Mitragynine

Morphine

Much less work has been done in the Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, and Rosidae. In the Rosidae, the family Anacardiaceae would be worth studying for GABAergic activity because Risa et al. observed that extracts of Rhus tridentate and Rhus rehmanniana are traditionally used to treat epilepsy and convulsions in South Africa, and they have good dose-dependent activity in the GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor binding assay (137). Other Rosidae of interest are Crassulaceae, where Bryophyllum pinnatum produced a dose-dependent prolongation of onset and duration of pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis, reduction of exploratory activities in the head-dip and evasion tests in rodents, and delayed onset to convulsion in both strychnine- and picrotoxin-induced seizures (138). Note that Caryophyllidae is still unexplored and the question arises as to whether peptides and oligosaccharides active on the CNS await discovery in this vast taxon.

The evidence for the existence of psychopharmaceutical principles in the Liliopsida is strong, and it seems likely that further research on neuroactive substances from the monocots might pay off sooner or later. An interesting development from Liliopsida is the search of GABAergic and dopaminergic agents from Orchidaceae and Araceae, respectively. A water extract of the dried rhizome of Acorus gramineus Soland. dose-dependently inhibits the locomotor activity and the intensity of apomorphine-induced stereotypic behavior, and potentiates pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in rodents at dose 0.5-5.0 g/kg. Receptor binding assays showed that the extract displaced [3H]SCH-23390 and [3H]YM-09151-2 for specific binding to striatal dopamine D1 and D2 and competed with [3H]muscimol for specific binding to the GABA binding site of cortex GABAa receptors (139).

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