pigments, Sap Green among others, provided the proper mordant is used. As a dye, glovers would use them to give a yellow colour to their leather (Aubrey. 1867), and the yellow colour was used in the 19th century to tint paper (CP Johnson).

Butter Bean

But this is a venerable remedy, for Gerard wrote that the root decoction made in wine and drunken, provoketh urine, breaketh the stone, driveth forth gravell and sand There are a few other conditions that were treated with Butcher's Broom, one being fractures, when a decoction of the berries and leaves was made into a poultice (Leyel. 1937). And chilblains were flogged with the branches (Grieve), just as holly was used (see HOLLY).


(Zizyphus abyssinica) In Malawi, an extremely potent alcoholic drink called kachaso is made from the berries (Palgrave & Palgrave). The leaves are chewed as an aphrodisiac, and a root decoction is used as an abortifacient, while the root infusion is taken for dysentery. There is a lot of tannin in both the bark and leaves, so its use for dysentery probably depends on this. A powder prepared by drying and pounding is used to rub into incisions made on the chest in cases of pneumonia (Palgrave & Palgrave).


In some places, the juice of LEEKS mixed with cream was used (Dyer). Gerard recommended TURNIPS for chilblains, for which oil of Roses boiled in a hollow turnep under the hot embers is also good. They can be treated with HORSERADISH, too, by wrapping the grated root round the finger toe, and keeping it in place with a piece of lint (Rohde. 1926). But the best known treatment was to thrash them with HOLLY till they bled, some say, to let the chilled blood out. This is a logical enough cure, for chilblains are caused by poor circulation, and thrashing them deals with this. But there is a variant to the belief - the feet should be crossed while it is being done (Igglesden), and that must surely be illogical. Another chilblain remedy from Essex also enjoined the use of holly, but this time as an ointment. The berries are to be powdered and mixed with lard (V G Hatfield). Similarly, from Wiltshire, with the added proviso to use the ointment WOODY NIGHTSHADE's red berries were used to deal...

Chinaberry Tree

The berries were often used as beads in America (La Barre), hence the name Bead Tree (Barber & Phillips), also as rosary beads (it is Paternosterbaum in German). In India, too, they make beads. During epidemics of smallpox, etc., they are hung as a charm over doors and verandahs to keep the infection out (Pandey). But on a more practical level, there are these instructions from Alabama on how to make shoe blacking get about half a gallon of chinaberries. Cover them with warm water, boil until tender, then rub the pulp through a sieve. Put in a clean vessel, add a small lump of goat tallow and a pint of sifted soot (R B Browne). They have been used as an insecticide,


SAVIN has been known through the centuries as an abortifacient and contraceptive, either by the simple matter of swallowing the berries, or by the decoction of the leaves, or, as in East Anglia, put into the teapot with ordinary tea (M R Taylor. 1929). And its contraceptive properties were used with horses, too. It was said that a stallion would never cover a mare if there was any savin in the stable (G E Evans. 1969). WILLOW is a fruitless tree, and so would be used for contraception. Even in quite modern times, German women believed that drinking willow tea would make them barren (Simons). But Russian folklore has the opposite idea, for it was believed that willow branches put under the marriage bed would ensure a pregnancy (Kourennoff).


(Vacccinium oxycoccus) A Kansas wart charm is recorded which involves cutting a cranberry into halves. The wart has to be rubbed with each half, and they have then to be buried under a stone (Davenport). Although it is not quoted, surely the wart will disappear as the fruit rots. In a similar way, corns are treated by applying a poultice of freshly mashed cranberries (Hyatt). One interesting American usage is the application of cranberries to shingles. They say such a poultice will cure the condition (Turner & Bell), and cooked cranberries were sworn by in Kansas as effective rheumatic pain relievers (Meade). The Russian sweet Kissel is made with the juice of stewed cranberries slightly thickend with cornflour. It is served in glasses at the beginning of the meal, or later on with a biscuit (J Hill. 1939).

Deadly Nightshade

(Atropa belladonna) All parts of the plant, and particularly the berries, are very poisonous, and this makes the naming of the genus after Atropos, the Fate who cut the thread when life was ended, quite understandable. But there is a connection with Hecate, too (Gubernatis), for such a poisonous plant would naturally bring about such an association. There is evidence, if such it can be called, that it was used by the witches themselves as a drug or poison, for Montague Summers was able to quote two formulae for witch ointments involving Deadly Nightshade

Specific History

Foods Fish, shellfish (especially oysters and mussels), meats (especially pork and mutton), cheeses that are mold-containing, strawberries, citrus fruits, nuts, seeds, peanuts, tomatoes, chocolate, dairy products (especially milk), egg whites. Foods Lobster, crayfish, scombroid fish (usually old or improperly processed), strawberries, yeast and yeast-containing cheeses, spinach, chicken livers, red wines, egg whites, tomatoes, tonic water (quinine content).


Russian folk medicine recommended a mixture of dried SAGE, KNAPWEED and CAMOMILE flowers for all digestive disorders (Kourennoff). Just chewing the leaves of knapweed was taken as a cure for diarrhoea in Britain (Page. 1978). BILBERRIES are very astringent, and are still sometimes prescribed by herbalists for diarrhoea. A syrup from the blue berries of MYRTLE was taken in the Western Isles, a spoonful at a time, for flux (Martin), diarrhoea in modern terms. Both the leaves and root bark of BRAMBLE contain a lot of tannin, and so are astringent enough to be useful in stopping diarrhoea. QUINCE-seed tea is an American country cure for the complaint (H M Hyatt), and another American remedy is the bark tea of CHOKE CHERRY (H H Smith. 1923). A strange use of BEETROOT is recorded in Corfu, where a small bottle of beetroot juice is corked and put in the heart of an uncooked loaf of bread. The bread is baked, and the bottle removed and then the medicine is drunk in small doses on successieve...


Dogwood yields a red dye, and oil from the berries, perfectly edible, was used for lamp-burning at one time. In France, it was used in making soap (C P Johnson). The wood itself, like that of Spindle-tree, makes, in Evelyn's words, the best skewers for butchers, because it does not taint the flesh, a usage that accounts for a lot of the local names. Skewer-wood is the most obvious (Britten & Holland, Havergal). Skiver is the same word as skewer, and the name appears simply as that in Wiltshire dialect (Dartnell & Goddard). Another name is Pegwood (Miller), indication enough that pegs were another product made from the wood.


Dried hops, especially when the smell is noted in a dream, shows that the dreamer will soon receive a legacy (Raphael). Dreaming of BANANAS (Dorson. 1964), or RASPBERRIES, is a good sign, for it meant, the latter particularly, success in all things, happiness in marriage, etc., (Gordon. 1985), and the same applies to dreams of APPLES, POMEGRANATES and QUINCES, while VIOLETS mean advancement in life (Dyer), but dreaming of their close relative, PANSIES, means heart's pain, quoted by Mackay as one of the popular fallacies of his day, the opposite of Heartsease, presumably. COWSLIPS in bloom signify a sudden change in fortune, but the dream book is silent as to whether the change is good or bad (Raphael). For a man to dream of a BAY tree, it is a sign that he will marry a rich and beautiful wife, but have no success in his business undertakings. It is a good thing for physicians and poets to dream of it (Raphael). After all, wasn't a bay chaplet the proper accolade for a...

Dwarf Elder

(Sambucus ebulus) Tradition had it that dwarf elder grew only where blood had been shed. A Welsh name translates plant of the blood of man, and there are also relevant names in English, like Bloodwort and Deathwort. It is associated in England with the Danes - wherever their blood was shed in battle, this plant afterwards sprang up. Camden wrote in 1586 And in those parts in this country which are opposite to Cambridgeshire, lyes Barklow, famous for four great barrows And the Wallwort or Dwarf-elder that grows hereabouts in great plenty, and bears red berries, they call by no other name but Dane's-blood, denoting the multitude of Danes that were slain. Wallwort, incidentally, has nothing to do with walls. The OE name was wealhwyrt, and it means a foreign plant (the root appears again in walnut, and for various plants described as Welsh. Some Somerset people used to say that dwarf elder gets its noxious properties (the berries are toxic) from growing on the graves of the Danes...


Other Indian groups used the pulp of the stalks, and the roots, of SMOOTH SUMACH to produce yellow (Buhler Gilmore). Another sumach, VENETIAN SUMACH, will produce a yellow colour from its wood, though it is hardly ever used nowadays, for it is really not permanent at all (Leggett). However, with the proper mordant, it can dye cotton and wool bright yellow through to brown or dark olive. With logwood, it can produce black. POISON IVY roots too will give yellow, and so will ORANGE BALSAM, if the whole plant is used (both H H Smith. 1923). The flowers and leaves of GOLDEN ROD will also give a fine yellow (Barton & Castle). COCKLEBUR leaves are another source of yellow, and are used in China for the purpose (F P Smith). But TURMERIC will be recognised as the best known yellow dye, even if it is certainly not fast to light, and needs a mordant. Curry powder is its best known manifestation. But the Pacific islands and New Guinea are probably the only areas in...

Elderberry Wine

Apparently once called Pop-gun in the south of England (Halliwell), it has always been popular, so much so that whole orchards of the trees were planted in Kent, and the berries have even been used for making ersatz port (Jordan). Evelyn (in Sylva, 1729) was of the opinion that it greatly assisted longevity, and Cobbett was enthusiastic too - a cup of mulled elder wine, with nutmeg and sippets of toast, just before going to bed on a cold winter's night, is a thing to be run for. Besides, it is good for sciatica, so it is claimed (Moloney), and according to another Irish belief, drinking it will cure pimples on the face (Maloney). Mulled elderberry wine is certainly good for a sore throat, and also for asthma, so it is claimed (Hatfield).

Fairy Plants

Did you and yours would never live long (Tongue). In Galloway, too, solitary thorns were left and preserved with scrupulous care (Cromek). Similar beliefs were held in the Isle of Man it was not advisable to sit too long under one of these trees, and certainly not to sleep under one (Gill). A further result of the fairy thorn belief is the superstition that if thorn bushes are ploughed up, all goodness leaves the land (Tongue). A correspondent of Notes and Queries 1941 told a story then current at Berwick St John, in Wiltshire, of the consequences of cutting down a solitary thorn that grew on a prehistoric earthwork nearby. The result was complete loss of fertility over the area, taking in poultry and cows as well as women. Fertility was only restored when the perpetrator planted a new thorn in place of the old one. BLACKTHORN is another fairy tree, under the protection of a special band of them, said by Irish people to guard them especially on 11 November, which is Samhain, old...


HINAU (Elaeocarpus dentatus) is a New Zealand tree, one particular specimen of which, in North Island, used to be a powerful symbol of fertility. A childless woman embraced this tree while her husband recited the necessary charm. The east side of the tree was the male side, the west the female, and the woman would make her choice of east or west according to whether she wanted a boy or a girl (Andersen). SILVER FIR is another tree with fertility connections. It was sacred in Greece to Artemis, the moon-goddess who presided over childbirth (Graves). As such, it is a symbol of fertility. At Hildeheim, women were struck with a small fir-tree at Shrovetide, and in north Germany, brides and bridegrooms often carried fir-branches with lighted tapers. Elsewhere, firs were planted before a house when a wedding took place. It was also used at weddings in Russia (Hartland. 1909). MISTLETOE, fairly obviously, is a fertility agent. Hartland quoted the maxim ascribed to the Druids that the powder...


Loquats are available in two varieties orange-fleshed and white-fleshed. Orange-fleshed varieties include Gold Nugget, Strawberry, and Tanaka white-fleshed types include Advance, Champagne, and Vista White. Gold Nugget fruits have a flavor similar to that of an apricot, whereas Strawberry fruits have a flavor similar to that of strawberries. Tanaka varieties bear long-lasting, very large, firm, orange fruits with an aromatic, sweet flavor. The translucent white-fleshed Advance fruits are juicy and pleasantly flavored. Vista White fruits have pure white flesh and a high sugar content.


Knitbone and Boneset, and a few others. Comfrey is consolida major, and DAISY is consolida minor. The Northern men call this herbe a Banwort because it helpeth bones to knyt againe (Turner). Daisies were even called Bone-flowers in the north of England (Grigson. 1955). BUTCHER'S BROOM has been used in a similar way - a decoction of the leaves and berries was made into a poultice applied to help broken bones to knit (Leyel. 1937). Evelyn recommended the use of MYRTLE berries as a consound. In the Balkans, a plaster for splints was made from a mixture of FLAX seed, egg-white and powdered alum (Kemp) that particular usage is recorded from Ireland, too with white and yolk of egg it is used by bone setters and makes excellent splinting material when supported with leather (Moloney). SOLOMON'S SEAL is another plant with a reputation for helping broken bones knit, either taken inwardly in ale, or as a poultice (Grigson. 1955), a use mentioned by Gerard, who said there is not to be found...


(Ribes uva-crispa) Simply known as Berries in Yorkshire, for there, gooseberries are berries, par excellence (Hunter), that grow on a Berry-tree. Gooseberry-pies are berry-pies. Perhaps it is not surprising that this is so, for gooseberries in the north have long been the subject of esteem and competition. Goosegog is another very common name for them. The fairy that guards the unripe fruit is known as Awd Goggie in Yorkshire (and, more sedately, in the Isle of Wight as the Gooseberry Wife). According to the Victorian dream books, to dream of them is a sign of many children (Raphael). Of course, English babies are found under gooseberry bushes. In parts of Germany, though, children (especially girls) grow on a tree (O'Neill). To revert to dream prognostications - if it is a sailor who dreams of gooseberries, then it is a warning of dangers on his next voyage (Raphael). To a girl it means an unfaithful husband (Gordon. 1985). But gooseberries apparently served as symbols of...

Intermittent Warming

Interruption of cold storage with warm periods has been shown to be beneficial in extending the storage life of apples, citrus, cranberries, cucumbers, nectarines, and many other fruits by minimizing chilling injury.113 Wang and Baker129 found that intermittent warming increased the proportion of unsaturated polar lipids in peaches, cucumbers, and sweet peppers, and lessened the deterioration of these products at low temperatures. Peaches, when warmed intermittently, were found to have reduced incidence of wooliness171 due to the production of adequate levels of pectolytic enzymes, pectinesterase, and polygalacturonase. Tomatoes have also responded favorably to rewarming at 18 C as shown by the recovery of ultrastructural changes in the mitochondria and plastids.131


The Welsh medical text known as the Physicians of Myddfai has a cure for jaundice involving HAWTHORN take the leaves which grow on the branches of the hawthorn and the mistletoe, boiling them in white wine or good old ale, till reduced to the half, then take it off the fire and strain. Drink this three times a day. ELDER ointment was used for jaundice in Ireland (Wilde). In Herefordshire, too, the inner rind of the bark, boiled with milk, was taken for this complaint (Leather). HONEYSUCKLE leaves are still used in Ireland for jaundice (Maloney), and Grieve said that a root decoction of BUTCHER'S BROOM was a favourite medicine for jaundice, still being used in Ireland in her day . The complaint was also treated with MISTLETOE, either the leaves, as a receipt from the Welsh text known as the Physicians of Myddfai prescribes, or the berries, which, according to the old usage in the bocage country of Normandy, had to be soaked in a male baby's urine, and then put on the patient's head,...


(Zizyphus jubajuba) A Chinese species, but long cultivated there and also in the Mediterranean area, and in southern USA. They have an edible, olive-sized fruit, known as French jujubes (Willis). These berries have been famous since ancient times for cold cures and for bronchitis. They used to be made

Kidney Complaints

PARSLEY root tea is still prescribed for kidney trouble (Rohde, Hyatt). Gypsies used the leaves for the same purpose. Gerard wrote that the leaves take away stoppings, and provoke urine which thing the roots likewise do notably perform The herb is, indeed, a well known diuretic. WHORTLEBERRIES are used sometimes both the berries and the leaves are used in an Irish cure for kidney troubles (O S illeabh in). In the north of Scotland, they were used for dissolving kidney stones (Beith), as the name Kidneywort, or Kidneyweed, proclaim. WALL PENNYWORT was used particularly against kidney trouble and stone. Indiana folk medicine advised a tea made from the roots of HONEY LOCUST (Gleditsia triacanthos) for kidney trouble (Brewster).

Lady Laurel

(Daphne mezereum) The specific name, mezereum, comes from a Persian word, Madzaryon, which means destroyer of life, for the red berries are poisonous (although they were once used as a pepper substitute (Hyam & Pankhurst). And Russian peasants used to take up to thirty of the berries as a purge, while the French regarded fifteen as a fatal dose (Le Strange). The bark is poisonous, too. It is said that Hampshire beggars used to produce artificial sores by infecting a wound with this plant (Read). In homeopathy, a tincture prepared from the fresh bark is recommended for dermatitis (Schauenberg & Paris), and a tincture of the berries was occasionally given in German practice for relieving neuralgia (Le Strange), while in Lincolnshire, particularly in a village called Willoughton, the berries were swallowed like pills as a remedy for piles (Rudkin). Gerard noted a quite original use for them - if a drunkard doe eat one graine or berry of this plant, he cannot be allured to drinke...


The first Sunday in August is Lammas Sunday, the first Sunday of Harvest, often called Garland Sunday, or even Garlic Sunday (Hull). Other names for the day in Ireland are more concerned with our main purpose, for this is BILBERRY Sunday, or Blaeberry, Fraughan, Whort, Hurt or Heatherberry, or even Mulberry, Sunday, all names for bilberries, and that includes mulberry, which is what bilberries are called in parts of County Donegal (Mac Neill). This is the day for the ritual picking of bilberries on the mountain tops in Ireland, which would be put into little rush baskets made on the spot. The day was recognised as a legitimate time for courting, as the comment that many a lad met his wife on Blaeberry Sunday shows (E E Evans. 1957). It was the custom for the boys to make bracelets of bilberries for the girls they were worn while they were on top of the hill, but left behind when it was time to go home.

Chromosome Number

Cultivars of wheat exist with diploid numbers of chromosomes equaling 14, 28, or 42 (multiples of the haploid number, which is 7). Polyploids exist for many cultivated plants, including potatoes, strawberries, and cotton, as well as in wild plants such as dandelions. Polyploidy has led to striking numbers, and the known record is held by the fern Ophioglossum reticulatum, which has approximately 630 pairs.


The drug consists of the dried berries that are prescribed for headache, catarrh, watery eyes, and are used to promote beard growth. In Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam, the berries are used to treat conjunctivis, dropsy, toothache, and as a remedy for swollen breast. In Malaysia, the leaves are used to assuage headache externally, and internally are used to treat tuberculosis and fever.

May Garland

It is clear, though, that the real function of the May Garland is to protect the people and their stock. Scot wrote that the popish church to be delivered from witches hang in their entries haythorne, otherwise white thorne gathered on Maie daie The three primary May plants in England were HAWTHORN, MARSH MARIGOLD and ROWAN, all protectors and averters of evil (Grigson. 1959). (See Bourne. 1927 for his memory of the use of broad-buttercup, as he called Marsh Marigold, in the May Garland). Rowan was more important later in the year, when its berries were formed, and these three were certainly not the only plants used. In much of County Cork, SYCAMORE was the favourite May bough, and the tree was actually called the Summer Tree (Danaher). It was used in Cornwall, too, as well as hawthorn (Borlase). In fact, any tree in blossom or young leaf could be regarded as the May the modern use of the word as describing just the hawthorn did not apply at all. In some parts of England, May was the...


Cassytha filiformis L. (Cassytha guinensis Schum.), or dodder-laurel, snotty-gobble, devil's gut, or chemar batu (Malay)., is a slender epiphytic climber common on the seashores of Africa and the Asia-Pacific region. At first glance, the plant looks like a bunch of threads, but a closer observation reveals fleshy stems, tiny yellowish flowers, and whitish berries. In Malaysia, the plant is used to promote the growth of hair. Indonesians use the plant internally as vermifuge and laxative. In the Philippines, a decoction of the fresh plant is drunk to precipitate childbirth and to remove blood from saliva. In Taiwan, the stems are used as a diuretic and emmenagogue. In Vietnam, the plant is used to treat syphilis and lung diseases. The plant is known to elaborate series of aporphine alkaloids, including ocoteine, an aj-adrenoreceptor antagonist.


The word itself is OE mistiltan, where mistil is the name of the plant, and tan means a twig, or perhaps a shoot of a plant is better. Bearing in mind the fact that the German word Mist means dung, it is not surprising that there seems to be a connection between the name of the plant and the time-honoured belief that mistletoe seed cannot germinate until it has passed through a bird, a belief that started with Pliny. That bird, at least in popular belief, can only be the mistle-thrush, which is known as Grive du Gui in France, Misteldrossel in Germany, and Viscado in the Italian speaking parts of Switzerland (Swainson. 1886). The berries, of a clammy or viscous moisture (hence the generic name, (Viscum)), are such whereof the best Bird-lime is made, far exceeding that which is made of the Holm or Holly bark (Gerard). Bird Lime was used up to medieval times for catching small birds in the branches of trees, and also for catching hawks, which were decoyed by a bird tethered between the...

Mustard Tree

Candied myrtle blossoms are supposed to beautify the complexion (Wiltshire), and Evelyn recommended the use of the berries for inflammations of the eyes, and as a consound, which is an older version of the word to consolidate, and refers to the knitting of broken bones. A syrup from the blue berries was taken in the Western Isles, a spoonful at a time, for flux (Martin), diarrhoea in modern terms. Bloody flux is dysentery, and Gerard mentions that myrtle (the leaves, fruit, buds and juyce) could be taken for that ailment. Among other recommendations, he said dandruff could be treated with the decoction, and he agreed with Evelyn that it could dye the hair black, and not only that, but it keepeth them from shedding.


BUCKTHORN berries, boiled with alum, provide Sap Green, and when mixed with lime-water and gum arabic, Bladder Green (Grigson. 1955). As Gerard said, there is pressed forth of the ripe berries a juyce, which being boyled with a little Alum is used of painters for a deepe greene, which they call Sao-greene WOAD supplied a blue pigment used by artists, especially in the illumination of missals. It was got from the scum that floated on the surface of the vat, known as the flower of woad, or flory. It was used by Italian artists from the 13th to the 16th centuries. Evidently, there were two shades of blue that could be got, for there was a distinction made between indigo and azure (Hurry). Lupton gave advice on how to make a green that will not fade away. Take the flowers of FLEUR-DE-LUCE, stamp them and strain them, then put the juice thereof intogum water, and dry it in the sun.This green colour was known as Verditer, us'd by the Painters in Miniature (Pomet).


Century England, it was reckoned that the woman with child that eateth many during the time of her breeding shall bring forth wise children and of good understanding (Boland. 1977). HORSERADISH features in a very strange piece of folklore. Fenland couples who wanted to know the sex of an unborn child, put a piece of horseradish under each of their pillows. If the husband's piece turned black before the wife's, it would be a boy, and vice versa (Porter. 1958). But pregnant women should avoid potatoes, especially at night, if they want their child to have a small head (Salaman). Such a superstition is understandable once it is accepted that some ritual for getting a good, big crop of potato could have a similar effect on the head of the child in the womb. Beware of eating too many STRAWBERRIES during preganancy, for East Anglian superstition held that the birthmarks known as strawberry marks were caused by the mother eating too many of them (Porter. 1974).


(Ligustrum vulgare) Privet flowers belong to the large group that bring misfortune if brought indoors (Vickery. 1995), and another superstition once current was that diphtheria could be caught from privet leaves (Vickery. 1985), probably invented as a warning to children not to touch, or eat the poisonous berries. These berries give a bluish-green dye with alum, and the leaves will give a yellow colour (Coates) with alum, or with chrome a light brown, and a dark brown with copperas (Jenkins), green with copper sulphate, and dark green with iron (S M Robertson). An early 17th century auburn hair-dye had as its principal constituents radish and hedge-privet (Wykes-Joyce). To cure sore lips one is advised to chew privet leaves and let the juice flow over the sore lip (Vickery. 1995). A cure for mumps is to boil privet berries till the juice is out of them, and tip the juice into a small bottle with cream from the top of the milk. When it has been cool for at least three hours, take a...


SQUINANCYWORT, which is actually Quinsy-wort, provides an astringent gargle to treat the complaint. In much the same way, BLACKCURRANTS, also good for the condition, were known as Quinsy-berries (Newman & Wilson). HONEYSUCKLE - Coulton quoted a 14th century manuscript, prescribing for hym that haves the squynancy a remarkable amount of disgusting rubbish, but containing as an ingredient gumme of wodebynd. SANICLE leaves, which are astringent, can be used in infusion as a gargle for sore throat and quinsy (Wickham), and Coles advised that the leaves of ORPINE bruised and applied to the throat cureth the Quinsy Inhaling an infusion of WOOD SAGE was a Yorkshire remedy for the complaint (Hartley & Ingilby), and it is still used in homeopathy for the same illness (Grieve. 1931). American Indians would make a decoction of the fruit of SMOOTH SUMACH to use as a gargle for the complaint (Lloyd). CAT'S FOOT (Antennaria dioica) is another plant used for the condition (Grieve. 1931).


POKE-ROOT berries mixed with whisky form a Kentucky rheumatism cure. In the same area the practice was to use the dried berries made into a tea, or just eating the raw berries (Thomas & Thomas), while people in Kansas used to swear by cooked CRANBERRIES as an effective rheumatic pain reliever (Meade). Another American remedy was to boil MULLEIN root and mix it with whisky, to be drunk as needed, or to dip a cloth in mullein leaf tea, and bind it on the affected part (R B Browne). A tea from PUCCOON root used to be another treatment in the same area (R B Browne). The bark of CHINABERRY TREE was used in Indian domestic medicine for the complaint (Codrington). Older writers stressed the sulphur content of HORSERADISH, apparently the reason why it was used for chronic rheumatism, as a plaster instead of MUSTARD (Rohde. 1926), perhaps as a counter-irritant But a report in Notes and Queries 1935 shows a Welsh treatment of a very different kind. Like Poke-root berries in Kentucky,...

Jugged Hare

You might have heard of this classic English dish. The main ingredient is a hare that has been soaked in a marinade of red wine and juniper berries for a day or more. The marinated meat is browned and then made into a casserole that includes vegetables, seasonings, and stock for baking. Juices from this mixture are poured off after cooking and combined with cream, blood from the hare that was set aside at butchering, and the hare's liver, which has been pulverized. The strained sauce is served over the meat and vegetables. Because the dish was historically served in a crock or jug, the dish has been referred to as jugged hare.


(Sapindus saponaria) A New World tree, with white flowers followed by brown fruits, whose pulp lathers with water, and can be used as a soap substitute. They are much used for the purpose in Mexico (Roys), but they are poisonous, like those of the rest of the genus, for they contain a high percentage of saponin, and cause dermatitis (Kearney) (Indian members of the genus, like S mukorossi, are used as fish poison). These berries have some ritual significance, for Mexicans use them for necklaces and rosaries, and in ancient times the temple court was swept with the leaves of this tree in connection with the Maya baptismal ceremony (Roys).

Spindle Tree

.three or foure of the berries purge both by vomit and siege , observed Evelyn. That is not Spindle is called Death Alder in Buckinghamshire (Grigson. 1955), and as such is reckoned unlucky to bring in the house. And, of course, the berries are mildly poisonous. There are two other miscellaneous connections with death Evelyn produced the odd information that parricides were scourged with rods of spindle, and apparently Pliny said that too many spindles flowers foretell a plague.

Spurge Laurel

Were also put under the pillow to induce dreams (Lea). Presumably the association with demons is a result of the poisonous nature of both the bark and berries, poisonous enough to be dangerous to children (North). Of the medicinal, the most notable was the use of the bark in the treatment of cancer (Grigson. 1955), though this was only a cottage remedy, and there seems no record of how it was done, nor whether it was really cancer (and not canker) that was being treated. The bark (and the berries) was used also in some parts - a dangerous practice for humans, but a useful one for horses (Garrad). The very acrid roots were used in some parts to relieve toothache (Vickery. 1995), but surely this must have been a dangerous remedy. Hill, in 1754, noted that it was a powerful remedy against the dropsy, although he was careful to point out that it is not every constitution that can bear such a medicine. An Anglo-Saxon leechdom, acknowledging Pliny, quoted the use of an amulet of chamacela,...


Fragaria vesca, which is often confused with the Barren Strawberry, which is no relation, and belongs to an entirely different genus). Nobody seems to agree about how strawberry got its name. Of course, we put straw around the plants to protect the fruit, but the name was streawberige in OE times. The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology admits it does not know the derivation. Anyway, the fruit has always been much appreciated to quote Aubrey -strawberries have a most delicious taste, and are so innocent that a woman in childbed, or one in a feaver, may safely eate them. But to show that nothing can unequivocally be good, he goes on, but I have heard Sir Christopher Wren affirm, that if one that has a wound in his head eates them, they are mortall. The commendations are echoed in the symbolism that has attached itself to strawberries. They were used a great deal in pictures representing the garden of Heaven, and in the enclosed garden of the Virgin Mary. They are shown with fruit...

Sweet Cicely

(Myrrhis odorata) It is one of the plants that are supposed to bloom on Old Christmas Eve, so it was said in the Isle of Man, where it is called myrrh (Moore). A watch is still sometimes kept for the flowering. According to tradition, the bloom only lasts for an hour (Garrad). Another superstition about Sweet Cicely was that it increased the lust and strength of the old (Camp). It is a symbol of sincerity (Leyel. 1937). But it really does have its uses - most parts are edible, the leaves and roots being used in salads, the leaves raw, and the roots boiled and sliced (Rohde. 1936). They have a mild aniseed flavour, ideal for flavouring stewed fruits like gooseberries and plums (Mabey. 1972). It is apparently one of the main ingredients of Chartreuse (Clair). The seeds too are edible, at least in the green state, before they become black and hard children like to chew them, for they taste like liquorice (Foster).

Food Irradiation

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) first approved irradiation for use on wheat and wheat flour in 1963, and later approved its use on white potatoes, spices, pork, some fresh produce (onions, tomatoes, mushrooms, and strawberries), and poultry (Table 18.1). In 1997, in response to several foodborne illness outbreaks and increasing public concern over the safety of food supply, irradiation was approved for use on poultry products. In 1999 and 2000, irradiation was approved to curb pathogens in raw meats, including ground beef, steaks, and pork chops. Irradiation has also been used for more than 30 years to preserve some meals eaten by astronauts during long-term space missions. Some consumer groups have raised concerns that irradiation might cause the formation of toxic compounds in food. Because of these and other concerns, only a limited amount of irradiated food has been sold in the U.S. Irradiation gained notoriety in the winter of 2001, when the process was employed by the...

Threeleaf Sumach

(Rhus trilobata) American Indian groups like the Navajo and Apache used the branches of this sumach more extensively than those of any other plant, except willow, for baskets. The Zuni reserved them for the very best baskets (J Taylor), while the Navajo made their sacred baskets from them, and they used the twigs, with the leaves and berries, boiled, in dyeing processes (Yarnell). It provides black for basketry and leather dyes. Tradition required that basketry dyes should be stirred with a sumach stick (H H Smith. 1923). The berries found their way into American domestic medicine. They are given in Alabama to stop bed-wetting (R L Browne).

Toothbrush Tree

(Salvadora persica) Toothbrush Tree, so called because the twigs are used as such in Africa (Dale & Greenway), apparently with good reason, for when chewed, the stem releases juices that seem to have a protective anti-bacterial effect. An extract from this tree is now incorporated in some commercial toothpastes (Lewington). When a Kikuyu (Kenya) smith forged a sword or spear, he would rub it with a piece of kianduri wood, kianduri being the local name for this tree, and at the same time speak an incantation over it to the effect of If the owner of this meets with an enemy, may you go straight and kill your adversary but if you are launched at one who has no evil in his heart, may you miss him and pass on either side without entering his body (Hobley). This is also known as Mustard Tree, because the berries are slightly aromatic, and pungent, like cress. It is said to


(Hypericum androsaemum) The black berries are often viewed with suspicion by country people. In the Hebrides, for example, they say that if you eat them, you will go mad (Murdoch McNeill). The specific name, androsaemum, comes from two Greek names meaning man and blood, the reference being to the dark red juice that exudes from the bruised capsules. There is a belief in Hampshire that tutsan berries originated by germination in the blood of slaughtered Danes (Gomme. 1908). Anyway, this juice was taken as a representation of human blood, and by the doctrine of signatures the plant was applied to all bleeding wounds (Dyer. 1889). Actually, the leaves do have antiseptic properties, and they were certainly used to cover open flesh wounds before bandaging became common (Genders. 1971). Gerard said that it

Virginian Juniper

(Juniperus virginiana) Sometimes known as Pencil Juniper or Pencil Cedar - no other wood has been found that has just the right physical properties for the casing of lead pencils (Harper). But by the end of World War II, it had become extremely scarce, so it had to be replaced for pencil wood by Red Cedar (Calocedrus decurrens). (Lewington). Clothes chests are made of it, too, for the smell of the wood repels moths. Smoking crushed juniper berries is an American domestic medicine for catarrh (H M Hyatt), and earlier, Indian peoples had used it for a variety of ailments. Both leaves and berries boiled together were taken for coughs. Twigs were burned and the smoke inhaled for a cold in the head (Gilmore). The Kiowa chewed the berries as a remedy for canker sores in the mouth (Vestal & Schultes), while the Natchez used it in some way for mumps (Weiner).

White Bryony

Aubrey. 1686 7 quoted an instance of the use of the leaves for gout, and Lupton also recommended it for dropsy, These usages seem to stem from the doctrine of signatures the root suggested a swollen foot, so it would be used for such complaints as dropsy and gout. Chilblains were treated in Essex by rubbing the crushed berries on them (V G Hatfield. 1994). Of course, there are also examples of what can only be charms, for example, a so-called anodyne necklace used to be made of beads turned out of the root it was hung around the necks of babies to help teething, and to ward off convulsions. Probably the original use was to distract the evil eye (Maddox). There are also records of the roots being put at the head of bedsteads as charms to assist childbirth (Lovett), an obvious relic of the belief in the fertility powers of the root. Like a good many other things, a piece of bryony root carried in the pocket was reckoned to be a rheumatism cure, at least in Norfolk (M R Taylor. 1929)....


An increase in LOX activity is a common feature in senescent plant tissues. The catalysis of cis, cis-1,4-pentadiene structures is related to the critical role of LOX in plant tissue senescence. Treatments believed to delay the onset of senescence, such as the addition of cytokinins or antioxidants reduce the level of endogenous LOX relative to untreated controls (Siedow, 1991). Inhibition of LOX delays ripening and softening in peaches (Wu et al., 1999) and kiwifruit (Chen et al., 1999). LOX activity has also been correlated with plant tissue development (McLeod and Poole, 1994 Tanteeratarm et al., 1989), as well as pathogen (Avdiushko et al., 1993a Gardner, 1991 Ohta et al., 1990) and insect (Avdiushko et al., 1997 Duffey and Stout, 1996 Thaler et al., 1996) resistance mechanisms. The protective mechanism implicated is the further catabolism of oxidation products to jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate, which are members of an intracellular signal transduction chain transferring...


The use of WOODY NIGHTSHADE for skin complaints can be confirmed by the name sometimes given to this plant - Felonwort. That is a sure sign that it would have been used in curing whitlows which were called in Latin 'furunculi', little thieves - felons, in other words (Prior). Country people commonly used to take the berries of it, and having bruised them, they apply them to Felons, and thereby soon rid their fingers of such troublesome Guests (Culpeper). Irish country people have a herb poultice with which to dress a whitlow - YARROW leaves, fresh grass and a herb called finabawn, whatever that is. Equal parts of the herbs are ground up thoroughly, and then beaten up with white of egg. This is put on the inflamed finger, and it must not be changed for 48 hours (Logan). Another Irish charm is to point a GOOSEBERRY thorn at it nine times in the name of the Trinity (Wilde. 1902). A chewed TOBACCO leaf has been used in Scotland to cure a whitlow (Rorie. 1914). But the best known cure is...

Life Cycle

From the soil, virgin females emit a volatile sex pheromone that attracts clusters of males. Subsequent matings occur on food plants. The beetles typically feed from the upper surface of leaves, chewing out the tissue between the veins and leaving a lacelike skeleton. Adults also feed on petals of flowers such as roses, and on developing fruits or berries. Food plants growing in sunny locations are preferred. Usually the beetles begin to feed on foliage near the top of a plant, regardless of its height. They often aggregate on particular shoots or plants. This phenomenon results from both sexes being attracted to blends of aromatic volatile compounds released from beetle-damaged leaves. Despite the beetles' broad host range, some plant species are rarely or never fed upon. Closely related cultivars within species may also differ in susceptibility. Resistance probably results from presence of feeding deterrents (e.g., certain phenolics) or other secondary plant compounds. Some plants...

June Beetles

June beetles, sometimes called May beetles or june bugs, are heavy-bodied, brownish, plant-feeding scarab beetles (Fig. 1A). Almost all species are nocturnal in their habits. The adults are voracious feeders on leaves of many deciduous trees, shrubs, and some herbaceous plants. Their larvae, called white grubs, develop in the soil, where they feed on plant roots and can be pests of turf and pasture grasses, young nursery stock, corn, small grains, potatoes, strawberries, and other agricultural crops.

Wild Strawberry

(Fragaria vesca) Often confused with the Barren Strawberry, which is no relation, and belongs to an entirely different genus. Nobody seems to agree about how strawberry got its name. Of course, we put straw around the plants to protect the fruit, but the name was streawberige in OE times. The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology admits it does not know the derivation. Anyway, the fruit has always been much appreciated to quote Aubrey - strawberries have moist delicious taste, and are so innocent that a woman in childbed, or one in a feaver, may safely eate them.

Woody Nightshade

(Solanum dulcamara) Most plants with red berries have some kind of magical association, rowan being the prime example. The connection may be with lightning, and the consequent protective faculty, or it may be with the fairies. Like honeysuckle, woody nightshade used to have names in Germany that fixed it firmly in the latter category - names like Alprauke, Alpkraut, etc., - elfwort, that is (Grimm). In Lincolnshire, collars made from the branches of this plant were hung around pigs if it were reckoned they were overlooked, and elsewhere, garlands of the flowers, with holly, were put round the necks of horses if they were hag-ridden (Wright. 1913). To quote John Aubrey A receipt to cure a horse of being Hag-ridden - take Bittersweet woody nightshade , and Holly. Twist them together, and hang it about the Horses neck like a Garland it will certainly cure him. Culpeper thought so, too it is excellent good to remove Witchcraft both in Men and Beasts. In the Warwickshire villages of...

Common spices

Also known as Jamaican pepper, allspice is ground from the hard brown berries of the allspice tree, which grows in Mexico and throughout the Caribbean. Allspice is so named because it imparts the flavor of nutmeg, cloves, and cinnamon. An excellent addition to marinades, allspice is also used to flavor cured and jerked meat, desserts, and sauces. It is also an ingredient in gingerbread. The finest allspice trees are thought to be grown in Jamaica. Use the spice sparingly to avoid overpowering other ingredients. The hard purple berries of an evergreen bush, juniper berries have a turpentine-like flavor. Juniper berries add a spicy, pungent flavor to game, red cabbage, or meat stews. Juniper berries give gin its flavor. Berries should be crushed before they are used.