Irf9530

Figure 8.37 An isolated dc dc rated at 3 kV with a maximum 60-Hz leakage of a 2- a A converter powers the battery charger circuitry. A single-chip gel-cell charge controller IC (UC3906) charges two sealed 12-V batteries. Q4 switches power to the high-voltage power supply from the +24-V battery. This switch is tumed-on by Q5 upon receipt of the appropriate command from the shock-box microcontroller. IC9 produces 5 V to run the microcontroller and associated logic. Figure 8.37 An isolated dc dc...

Clinical Uses Of Electrical Stimulation

Clinical electrical stimulation is simply the application of electrical currents to a body, be it for function or therapy. As we just discussed, the current of electrons passing through the wires is converted into a current of ions moved within the tissue, which are in turn capable of transporting electrical charge across the membranes of excitable tissues. The purpose of these applied currents is to cause the targeted depolarization of nerve and or muscle to threshold. The most common clinical...

Electrode 2

Interferential Frequency Circuit

Figure 7.19 Circuit of a battery-powered, two-channel TENS unit. IC1 produces a pulse every time the stimulation channels need to be triggered. The trigger frequency can be varied between 3 and 100 Hz. Burst TENS is activated when SW2 connects the reset line of timer IC3 periodically to inhibit IC1 from oscillating. Modulated TENS is enabled by closing SW3, which allows a triangle wave generated by IC2 to modulate the frequency of IC1. The electrodes are driven by step-up transformer Tl....

Pasteless Biopotential Electrodes

Unfortunately, standard anodization breaks down in the presence of saline (e.g., from sweat), making the electrodes unreliable for long-term use. A relatively new anodization process was used by Lisa Sagi-Dolev, the former head of R& D at the Israeli Airforce Aeromedical Center, and one of us Prutchi and Sagi-Dolev, 1993 to manufacture pasteless EEG electrodes that could be embedded in flight helmets. The hard anodization Super coating process developed by the Sanford Process...