Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

ADHD Helping Your Anxious Child Audio

ADHD Helping Your Anxious Child Audio

Has Your Child Been Diagnosed With ADHD Is Coping With Your Child's Behavior Wearing You Out Are You Tired of Searching For Answers An ADHD child does not have to have a dark cloud over his or her head. If You've Got Burning Questions About ADHD, I've Got Answers.

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The Parenting Adhd Resource Guide

You will find: 6 behavioral strategies. 6 behavioral strategies that you can use today to improve your child's behavior (page 52) The key to success. Why being Smart is the key to success with your child (page 53) The absolute best way. The absolute best way to tackle other people who say that Adhd is a myth and cop out for bad parenting (page 55) Rewards to improve your child's behaviors.Discover the exact type of rewards that you can use to improve your child's behaviors .and the exact type of rewards to avoid at all costs (page 57) 10 sure-fire techniques.10 sure-fire techniques to use when your child has problems in keeping attention; that will help them at home and in school (page 58) The real truth about Adhd and playing computer games.The real truth about Adhd and kids playing computer games (and believe me it's not what you might think.) (page 64) 8 practical tips.8 practical tips that you can use to deal with the challenges of a moody teenager with Adhd and reduce the conflict now (page 70) How to overcome the feelings of stress.How to overcome the feelings of stress and being overwhelmed when you are the parent of an Adhd child (page 74) The key actions.The key actions you must take if your Adhd child is becoming a danger at home; to make thing safer all round (page 79).

The Parenting Adhd Resource Guide Summary


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How To Conquer Add / Adhd

Number 1 Guide On How To Cope With Attention Deficit Disorder, Add Adhd. Inside this research collection, you will: Learn about Add / Adhd in Laymens Terms and find out more about the Keys to Success in dealing with the disorder. Cut to the chase reading. No wasting your time, your money and your patience. Arm yourself with knowledge about the causes and symptoms of Add / Adhd, in children and in adults. And find out where to go for testing and a diagnosis. Take action now to get started on the Success Path instead of plodding along on the Ignorance Trail. Uncover specific ways to help children (yours or someone elses) who have been diagnosed with Add / Adhd. Use our handy resources, network, learn more ways and get more help. Tailor strategies that work for Both you and the child. Read overviews about many successful treatment strategies along with detailed information about how to pinpoint specific options available in Your area (i.e. where You live). No more waiting to find out who can help or where to go. Print out our basic questions to ask when you are trying to learn more about Add / Adhd so that you can keep a journal of handy information for follow up reference and quick help along the way. Save money, time, aggravation, stress, hair from being pulled out, and much moreby Printing out and using our, How to Set Up and Use Organizer & Filing Systems, step-by-step action plan. Fill your notebook with your own planner sheets downloaded from our resource section and use them Now! No more waiting for a better day. Its here and its time to get organized. Read more here...

How To Conquer Add Adhd Summary

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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its variants are disorders of unknown etiology, but with a strong familial component and a higher incidence in males. It is being increasingly recognized in adults, but no criteria specific to this population have been proposed. By definition, it begins in childhood, helping to differentiate ADHD from many disorders of attention that may arise in adulthood. Examples of the latter include attentional problems because of head trauma, substance abuse, depression, or causes of encephalopathy.

Attentiondeficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Initial reports of deficiencies of essential fatty acids among children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and dyslexia raised the promise of potential nondrug treatments. Convincing treatment data from interventional trials has not yet been reported. (Stevens et al. (1995) found that 53 subjects with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder had significantly lower concentrations of AA, EPA, and DHA in plasma polar phospholipids when compared to 43 control subjects. (Stordy 1995) has described decreased rod function comparing 10 young dyslexics to 10 controls. In an open trial, supplementation with a fish oil containing 480 mg of DHA d for 1 mo improved scotopic vision among these dyslexics. Stordy (2000) has also reported that supplementation with a mixture of essential fatty acids improved motor skills in a open trial of 15 children. Two well-controlled, double-blind placebo-controlled trials among children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder supplemented with...

The Molecular Genetics of ADHD

Babinsky Sign

Molecular genetic studies have already implicated several genes as mediating the susceptibility to ADHD. Researchers have examined candidate genes in dopamine pathways because animal models, theoretical considerations, and the effectiveness of stimulant treatment implicate dopaminergic dysfunction in the pathophysiology of this disorder. Dopamine is a neural trans- mitter in the brain used in both movement control and pleasure reward systems. In its simplest form, the dopamine hypothesis holds that excess clearance of dopamine between neurons may contribute to ADHD. Many studies have focused on the D4 dopamine receptor gene (DRD4) which encodes a protein receptor that mediates the post-synaptic action of dopamine. A meta-analysis of these studies showed a small but statistically significant association, which could not be accounted for by any single study or by publication biases. Although the nature of the mutations in DRD4 have not been conclusively described, a version of the gene...

The Genetic Epidemiology of ADHD

Family, twin, and adoption studies provide strong support for the idea that genes influence the etiology of ADHD. Family studies find the parents and siblings of ADHD children to have a five-fold increase in the risk for ADHD. Children of ADHD adults have a ten-fold increase in risk, which has led to the idea that persistent cases of ADHD may have a stronger genetic component. Consistent with a genetic theory of ADHD, second-degree relatives (such as cousins) are at increased risk for the disorder but their risk is lower than that seen in first-degree relatives. Family studies have provided evidence for the genetic heterogeneity of ADHD. Studies that systematically assess other psychiatric disorders suggest that ADHD and major depression often occur together in families that ADHD children with conduct and or bipolar disorders might be a distinct familial subtype of ADHD and that ADHD is familially independent from anxiety disorders and learning disabilities. It may therefore be...


Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood illness with prevalence between 3 and 16 . It is characterized by hyperactivity, impulsiveness, impairment in academic, social, and occupational functioning, and short attention span. OSA is also a common medical problem in children with a prevalence rate of 2 in general pediatric populations 130 . Several studies have reported a relationship between ADHD and sleep problems 131,132 . Parents of children with ADHD report decreased nocturnal sleep efficiency and sleep fragmentation in their children as compared to parents of healthy controls 133 . Experimental sleep restriction, leading to daytime somnolence, is associated with ADHD-like behavior and poor cognitive functioning. Golan and colleagues found that children with ADHD had a high prevalence of primary sleep disorders and objective daytime somnolence 134 . Thus, in evaluating children with ADHD symptoms, it is wise to consider the possibility that undiagnosed...

Importance Of Friendships

Finally, disturbed peer relations are often found among children with learning disabilities, and those with emotional and behavioral problems. Specifically, children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) commonly have impaired social functioning and disturbed peer relations, which begin in early childhood and persist into adolescence.

Clinical Description

NF1 usually presents with pigmentary features. Multiple cafe-au-lait macules begin in early childhood, and skin-fold freckles appear between 3 and 5 years of age. 2 Iris Lisch nodules are melanocytic hamartomas that are useful in diagnosis but are clinically silent. 3 Other common nontumor manifestations include skeletal dys-plasia, macrocephaly, vascular dysplasia, and learning disabilities. Skeletal dysplasia most often affects long bones, particularly the tibia. 4 Tibial dysplasia presents in infancy and creates risk of fracture. Orbital dysplasia occurs in association with trigeminal plexiform neurofi-broma. Children with NF1 tend to be short and have relative or absolute macrocephaly. 5 Vascular dysplasia consists of nodular proliferation within the arterial wall and may cause arterial stenosis or hemorrhage due to dissection. 6 Learning disabilities occur in at least 50 of affected individuals and include both verbal and nonverbal problems. 7 There may also be attention deficit...

Why Observe Students In The Classroom

An increasingly popular reason to observe students in a classroom is as part of an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessment, where the observer (often the school psychologist) monitors student behavior including time-on-task, impulsive actions (such as blurting out answers without raising one's hand or without teacher request), and interpersonal skills. Observations of this type complement other sources of information gathered in the ADHD assessment process. Additionally, when a student is diagnosed with ADHD, an intervention program is usually created (either medical, behavioral, or a combination of both), and classroom observations should be completed to monitor the student's behavior during the program to determine its effectiveness. This information is especially valuable when there is prediagnosis observation data the student's behavior before and after the intervention can be compared to see if there is any change. An applied behavior analysis (ABA) uses...

Legislation and Governmental Recognition

In retrospect the whole idea of 'categories of handicap' seems problematic. In some cases, certainly, children could be said to have one particular handicap in other cases, however, there were overlapping handicaps. In the last two decades there has been greater recognition of dyspraxia (clumsy child syndrome) and of ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). In some cases there is co-morbidity with dyslexia in some cases not. We owe to the Warnock Report a wider public recognition that children cannot always be fitted into pre-specified categories there are all kinds of overlap.

Diagnosis And Labeling

Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Combined Type Predominantly Inattentive Type Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive type Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Not *Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder falls into this special education category.

Background Information

In the Fall of 1999, he was diagnosed with Attention Deficit Disorder and is on Ritalin (20 mg slow-release in the morning and 7 mg at noon). His mother believes that this dosage is working well for Sam. His parents do not have any behavior concerns. According to school records, Sam passed both vision and hearing screenings in the Fall of 1998.

Possible Implications Of Observations In Rat In Human Behavior

Attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is known to be typical among atopic patients (Stevens, 1995, 1996). Atopic dermatitis is treated effectively with steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and other antiallergic drugs that exert their effects mainly by inhibiting the cascade of LA ARA lipid mediators of allergic, inflammatory reactions receptors (LA cascade). Clinically, decreasing the intake of LA and increasing the intake of n-3 fatty acids that are competitive effectors of the LA cascade and partial agonists for the lipid mediator receptors were shown to be effective for the prevention of atopic dermatitis (Kato, 2000) and other allergic hyperreactivities (Ashida, 1997). In rodents suffering from n-3 fatty acid deficiency, the observed decrease in the feedback suppression of negative responses in the brightness-discrimination learning test (Fig. 3) and the increase in anxiety in the elevated plus-maze test (Nakashima, 1993) appear to have characteristics common to ADHD in...

Consultation Conjoint Behavioral

There is an extensive and growing body of empirical research that has demonstrated the effectiveness of CBC. A large-scale study (Sheridan & colleagues, 2001) found CBC to be an acceptable and effective mode of treatment for children's academic, social, and behavioral difficulties in naturalistic environments. This four-year longitudinal study reported positive, moderate-to-large effect sizes across home and school settings. Additionally, experimental small n-studies (e.g., studies done with one or few subjects) and case studies demonstrate that CBC is successful in treating children with irrational fears, increasing social initiation behaviors of socially withdrawn children, increasing positive social interactions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and improving academic performance. Finally, CBC has been found to be a more acceptable model than teacher-only consultation (Freer & Watson, 1999).

Written Language Assessment

A growing number of students in our school systems are experiencing difficulty with written expression. The etiology of these problems is certainly not singular and often is the result of a mixture of factors. The source of underachievement in written expression for some students rests with thinking or oral language abilities. Learning to organize experiences or transforming ideas to oral language is the key instructional goal for such individuals (e.g., language or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). Other students are fluent in developing ideas and demonstrate adequate oral language abilities. However, the breakdown for these students might be in the coding of oral language into written symbols (e.g., dyslexia). Students demonstrating significant social cognition problems (e.g., autism, Asperger's disorder) encounter problems with a sense of audience. Motivational or anxiety problems surrounding the process of writing can interfere with fluency and quality of text for any...

Research On Classwide Peer Tutoring

Moderate and severe disabilities in middle school (McDonnell & colleagues, 2001), students with mild mental retardation in inclusive classroom settings (Mortweet & colleagues, 1999), and students with ADHD (DuPaul & colleagues, 1998). Kamps and colleagues (1994) also found that CWPT is effective with students with autism.

Selfmanagement Populations And Behaviors

Substantial research has supported the use of self-management interventions, documenting positive gains for a wide variety of students (Shapiro & Cole, 1994). Self-management interventions have produced positive changes for students with various school difficulties and disabilities, including students with autism, learning disabilities, emotional and behavioral disorders, health-related concerns, and mild to severe cognitive impairments. Additionally, self-management has been used in special education and general education classrooms, and on an individual or a classwide basis. Generally, self-management strategies can be effective for all ages or disability groups however, adapted procedures may be needed depending on the population and the goal. For example, students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may need more specific feedback for both their desirable and undesirable behaviors.

Bipolar Disorder Childhood Onset

Not only do some of the behaviors associated with BD occur in the course of normal development, but diagnosis of BD in children often can cause a dilemma because of the degree of symptom overlap between BD and other disorders. Disorders that may mask or mimic BD include attention deficit hyper-activity disorder (ADHD), unipolar depression (e.g., major depressive disorder), conduct disorder (CD), and schizophrenia. Clearly, diagnosis of any one or more of these disorders (e.g., BD, ADHD, CD, depression, or schizophrenia) will result in very different

Psychiatric presentations of OSA

OSA patients complain of various neuropsychiatric symptoms. Cognitive impairment 21 and affective disorders such as depression are frequently encountered in OSA. In addition, a high prevalence of other psychiatric symptoms such as anxiety, somatization, ADHD-type, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms have been reported in these patients 22,23 . Clinicians can also encounter nocturnal panic attacks, diverse parasomnias, delirium, psychosis, personality change, and violent outbursts in some OSA patients 24-30 . Therefore, practicing psychiatrists and psychologists must consider OSA in the differential diagnosis of a large number of psychiatric presentations.

Challenges In Attention

This disorder is characterized by problems in attention, impulse control, and sometimes with activity level. Many people may have difficulty with attention but do not qualify for a diagnosis of ADHD. It is likely that attentional skills lie along a continuum. Because attentional abilities can differ among children, even those without ADHD, providing assistance for these attentional skills in the classroom is an important function of teachers. Providing frequent breaks, allowing the child to break tasks into smaller parts, teaching the child how to budget and manage time, and providing reminders and support are techniques that assist children with attentional difficulty. Visual cues are particularly helpful for children and people with attentional difficulty. Children with attentional difficulties who participate in classrooms that allow for cooperative learning and provide hands-on or visual support are often more successful. See also Attention Deficit...

Oppositional Defiant Disorder

Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a childhood disorder that is characterized by undercontrolled, non-compliant, defiant, and socially disruptive behavior. ODD is classified as a disruptive behavior disorder along with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD). The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) specifies that youth must exhibit four of the following behaviors for at least six months for a diagnosis of ODD to be made (American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Research shows that ODD is frequently accompanied by other disruptive behavior disorders (e.g., ADHD, CD), developmental disorders (e.g., mental retardation), and affective disorders (e.g., depression). Wenning and colleagues (1993) found that 79 of their subjects originally diagnosed with ODD also had a diagnosis of depression or developmental disorder, leaving only 21 of their sample with a sole diagnosis of ODD. Some comorbid...

Complex Behaviors Complex Causes

Thus, for use and abuse of alcohol, we know that the importance of genetic and environmental effects changes with sequencing in the use and abuse of alcohol, from abstinence or initiation to frequency of regular consumption, to problems associated with consumption, and ultimately, to diagnosed alcoholism and end-organ damage from the cumulative effects of alcohol. Similar stories could be told for many other behaviors of interest. Thus, for the major psychopathologies, from depression and schizophrenia in adults to attention deficit disorder in children or eating disorders in adolescents, genetic influences are invariably part of the story but never the whole story.

Developmental Learning Disability

Combinations of letters, such as the th (graphemes), into their associated speech sounds or phonemes. These investigators also assessed the art and nonart students' phonological skills and found that the art students' skills were significantly poorer than were those of the nonart students. Similarly, Eisen (1989) assessed the creative ability of children with and without learning disabilities. Eisen found that the children with learning disabilities performed better than the children without learning disabilities on the nonverbal task, but not on the verbal task. Winner and coworkers (2001), however, could not replicate these findings. Children with dyslexia often have other behavioral disorders, such as attention deficit disorder with or without hyperac-tivity, and although these disorders might have influenced the results of these types of experiments, the authors attempted to correct for these comorbid disorders, but still did not find that the dyslexic group had superior spatial...

Psychotropic Medications

Important advances in psychotropic medications and significant developments in neuroscience have complemented our growing knowledge about the structural and functional differences of the central nervous system (CNS) in children diagnosed with learning disorders and emotional problems (Brown & Sammons, 2002). However, in spite of these recent advances, researchers and clinicians note that clinical use of psychotropic medications in children exceeds our knowledge about the efficacy and safety of these drugs. Unfortunately, no statistical database exists on how many children and adolescents are receiving psychotropic medications for specific disorders. However, some surveys with specific psychotropic drugs (i.e., stimulants) suggest increased use of these drugs (Safer & colleagues, 1999). The psychiatric disorders for which psychotropic medications have been most used include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, enuresis, mental retardation, and Tourette's syndrome.

Gender And Disabilities

The school experience is further complicated and the future even more uncertain for students with disabilities. Males have higher rates of autism, psychoses, and schizophrenia, as well as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities. Females are more likely to be diagnosed with depression however, teenage males are more likely to commit suicide. Female teens are more likely to display eating disorders. Many disorders have a genetic basis however, social expectations also contribute to gender differences in prevalence. Hyperactivity Disorder Bullying and Victimization

Internet and the World Wide

Sites that are regularly updated to provide school psychologists with current legal, ethical, and technical information. These sites cover topics ranging from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to crisis intervention. List serves support communities of learners for professionals with similar interests or who are engaging in online professional development.

Course Prevalence and Treatment

Although the longitudinal course of this condition and its prevalence in adulthood have been sources of controversy, a growing literature has documented the persistence of ADHD into adulthood, with about two-thirds of ADHD children continuing to experience impairing symptoms of the disorder though adulthood. Over time, symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity are more likely to diminish compared with symptoms of inattention. Prevalence studies from North America, Europe, and Asia show that ADHD affects about 5 percent of the population. The impact of the disorder on society, in terms of financial cost, stress to families, and disruption in schools and workplaces, is enormous. Although current treatments for the disorder are not 100 percent effective, clinical trials have shown that stimulant medications, such as methylphenidate and amphetamine, relieve symptoms and lessen adverse outcomes, while showing few adverse side effects. Because these medicines increase the availability of...

Value to Industry and Research

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a condition characterized by inattention and or impulsivity and hyperactivity that begins in children prior to the age of seven. Their inattention leads to daydreaming, distractibility, and difficulties sustaining effort on a single task for a prolonged period of time. Their impulsivity disrupts classrooms and creates problems with peers, as they blurt out answers, interrupt others, or shift from schoolwork to inappropriate activities. Their hyperactivity is frustrating to those around them and poorly tolerated at school. Children with ADHD show academic underachievement and conduct problems. As they grow older, they are at risk for low self-esteem, poor peer relationships, conflict with parents, delinquency, smoking, and substance abuse.

Treatment of SWST

A 24-year-old man, self-referred for evaluation of longstanding weekly bad dreams, 1-3 hours after sleep onset, described sudden arousals with screaming, shortness of breath, fearfulness of panic proportions, and attempts to fight or flee from imagined threats resulting in injuries such as lacerations when putting his arms through glass windows. He was generally amnestic for the spells unless awakened by someone during their course. Dentists had commented to him about dental erosion suggestive of bruxism and bed partners had reported frequent somniloquy (sleep-talking). Past history included enuresis until age 11, childhood attention deficit disorder and learning disability, and alcohol and cannabis abuse in remission. PSG revealed unremarkable sleep architecture and three auditory stimulus-induced abrupt arousals, one with complex behavior of sitting up, screaming, and rapidly removing all firmly adherent electrodes while clearly not awake and misperceiving the environment. Diagnosis...


Students at risk for expulsion include those with disruptive behavior problems, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder. Given that these are male-dominated disorders, it is not surprising that boys are twice as likely as girls to be expelled from school, according to the U.S. Department of Education. Research by Morrison and D'Incau (1997) shows that students with a history of special education, including below-average grades and achievement scores, are also at risk, particularly when children exhibit emotional and behavioral risk factors in addition to their disability. A student with a disability is given a manifestation determination hearing following the decision for expulsion, which involves a meeting of the student's Individualized Education Plan (IEP) team. If it is determined that the misconduct resulted from the student's disability or from an inappropriate placement for the disability, then the student cannot be expelled. Although school...

Tourettes Syndrome

Some psychiatric disorders, like Tourette's syndrome, have significant overlap (co-morbidity) with other psychiatric disorders (OCD and ADHD in the case of Tourette's). This may make the elucidation of genetic causes more difficult. Tourette's syndrome is characterized by multiple motor tics and one or more vocal tics. It has onset before eighteen years and is one and one-half to three times more common in males. Twin, adoption, and segregation analysis studies support a genetic etiology for Tourette's syndrome. An autosomal dominant inheritance was initially suggested, but other inheritance patterns have been recently reported. There appears to be a relation with ADHD (up to 50 percent of individuals with Tourette's also have ADHD) and OCD (up to 40 percent of individuals with Tourette's have OCD). First-degree relatives are at high risk for developing tics and obsessive compulsive disorders.


Etiology refers to the presumed cause of an individual's difficulties. Typically with children and adolescents, the range of potential single or multiple causes to explain the difficulties these individuals encounter is often extensive (Kamphaus & Frick, 2002). For example, a host of etiologies have been suggested to explain the occurrence of an attention deficit hyperac-tivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents, including neurological factors (e.g., prenatal and perinatal complications abnormalities in brain structure, function, or chemistry exposure to environmental toxins and infections), genetic factors, and environmental factors (e.g., certain parenting characteristics and parenting styles, chaotic home environment, and poverty). The etiologies of some difficulties or disorders may be solely biological, psychological, social, or a combination of the three. Knowledge of the etiology is relevant to school psychologists engaged in educational and psychological practice in...

Lead Exposure

Lead exposure impairs the formation of synapses, interferes with neurotrans-mitters, damages the covering of motor nerves, and affects metabolism by competing with iron and calcium for absorption (Kalat & Wurm, 1999). At extremely high levels, lead can cause permanent damage to the brain. Yet, evidence doesn't support the long-term neuropsychological effects from mild exposure to lead (Phelps & Nathanson, 1998). Although lead exposure is correlated with impaired motor and visual perceptual skills, poor school performance, absenteeism, deviant behavior, and ADHD, lead can't be identified as a primary cause because of other confounding variables (Kalat & Wurm, 1999). Because the severity and permanency of these effects remain controversial and inconclusive, more research is necessary.

Hearing Disorders

Children with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) evidence difficulty processing information that is presented orally despite normal hearing. The speech-language pathologist and an audiologist typically conduct the assessment and provide treatment strategies. However, children with CAPD often exhibit symptoms similar to attention deficit hyper-activity disorder (ADHD). That is, children with CAPD are often inattentive, distractible, have difficulty following directions, exhibit behavior problems, and demonstrate poor auditory attention and memory. In light of the behavioral manifestations and similarities between ADHD and CAPD, collaboration with the school psychologist for differential diagnosis is recommended.


Applied to benefit individuals primarily from birth through age 18 years. Recently, however, there has been an impetus for school psychologists to study and conduct research on issues pertaining to individuals across the life span, because learning is believed to continue indefinitely. Although research in school psychology is usually conducted in schools or other educational settings (e.g., residential facilities for individuals with disabilities, therapeutic nurseries), there is no particular limitation imposed on where data may be collected. Similarly, there is no limitation placed on who may collect the data (e.g., academicians, practitioners, graduate students, or paraprofessionals). The participants in research studies may include young children, college students, individuals with specific disorders (e.g., learning disabilities, autism, attention deficit disorder), or other individuals.


Antidepressant agents are usually used to treat symptoms of depression in the pediatric population. These agents have also been shown to improve symptoms of ADHD, obsessive-compulsive disorder, (OCD) and enuresis. The SSRIs are the first line treatment for depression (Werry & Aman, 1998). These exert their effects by selectively blocking serotonin reuptake. The SSRIs currently available are fluoxetine HCl (Prozac), sertraline HCl (Zoloft), paroxetine HCl (Paxil), fluvoxamine (Luvox), and citalopram (Celexa). The only SSRI that has received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for use with children and adolescents is sertraline HCl (Werry & Aman, 1998). Fluvoxamine also is approved for children and adults to manage OCD. Some common adverse side effects for the SSRIs include dry mouth, nausea, restlessness, and weight gain. However, these effects are usually mild and fleeting. Less common adverse side effects include blurred vision, dermatitis, and sexual dysfunction (Werry &...


Labels such as autism, schizophrenia, learning disability, and attention deficit disorder are names given to a group of observable behaviors that generally aid in describing individuals and their characteristics. For example, if a child is labeled autistic then one expects to see particular behaviors such as mimicking others' statements and engaging in stereotypies or repetitive behaviors (e.g., rocking back and forth, hand-flapping, and finger-waving). Furthermore, a label of autism would signify behaviors such as a lack of social response, moving away from

Model Of Attention

Posner and Raichle (1994) proposed a model of attention that involves three networks, with specific brain areas implicated for each network. The type of network activated depends upon how much conscious awareness is required for the particular attention task. The first network consists of the right frontal portion of the brain and a system that runs through the brainstem that permits the maintenance of alertness and vigilance. This system is the most basic network for attention and allows a person to attend to the environment. The second network includes the posterior portion of the brain and structures in the center of the brain that are instrumental in the disengagement and orientation of attention to a new stimulus object or location. The third network, which is the most complex, consists of deep central structures and the front part of the brain, all of which have been implicated in the executive network of attention. This executive network plans and organizes the attended...

Time On Task

Low time on task has been suggested by Barkley (1990) to be one of the most consistent school behavior problems displayed by children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, it is important to acknowledge that low time on task is associated with a number of other classroom challenges. For example, Brock (1998a) reports that developmental immaturity, learning disabilities, intellectual precocity, environmental stress, poor achievement motivation, and psychopathology are all potential causes of off-task behavior. See also Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Behavioral

Drug Treatment

Experimental use may be associated with family problems, including various forms of abuse, or mental health problems such as depression or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These should be addressed through assessment and case management, if available, or referral. Both problem and habitual drug use (or addiction) generally require referrals to comprehensive programs that include behavioral therapy, family involvement, remediation programs to improve school performance, and attachment and other mental health interventions, as needed. Programs should address the needs of children and their families, taking into consideration such factors as age, race, culture, sexual orientation, gender, peer relations and networks, intimate relationships and pregnancy, personal and family financial situations, and exposure to violence or abuse.


In cases where previous erroneous diagnosis has occurred resulting in postsurgical or postradiation hypothyroidism, treatment with thyroid hormone can be started. As an outcome for successful therapy serum TSH can be used required T4 doses can be as high as 1000 xg day 12 . In the case of ADHD in RTH children it was found that T3 treatment improved symptoms 21 . Recently, ADHD symptoms in a child-bearing mutation F455I were successfully treated with TRIAC 22 . In another report, TRIAC was used to treat a fetus harboring a TRp mutation in utero to reduce fetal goiter 23 . Although treatment was successful up to a point, some controversy has arisen due to the fact that repeated chordocentesis was necessary (with all risks attached to it) and that we do not know enough about placental TRIAC transport and metabolism 12 .

The Dsmiv Approach

Child psychopathology is currently viewed from a variety of perspectives. One important perspective is embodied in the American Psychiatric Association's (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), which defines child psychopathology in terms of categories of disorders. For example, the DSM-IV defines attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), predominantly inattentive type, by nine symptom criteria such as often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities and is often forgetful in daily activities. A child who is deemed to display at least six of the nine symptoms and who also meets criteria for age of onset, duration of the symptoms, and impairment is diagnosed as having ADHD, predominantly inattentive type. The criteria are the same for both genders, all ages, and all sources of information. The most common DSM-IV diagnoses for children include ADHD, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, separation anxiety disorder,...

Editors introduction

Illnesses may present in psychiatric settings. This is particularly relevant to the practicing mental health clinician as many primary sleep disorders may present with neuropsychiatric symptoms, and several psychotropic medications can induce or exacerbate primary sleep disorders. Section 5 focuses specifically on insomnia, the most common sleep complaint in psychiatric practice. The principles of insomnia in psychiatric contexts, including the epidemiology and role of insomnia in the risk for development of and relapse to psychiatric illness are discussed. Additionally, separate chapters address pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments of insomnia. Section 6 (Chapters 15-23) details the nature of sleep disturbance in psychiatric illnesses across all major classes of psychiatric disorders including mood, anxiety, psychotic, cognitive, and addictive disorders. Additionally, chapters devoted to disorders primarily occurring in childhood, including atten-tion-deficit...

Case Example

A third-grade boy, Quincy, who was diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), was referred for an evaluation because he was hitting classmates daily during unstructured play and group work activities. The school psychologist conducted an A-B-C assessment over a period of three days and found that the most likely antecedents to Quincy's behavior were a preferred item being in the possession of a peer and the teacher's attention being diverted to other students. The most likely consequences for Quincy's behavior were access to the preferred item and to the teacher's attention in the form of reprimands. Thus, both tangible items and the teacher's attention were likely reinforcers for aggression. A brief 90-minute functional analysis was then conducted in which Quincy had access to teacher attention continuously during the first 30 minutes of the assessment, but had access to preferred items only 50 of this time. If a problem behavior occurred, he received the...


Perseveration is the repetition of a behavior to a marked degree that interferes with other activities. It manifests itself in either a verbal or nonverbal manner, or both. Furthermore, to the outside observer, this repetition may appear purposeless in nature because children will persist despite discouragement and an apparent lack of incentives. It should be noted, however, that perseveration can offer sensory stimulation for some children. In children, perseveration can be characteristic of a variety of mental disorders or syndromes such as mental retardation, communication disorders, pervasive developmental disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, tic disorders, stereotypic movement disorder, schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Additionally, perseveration can result from brain injury and substance abuse. In terms of educational implications of perseveration, children who per-severate are likely to experience difficulty...


Stimulants are the first-line pharmacological treatment for ADHD (Brown & Sawyer, 1998 Phelps & colleagues, 2002). They do not affect the natural course of the disorder but help manage its specific symptoms. Many types of stimulants are available to clinicians, including dextroamphetamine (i.e., Adderall and Dexedrine), magnesium pemoline (Cylert), and methyl-phenidate (i.e., Ritalin, Concerta, Metadate CD, and Focalin). It is thought that these drugs take effect by increasing the reuptake of dopamine or norepinephrine at the synapse. Because of its severe side effect of liver toxicity, magnesium pemoline is no longer recommended to manage ADHD.


A language-based learning disability occurs in 15 to 20 of the population. The lack of specific criteria for the diagnosis of dyslexia makes it difficult to determine an exact prevalence of the learning disability (Padget, 1998). Dyslexia occurs fairly equally among males and females, and among different ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds (International Dyslexia Association, 2003). Children with a phonological disorder have an increased risk of later having a reading disorder (Tunick & Pennington, 2002). Phonological disorders are manifested by errors in sound production, use, representation, or substitutions and omissions of sounds. People who have a phonological disorder or a reading disorder are at an increased risk of having other disorders. For example, approximately 50 of those diagnosed with a learning or reading disorder have also been diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (International Dyslexia Association, 2003).


A large body of studies supports a comorbid relationship, as high as 70 , between learning disabilities and attention deficit disorder (ADD) (with or without hyperactivity). Children diagnosed with a specific learning disability and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit common characteristics such as difficulty attending to a task, dis-tractibility, unevenness in their learning and thinking abilities, and social immaturity. Equipped with this information, the school psychologist will be able to develop an intervention plan that meets the specific needs of the child. Understanding why different disorders co-occur may provide important opportunities for prevention and intervention.


DSM-IV-TR facilitates communication and consultation across multiple settings. Mental health professionals in clinical settings use the manual for diagnostic decision making within a comprehensive evaluation to guide treatment planning and development, to communicate service need to third-party payers like insurance companies, and to improve communication with others who may work with the client such as physicians and teachers. Within school settings, the use of the DSM-IV-TR is limited and used in combination with educational categories derived from the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Eligibility for special educational programming is based on the presence of a special educational classification from IDEA such as Other Health Impairment or Learning Disabilities. For these two examples, one might find comparable symptom profiles within DSM-IV-TR under categories termed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Reading Disorder, respectively. The lack of...