Home Remedies for Anorexia
We have all been there: turning to the refrigerator if feeling lonely or bored or indulging in seconds or thirds if strained. But if you suffer from bulimia, the from time to time urge to overeat is more like an obsession.
Eating disorders are most common in industrialized societies such as the United States, Canada, Japan, Australia, and Europe (Davison & Neale, 1998). In the United States, the incidence rate of anorexia nervosa is eight times higher in white women than in nonwhite women. White teenage girls are reported to diet more frequently and are more likely to be dissatisfied with their bodies (Davison & Neale, 1998). Hughes and colleagues (2001) report that overall, eating disorders are most common in Native American cultures, and are found to be more common in white and Hispanic cultures than in Asian and African American cultures. A variety of etiological factors contribute to eating disorders. These include biological predisposition, personality, family dysfunction, and cultural values with regard to body image. From a biological perspective, female relatives of young women with an eating disorder are five times more likely to have an eating disorder. Davison and Neale (1998) found a 47...
A variety of treatment plans are available for individuals with eating disorders. Many hospitals and eating disorder clinics offer support groups for friends and families, as well as group therapy for clients. Individual and family therapy approaches may consist of behavioral, cognitive, cognitive-behavioral, and psychodynamic techniques (Davison & Neale, 1998). Behavioral counseling may involve reinforcing good eating habits. Generally, a reward system is used as an incentive to encourage healthier eating habits (Davison & Neale, 1998). Psychodynamic approaches may look at possible family antecedents from early childhood that may be linked to the onset of the disorder. Cognitive therapies are used to reframe negative misconceptions and false irrational beliefs. Other areas of treatment for eating disorders include nutritional counseling and dental work. A school psychologist can help protect students by providing information to parents, educators, and students about the signs and...
Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder of complex and life-threatening proportions. It is an illness of starvation that is brought on by a severe disturbance of body image and a morbid fear of obesity. One in 250 adolescents are affected, and tragically, about 5 of those affected die. Anorexia nervosa is characterized by a person's refusal to maintain a minimally normal body weight for her or his height and age. This is done through inadequate food intake with no medical reason to account for weight loss. A distorted body image, dominated by an intense fear of obesity, leads to a relentless pursuit of an unreasonable and unhealthy thinness. Anorexia has four primary characteristics fear of becoming obese despite weight loss a distorted body image body weight 15 less than normal because of a refusal to eat and in females past puberty, the absence of three consecutive menstrual periods. Weight is lost three ways in this condition by restricting food intake, by excessive exercise, or by...
Anorexia nervosa is the most serious and life-threatening eating disorder, with an estimated mortality rate of 10 , and affects approximately 1 of all females. The onset of this disorder is usually in adolescence. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) (American Psychiatric Association, 2000), anorexia nervosa is diagnosed if the following characteristics are present The DSM-IV-TR distinguishes between two subtypes of anorexia nervosa the restricting type and the binge eating-purging type. Individuals diagnosed with anorexia nervosa-restricted type limit and or avoid eating foods (e.g., foods containing fat) and may exercise excessively to lose weight. Those diagnosed with the binge eating-purging type exhibit the same binge-ing and purging behaviors as bulimics they consume large amounts of food in one sitting and then purge to avoid weight gain. These individuals differ from those diagnosed with bulimia nervosa because their...
Bulimia nervosa may co-occur with anorexia nervosa, but this is not always the case. Thirty to 80 of people with bulimia nervosa have a history of anorexia nervosa. It is often hard to diagnose bulimia nervosa because those with the disorder tend to be normal or slightly overweight (Levine & Smotak, 2002). Bulimia nervosa usually occurs in adolescence or early adulthood. As many as 17 of college-age women engage in bulimic behaviors, which are distinguished in the DSM-IV-TR by recurrent episodes of binge eating followed by purging. People with bulimia nervosa may also engage in recurrent inappropriate compensatory behavior to prevent weight gain. This behavior includes self-induced vomiting misuse of laxatives, diuretics, enemas, or other medications fasting or excessive exercise. To be classified as having bulimia nervosa, binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behavior must occur, on average, two times per week for three months (Hughes & colleagues, 2001). People with bulimia...
Eating disorders are emotional problems characterized by an obsession with food and weight. These disorders start with a preoccupation with food and weight and then escalate into an emotional dysfunction that is characterized by an obsession with food and weight. This obsession first involves secrecy, where the person with the eating disorder tries to hide the problem by possibly avoiding social situations involving food and may eat alone in order to hide the quantity of food eaten. The obsession also involves control. People with eating disorders may feel that they have no control over their life, so they gain control through restriction of food. However, this control is short lived because they then lose control to food These disorders can result in death if not taken seriously. Eating disorders fit into three categories anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating.
The immunological hallmark of FIV infection is depletion of peripheral CD4+ T cells and reduced CD4 CD8 ratios, leading to B- and T-cell dysfunctions and hypergammaglobulinemia. The clinical stages of FIV infection are similar to human AIDS in several ways. The acute stage of experimental FIV infection was characterized by immunological abnormalities followed by depression, fever, diarrhea, neutropenia, and persistent generalized lymphadenopathy. FIV was primarily detected in lymphoid tissues followed by dissemination of the virus into nonlymphoid organs. Both antibodies against FIV and virus recovery from PBMC persisted throughout infection. The FIV load in the blood was lower and CD4+ T-cell decline was slower at the asymptomatic stage than acute stage. By late symptomatic stage, the animals were severely immunosuppressed and displaying wasting syndrome, neurological disorders, and persistent secondary opportunistic infections. The virus load was extremely high at this stage, and...
After incubation times varying from weeks to months, and possibly even longer, the disease occurs sporadically in natural hosts. If the infection becomes manifest, the disease is characterized during the early phase by disturbances of sensory functions, impaired posture of the limbs, temporary immobility and excitations, ataxia, hyperesthesia, vision disorders and nystagmus, together with anorexia, fever and colics. The early neurological symptoms are mainly disorders of functions governed by the limbic system, whereas during the later stages of the disease dysfunctions of the motor system, such as paralysis and pareses, predominate. Most naturally infected animals die 1 2 weeks after onset of the disease, but recoveries or recurrence of disease were also ob
Anorexia nervosa generally occurs in adolescent females between the ages of 12 and 18, usually before the onset of puberty. Onset that occurs prior to age 11 is associated with a poor prognosis. It is a condition that is found in industrialized countries, but at lower rates internationally than in the United States. It rarely occurs in black African American females and in males. Approximately 1 of women and adolescent girls in the United States may have an eating disorder such as anorexia and bulimia.
Eating disorders management Nutrition management Nutritional counseling Nutritional monitoring Weight management Patients with bulimia generally do not need hospitalization unless they experience severe electrolyte imbalance, dehydration, or rectal bleeding. The bulimia is usually managed with individual behavioral and group therapy, family education and therapy, medication, and nutritional counseling. Work with the interdisciplinary team to coordinate efforts and refer the patient to the physician to evaluate the need for antidepressants and anti-anxiety medication.
Serological evidence indicates that even though EAV is widespread in the horse population, it rarely causes clinical disease. Both EAV and PRRSV can cause either persistent asymptomatic infections or induce various disease symptoms such as respiratory disease, fever, necrosis of small muscular arteries, and abortion. The severity of disease caused by EAV and PRRSV depends on the strain of virus as well as the condition and age of the animal. The most common symptoms of natural EAV infections in horses are anorexia, depression, fever, conjunctivitis, edema of the limbs and genitals, rhinitis, enteritis, colitis, and necrosis of small arteries. If clinical symptoms occur, they are most severe in young animals and pregnant mares. Infections in pregnant mares are often inapparent, but result in a high percentage (50 ) of abortions. Young animals occasionally develop a fatal bronchopneumonia after infection, but natural infections are not usually life-threatening. In contrast, about 40 of...
Although some patients are asymptomatic with coincidental detection of a leukocytosis on routine medical evaluation, the chronic phase of disease typically has an insidious onset with symptoms related to hypermetabo-lism, including fatigue, anorexia, weight loss, and night sweats. Massive splenomegaly is common. With disease progression, patients typically develop worsening anemia and thrombocytopenia. Without treatment, the median survival of CML is 4-5 years from diagnosis.
Disease in human hosts greatly depends on the condition of the host, with more severe outcomes in immunocom-promised and malnourished individuals. 4 Most patients present profuse watery diarrhea containing mucus, 7-10 days after acquisition of infection. In immunocompetent hosts, the disease is usually self-limiting with a median duration of 9-15 days. Acute diarrhea may be resolved in a few days or may persist for 4-7 weeks. Three major presentations of symptoms are observed 1) asymptomatic carriage, 2) acute, usually watery diarrhea, and 3) chronic, persistent diarrhea for several weeks. Other symptoms include abdominal cramps, anorexia, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, low-grade fever, and cough. A different picture is seen in immunocompromised patients. Four clinical patterns of infection are observed in AIDS patients with chronic infection as the most common presentation 1) asymptomatic, 2) transient infection with diarrhea cleared within 2 months, 3) chronic infection, diarrhea for...
If the patient is receiving methotrexate on an outpatient basis, teach her that more severe pain may indicate treatment failure and that she needs to notify the physician. She should not drink alcohol or take vitamins containing folic acid. She may experience anorexia, nausea and vomiting, mouth ulcers, and sensitivity to sunlight as side effects of methotrexate. She also needs to follow up with scheduled hCG testing.
Symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, fever, and anorexia. Large-volume diarrhea can occur because of malabsorption as the tumor invades the intestinal wall. Laboratory values will reflect the underlying malabsorption, with anemia being common resulting from iron and vitamin deficiencies. A unique laboratory abnormality is the presence of the a-heavy chain protein, which is seen in 70 of cases (56). As the disease progresses from the prelymphomatous stage to overt lymphoma, the a-heavy chain protein often decreases or disappears 57). On endoscopic examination, the mucosal folds of the intestine can appear thickened, with nodules and ulcerations. Small bowel barium studies can reveal thickened mucosal folds in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, often with luminal dilation.
The large majority of GISTs occur in the stomach (60-70 ) and small intestine (20-30 ). Less than 10 of all GISTs are found in the esophagus, rectum, colon, mesentery, omentum, and retroperitoneum. Up to 30 of patients with GISTs may be completely asymptomatic with the tumor being identified incidentally during endoscopic procedures, radiographic studies or surgery performed for unrelated reasons (5). Clinical symptoms associated with GISTs at the time of presentation usually depend on the location and size of the tumor. Esophageal GISTs are rare and typically lead to dysphagia and or weight loss (11,12) (Fig. 1). Cases of gastric GISTs frequently present with GI bleeding, anemia, anorexia, abdominal pain or a palpable mass (8,13).
Regarding dream recall, many studies failed to show marked differences among various diagnostic groups, such as schizophrenia, eating disorders, etc., and healthy controls 61 . An exception is depression where patients have a reduced dream recall frequency 69,70 the reduction was again related to symptom severity 71 . The explanations for the reduced dream recall in depressed patients, however, remain unclear. The question of whether the typical sleep architecture of depressive patients (decreased latency to REM sleep), cognitive impairment often found in severely disturbed patients, or intrinsic alterations related to depression is responsible has yet to be answered.
Determine a history of risk factors, with a particular focus on medications. Establish a history of anorexia, nausea, vomiting, constipation, polyuria, or polydipsia. Ask about muscular weakness or digital and perioral paresthesia (tingling) and muscle cramps. Ask family members if the patient has manifested personality changes.
Salt retention and edema can produce a number of significant medical problems which require aggressive intervention. Tense edema can cause skin breakdown and predispose to the development of cellulitis. Superficial infections which otherwise would be easily treated may progress rapidly as a result of impaired local host defense mechanisms. Generalized edema also contributes to fatigue and immobility, which should be avoided in nephrotic patients who are already susceptible to thromboembolic complications as a result of their hypercoagulable state. Tense ascites can produce marked discomfort and anorexia and contribute to malnutrition. Ascitic fluid can also become infected. Salt retention can exacerbate heart failure and cause pulmonary congestion in patients with coexistent cardiac abnormalities. Edema should not be treated for purely cosmetic reasons. However, if disfigurement produced by edema causes severe psychological or psychiatric problems, treatment may be warranted on this...
Diagnosis of UTI can be made by a urine culture from a clean-catch or a catheterized specimen. However, there is a high risk for contamination with clean-catch specimens. Lab result criteria for a UTI diagnosis colony counts of 100,000 colonies in a clean-catch urine and any urine culture greater than 5,000 colonies from urine obtained on a suprapubic puncture or catheterized specimen. Signs and symptoms of UTI in pediatric patients are age-related. For example, unique symptoms of UTI displayed by the infant failure to thrive and fever by the preschooler anorexia and somnolence by the school-ager enuresis and personality changes and those by the adolescent fatigue and flank pain.
The IL-1 family has three members IL-1 a, IL-1 b, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA). IL-1 a and IL-1 b have only distantly related amino acid sequences, but similar structure, and recognize the same receptors. IL-1RA binds the IL-1 receptor without transducing a signal and blocks the activities of IL-1 a and IL-1 b. Activated monocytes and macrophages are the major source of IL-1, although many other cells can produce this cytokine. IL-1b is synthesized as a precursor protein of31 kDa that is processed by the caspase interleukin-1 b-converting enzyme (caspase-1) within the 'inflammasome' to the active secreted 17 kDa form. IL-1 acts systemically, as well as locally, and can produce fever, sleep, and anorexia, frequent symptoms of viral infection. Hepatocytes are among the cells that produce IL-1RA as a part of the acute-phase response to inflammation and infection, presumably to control the effects of IL-1. There are two IL-1 receptors but only IL-1R1 transduces an activation
Inappetance, anorexia, abnormal swimming behavior, petechial hemorrhages, lateral recumbency, distended abdomen, high mortality rates, are not pathognomonic and laboratory investigation is required for definitive diagnosis. Several of the known aquareoviruses have been detected by virus isolation on any of a number of fish cell lines in common use in diagnostic laboratories. Depending on the aquareovirus isolate and local conditions, cell lines used for viral isolation and replication have included bluegill fry cell line (BF-2), chinook salmon embryo cell line (CHSE-214), fathead minnow cell line (FHM), Epithelioma papillosum cyprini cell line (EPC), channel catfish ovary cell line (CCO), brown bullhead cell line (BB), grass carp kidney cell line (CIK), Asian seabass cell line (SB), rainbow trout mesothelioma cell line (RTM), striped snake-head cell line (SSN-1), and rainbow trout gonad cell line (RTG-2). The appearance of the cytopathic effect (CPE) caused by aquareoviruses in fish...
Nonspecific symptoms, including cachexia, anorexia, weight loss, and fatigue, are common presenting features in up to one-third of patients with large RCC. The etiology is not well established, but the cancer cachexia is likely cytokine-mediated. Tumor necrosis factor alpha is the cytokine most commonly involved by altering fat metabolism and appetite regulation (Laski and Vugrin 1987). Other cytokines including interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and interferon gamma, have also been implicated in cancer cachexia (Tsukamoto et al. 1992 Walther et al. 1998). In a series of 1,046 patients treated by radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma, cachexia (defined as hypoalbuminemia, weight loss, and malaise), predicts worse survival after controlling for well-established prognosticators, including TNM and Fuhrman grade (Kim and al. 2003). Fever has been associated with renal cell carcinoma in approximately 20 . In patients evaluated for fever, a renal cell carcinoma was found in up to 2...
The signs and symptoms are similar regardless of the etiology of the hypercalcemia. The most common symptoms of hypercalcemia are neurologic, renal, and gastrointestinal. The neurologic symptoms include weakness, lethargy, depression, and even coma in severe cases. Renal effects include polyuria from hypercalciuria-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR), hyperchloremic acidosis, nephrocalcinosis, and stones. The gastrointestinal symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, constipation, and anorexia.
Although most individuals with disorders of blood calcium concentration are asymptomatic, sometimes serum calcium measurement is indicated. Individuals should be screened for hypercalcemia in the setting of nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis, with evidence of osteopenia at sites of predominantly cortical bone, as well as for signs and symptoms suggesting hypercalcemia. Although these are uncommon or nonspecific, they include band keratopathy, anorexia, constipation and abdominal pain, possibly peptic ulcer disease, and pancreatitis, as well as a variety of nonspecific neuropsychiatry symptoms. It seems reasonable to monitor serum calcium periodically in patients taking calcium or vitamin D supplements and in persons taking medications that can potentially alter blood calcium concentrations.
Once the Salmonella bacterium is ingested, it multiplies rapidly in the mucosal layers of the stomach and small intestine. The greater the number of organisms ingested, the shorter the incubation period typically, incubation is 8 to 48 hours after ingestion of contaminated food or liquid, and symptoms usually last for 3 to 5 days. An inflammatory response in the tissues produces gastroenteritis. The infection may stop there, or the salmonella organisms may travel via the lymph and vascular system throughout the body. The dissemination of organisms produces lesions in other organs or, possibly, sepsis. Systemic lesions may result in appendicitis, peritonitis, otitis media, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, or endocarditis. Symptoms of intermittent fever, chills, anorexia, and weight loss indicate sepsis. HISTORY. Establish a history of fever (often 102 F and higher), nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, anorexia, and diarrhea that has persisted for at least 4 days. Ask about headache or...
In patients with cancer, weight loss indicates a poor prognosis and a shorter survival time. Cancer cachexia involves a massive loss of body weight, with extensive breakdown of both body fat and skeletal muscle, often, but not always, accompanied by anorexia (DeWys, 1985). Metabolic studies have shown that increased free fatty acid mobilization
Pathologic effects of leukemia include the replacement of normal bone marrow elements by leukemic cells which results in clinical manifestations of anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia. Symptoms related to anemia may result in fatigue, weakness, pallor, and lethargy. Neutropenia predisposes the child to febrile episodes and infection. Symptoms related to thrombocytopenia may result in cutaneous bruises or purpura, petechiae, epistaxis, melena, and gingival bleeding. Other common symptoms related to leukemic infiltration include hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy bone and joint pain anorexia abdominal pain weight loss. Other symptoms, that are very rare, may include hematuria, gastrointestinal bleeding, or central nervous system (CNS) bleeding. Prognosis is based on age and initial WBC at diagnosis, sex, histologic type of the disease, number of chromosomes, the DNA-index, morphology and cell-surface immunologic markers. Clinical manifestations of Hodgkin's disease exhibit 60...
Although endocrine factors appear to be the major cause of age-related bone loss, there are important non-endocrine factors that also contribute. The level of bone mass present prior to the onset of age-related bone loss is clearly important those persons who have high levels are relatively protected against osteoporosis whereas those with low levels are clearly at a greater risk. As has been long recognized, there are a number of episodic factors that increase bone loss in some, but not other, members of the ageing population. These include use of certain drugs such as corticosteroids, diseases such as malabsorption, anorexia nervosa and renal hypercalciuria, and behavioural factors such as smoking, alcohol abuse and inactivity to enumerate but a few. These may make major contributions to fractures in about 40 of men and 20 of women (Riggs et al 1986).
The clinical features of acute viral hepatitis in humans are nonspecific and are not dependent on the etiology of the infection they include fatigue, anorexia, myalgia, and malaise. Jaundice may be evident in the more severe cases, but often the infections may be anicteric (without jaundice) or even asymptomatic. In hepatitis B, these clinical features are evidence of a robust immune response to the virus and a sign that the infection will be cleared by the immune system. In a minority of cases, less than 5 of immune competent adults, asymptomatic infections persist in individuals who do not mount a vigorous immune response. Such persistent infections, originally termed the chronic carrier state, are defined formally by the persistence of HBsAg in serum for more than 6 months.
Anorexia Nervosa Estrogen and progesterone therapy for women with anorexia nervosa does not prevent progressive osteopenia in women with active disease (64). However, patients do have improved BMD with recovery from anorexia. It is recommended that all patients with anorexia should receive at least 1500 mg of calcium along with a multivitamin containing 400 IU of vitamin D daily (63). Estrogen therapy should be individualized to each patient, since it has not been proved to be beneficial for osteoporosis in active anorexia. BMD should be monitored every 6 mo to 1 yr (63). Treatment of anorexia, weight gain, and restoration of menses still remain the most beneficial events for improving BMD.
It is followed by a general malabsorption resulting in weight loss and anorexia. Weight loss can be found in about 90 of the patients. Gastrointestinal symptoms, which lead to the diagnosis, consist of episodic and watery diarrhea and steatorrhea accompanied by colicky abdominal pain and, in one-third, by occult blood in stool. 13 Endoscopic investigation reveals a pale yellow mucosa alternating with erythematous, erosive parts in the duodenum or jejunum, and duodenal biopsies are positive in the PAS stain.
WEIGHT LOSS ANOREXIA Weight loss is more commonly associated with secondary amenorrhoea than primary amenorrhoea, but unfortunately it is increasingly apparent that young girls may suffer from anorexia nervosa in the prepubertal state. This leads to failure of the activation of the gene which initiates GnRH release in the hypothalamus, and therefore a persistent hypogonadotrophic state exists. The growth spurt is not usually influenced by this, but secondary sexual characteristics are absent. Over recent years it has become increasingly recognized that excessive exercise in pubertal children leads to a decreased body fat content, without necessarily affecting body mass. Development of muscle contributes to overall weight, and therefore weight alone cannot be used as the parameter to discover whether or not there is an aetiology for their amenorrhoea through this mechanism. A number of examples of this exist including ballet dancers, athletes and gymnasts. These girls fail to...
Weight can have profound effects on gonadotropin regulation and release. Weight and eating disorders are also common in women. A regular menstrual cycle will not occur if the BMI is less than 19 kg m2. Fat appears to be critical to a normally functioning hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. It is estimated that at least 22 of body weight should be fat to maintain ovulatory cycles 47 . This level enables the extra ovarian aromatization of andro-gens to oestrogens, and maintains appropriate feedback control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis 48 . Therefore, girls who are significantly underweight prior to puberty may have primary amenorrhoea, while those who are significantly underweight after puberty will have secondary amenorrhoea. The clinical presentation depends upon the severity of the nutritional insult and its age of onset. To cause amenorrhoea the loss must be 10-15 of the women's normal weight for height. Weight loss may be due to a number of causes including...
A variety of nonspecific symptoms including high fever, chills, malaise, and myalgia. As the disease progresses, there is evidence of multisystemic involvement, and manifestations include prostration, anorexia, vomiting, nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, shortness of breath, hypotension, edema, confusion, maculopapular rash, and eventually coma. Patients normally progress rapidly with death occurring 6-9 days after the onset of symptoms. The development of petechiae, ecchymoses, mucosal hemorrhages, and uncontrolled bleeding at venipuncture sites are indicative of development of abnormalities in coagulation and fibrinolysis. Massive loss of blood is atypical and, when present, is largely restricted to the gastrointestinal tract. Fulminant infection typically evolves to shock, convulsions, and, in most cases, diffuse coagulopathy.
Francis Fox of Cornell University, described a 'rinderpest like' disease characterized by leuko-penia, high fever, depression, diarrhea and dehydration, anorexia, salivation, nasal discharge, gastrointestinal erosions, and hemorrhages in various tissues. In the five initial herds in which it was observed, morbidity rates ranged from 33 to 88 and mortality rates ranged from 4 to 8 . In addition, fetal abortions were observed 10 days to 3 months following infection. It was shown that this disease could be transmitted experimentally. Rinderpest virus was ruled out as a causative agent because sera from convalescent animals did not neutralize rinderpest virus and cattle that had recovered from BVD were not resistant to rinderpest virus infection. In 1953 another disease was reported in the US. Given the name mucosal disease (MD), it was characterized by severe diarrhea, fever, anorexia, depression, profuse salivation, nasal discharge and gastrointestinal hemorrhages,...
Related to (Specify loss of appetite and or pain in mouth induced malabsorption or enteropathy caused by abdominal radiation, chemotherapy, abdominal surgery, or frequent antibiotic use and anorexia-inducing substances secreted by tumor cells xerostomia (irreversible dryness of mouth , destruction of microvilli of taste buds and or lining of salivary glands all can be caused by radiation therapy .) Defining Characteristics (Specify anorexia, nausea, vomiting, stomatitis, mucositis, decreased salivation, cachexia, fatigue, diarrhea, alterations in taste, gustatory changes, weight loss, abdominal pain, psychologic and sociocultural factors.)
Chronic administration of recombinant ob protein has been shown to produce a significant reduction in body weight in ob ob and normal mice because of a reduction in food intake but also an increase in energy expenditure (26-28). Centrally administered leptin (into the lateral or third cerebral ventricles) has been shown to be particularly effective in promoting anorexia and weight loss at doses which when administered peripherally were without effect on feeding behavior (26). This suggests that leptin acts on receptors within the central nervous system, probably at the level of the hypothalamus and clearly implicate leptin as an important factor in the regulation of body weight in rodents (29). Further evidence that implicates leptin as a regulator of body weight is the fact that total deficiency in leptin in mouse and man causes obesity, (29,30) which is reversed by leptin treatment
Observe for early stages of hypoxemia and effects on nervous system (mood changes, anxiety, confusion), circulatory system (tachycardia, hypertension), respiratory system (altered depth and pattern, dyspnea, retractions, grunting, prolonged expiration), gastrointestinal system (anorexia).
About 10 of all GI tract lymphomas arise in the small intestine. The incidence of small bowel lymphoma peaks in the seventh decade of life and there is slight male predominance. Most tumors arise in the distal small bowel, most likely because there is more lymphoid tissue in these areas, especially in the terminal ileum. Patients often present with abdominal pain, weight loss, anorexia, and less commonly, GI bleeding or iron deficiency anemia (50).
These diseases have an insidious onset of malaise, fever, general myalgia and anorexia. Lumbar pain, epigastric pain, retro-orbital pain, often with photophobia, and constipation occur commonly. Nausea and vomiting frequently occur. Temperature is high, reaching 40 C or above. Unlike LCM and Lassa fever, AHF and BHF do not usually lead to respiratory symptoms and sore throat. On physical examination patients appear toxic. Conjunctivitis, erythema of the face, neck and thorax are prominent. Petechiae may be observed in the axillae by the 4th or 5th days of the illness. There may be a pharyngeal enanthem, but pharyngitis is uncommon. Relative bradycardia is
However, the treatment is only of the symptoms. The underlying cause - the death of the nigral cells - remains untouched. Moreover, as the disease progresses larger and larger doses of l-dopa are required to control the symptoms. Furthermore unpleasant side effects commonly manifest themselves nausea, anorexia, odd writhing movements, tachycardia. Some of these side effects can be alleviated by treatment with dopamine agonists such as apomorphine and bromocriptine. Another
Hypercalcemia in the moderate range may be associated with symptoms such as polyuria, polydipsia, anorexia, constipation, and various degrees of obtundation. In this setting, it is prudent to embark upon a more aggressive approach to the hypercalcemia as described below. The therapy, however, has to be adapted to the actual level of the serum Ca and is not ordinarily as vigorous as it is when the serum Ca is much higher.
During NREM sleep, homeostatic thermoregulation is preserved and is characterized, particularly in SWS, by a reduction in body temperature that follows a decrease in the hypothalamic temperature set point 24 . Conversely, during REM sleep the ability to regulate body temperature through sweating and shivering is markedly reduced 25 . Intriguingly, hypothermia and other abnormalities in thermoregulation are reported in psychiatric disorders, such as anorexia nervosa 26 , which are also characterized by sleep abnormalities (i.e. SWS deficits) 27 .
FLAG (Food Labelling Agenda) is a national consumer pressure organisation launched in June 1997 by a group of concerned food and health writers. The organisation campaigns for 'clear, comprehensive and meaningful labelling on all food and food products' and its first task in March 1998 was to deliver a petition calling for improved food labelling to Downing Street. It won support from a huge number of individuals and organisations, including those with interests in allergy, genetic engineering, infant feeding, heart disease, cancer, vegetarianism, eating disorders and green issues. The accurate labelling of potential allergens is one of FLAG's major concerns. The organisation is steered by Michelle Berriedale-Johnson and Sarah Stacey and their postal address is PO Box 25303, London NW5 1WN. A newsletter is produced for supporters.
Young pigeon disease syndrome (YPDS) is a multifac-torial disease in which PiCV is assumed to induce immu-nosuppression in young birds, which suffer from ill-thrift, lethargy, anorexia, and poor race performance. Depletion of splenic and bursal lymphocytes was seen and bacterial agents as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were isolated more frequently from PiCV-infected birds. Inclu In CaCV-infected neonatal canary birds, a condition known as 'black spot' has been reported. It is associated with abdominal enlargement, gall bladder congestion, failure to thrive, dullness, anorexia, lethargy, and feather disorder. Histological changes as lymphofollicular hyperplasia, lymphoid necrosis, cellular depletion, and cystic atrophy are observed in the thymus and the bursa of Fabricius. A general feature of circovirus infection is the formation of globular or botryoid, basophilic inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm, in which the virus may form paracrystalline arrays.
It was initially thought that the induction of leptin expression during an acute-phase response was responsible for the anorexia of infection (11). However, it has since been shown that LPS-induced anorexia occurs in the absence of leptin (105), indicating that other factors are responsible for this phenomenon.
Defining Characteristics (Specify in iron deficiency anemia irritability, anxiety, blood loss in the stool, hypochronic RBCs, normal or near normal RBC count, decreased serum ferritin and iron in sickle cell anemia pallor, weakness, anorexia, easy fatigability, jaundice and developmental delays in aplastic anemia pallor, fatigue, weakness, loss of appetite, normochromic, normocytic RBCs in reduced numbers, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia risk of spontaneous bleeding or bleeding after mild to severe trauma .)
Defining Characteristics (Specify loss of weight with adequate intake, lack of interest in food, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, congenital defect of gastrointestinal system, regurgitation, abdominal pain, dysphagia, inability in infant to suck and swallow, failure to thrive, malabsorption syndromes, growth and developmental changes food jags, fads, ritualisms, rejection of solid foods , vitamin deficiency, increased metabolic demand, chronic illness, poor nutrient quality of food.)
Trophozoites of these parasites are located in the duodenum, jejunum, and upper ileum. When symptoms occur, they vary from mild to severe abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, cramping, and bloating. 1,2 Infants may have anorexia, weight loss, or a malabsorption syndrome that resembles sprue. 3,4 When a child is evaluated because of failure to thrive or is immunocompromised, the presence of Giardia should be considered. 5 Lactose intolerance may develop in these children and persist after elimination of the parasite.
- Absence of clinical evidence of volume depletion or diuretic use and normal thyroid, renal, and adrenal function. Symptoms of hyponatremia include confusion, muscle weakness, seizures, anorexia, nausea and vomiting, and stupor, when the serum sodium falls below 110 mEq L - Serum sodium greater than 150 mEq L, unaccompanied by a corresponding fluid deficiency. Sodium levels reaching 170 mEq L are accompanied by muscle cramping, tenderness and weakness, fever, anorexia, paranoia, and lethargy
Thus, for use and abuse of alcohol, we know that the importance of genetic and environmental effects changes with sequencing in the use and abuse of alcohol, from abstinence or initiation to frequency of regular consumption, to problems associated with consumption, and ultimately, to diagnosed alcoholism and end-organ damage from the cumulative effects of alcohol. Similar stories could be told for many other behaviors of interest. Thus, for the major psychopathologies, from depression and schizophrenia in adults to attention deficit disorder in children or eating disorders in adolescents, genetic influences are invariably part of the story but never the whole story.
After the fifth decade of life, there is a gradual decrease in the number of classic presenting signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis (31-33). Even overt thyrotoxicosis may go undiagnosed in older patients in the absence of routine TSH screening. Rather than appearing hyperactive as younger patients do, older individuals with thyrotoxicosis may seem placid or depressed, i.e., the apathetic hyperthyroidism described by Lahey in 1931 (34). Although older patients with hyperthyroidism are less likely than younger ones to have a resting tachycardia, they are more likely to have atrial arrhythmia (35). Weight loss in younger patients is usually associated with increased appetite, whereas in older patients it may instead be associated with anorexia (36).
This clinical trial was conducted to examine the antitumor activity and toxicities of S-1, in which 60 patients with head and neck cancer were enrolled. S-1 was administered at a dose of 40 mg m2d, with at least four courses, each of which consisted of twice-a-day (once each after breakfast and dinner), 28-d consecutive oral administration and of 14-d withdrawal two courses were repeated every 6 wk unless the disease progressed. As shown in Table 9, there were four complete response cases and 13 partial response cases (response rate 28.8 ) among 59 evaluable cases. The adverse events that were assessed to be Grade 3 or higher were as follows hemoglobinemia (6.8 ) neutropenia (5.1 ) leukopenia (1.7 ) decreased RBC (3.4 ) and anorexia, nausea vomiting, stomatitis, and fatigue (1.7 each) (34).
Patients of both sexes, aged between 17 and 72 years, with clinical symptoms such as epigastric pain, dyspepsia, heartburn, or anorexia, were enrolled in this open, noncomparative study. They were included in the study on the basis of endoscopic findings (endoscopic appearance of duodenal ulcer, measuring between 5 and 20 mm in longest dimension, or endoscopic appearance of antral erosions, spotty erythema of antral mucosa, pale areas, goose-pimple-like appearance of antral mucosa, fine spotty erythema of the body of the stomach), histologically defined gastritis (by the Sidney system), and HP seropositivity (ELISA IgG 1.0 U), Patients were excluded if they had received nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug therapy, corticosteroids, antimicrobial drugs, or bismuth salts within 4 weeks prior to entry or antiulcer medications within 2 weeks prior to entry. Patients with evidence of chronic renal or liver disease, gastric surgery or vagotomy, pregnancy, and chronic alcohol abuse were also...
Tense ascites and edema do produce significant adverse clinical consequences which can be mitigated by judicious treatment. Ascites can exacerbate gastroesophageal reflux, contribute to anorexia, and possibly increase portal venous pressures, which will heighten the risk of variceal bleeding. Massive ascites in cirrhotic patients commonly becomes infected and the abdominal wall pressure may produce umbilical eventration skin ulceration and necrosis. Elevation of the diaphragms restricts respiration and contributes to development of basilar atelectasis.
The school experience is further complicated and the future even more uncertain for students with disabilities. Males have higher rates of autism, psychoses, and schizophrenia, as well as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities. Females are more likely to be diagnosed with depression however, teenage males are more likely to commit suicide. Female teens are more likely to display eating disorders. Many disorders have a genetic basis however, social expectations also contribute to gender differences in prevalence. Depression Discipline Dropouts Eating Disorders
Most causes of severe hypercalcemia are associated with increased osteoclastic bone resorption. The osteoclast is activated by substances like PTH, PTH-related protein, and other osteoclast activators. The activated osteoclast leads to excessive bone resorption and the release of Ca from bone into the extracellular fluid. Excessive absorption of Ca from the gastrointestinal tract is not usually an important mechanism although it can play a role in states of vitamin D excess. Hypercalcemia develops when the entry of Ca from the skeletal compartment into the extracellular space overwhelms the normal homeostatic mechanisms that help maintain normal serum Ca levels. The kidney is crucial in this regard and if renal mechanisms can lead to the excretion of the enhanced filtered load of Ca, the tendency to marked hypercalcemia would be ameliorated. Unfortunately, in this setting, renal tubular reabsorption of Ca is often stimulated, worsening the disposition to hypercalcemia. This is due, in...
Inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (IADHS) may occur in a variety of diseases, including malignancies, acute and chronic pulmonary diseases, central nervous system and endocrine disorders, acute psychosis, and surgical stress. It can be induced by drugs such as phenothiazines, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, thiazides, morphine, carbamazepine, and cisplatin. IADHS may accompany certain malignancies, particularly small-cell lung carcinoma, head neck carcinomas, brain tumors, and lymphomas. The symptoms of IADHS syndrome include anorexia, nausea, headache, confusion, with the possible end result being coma. Laboratory findings include serum hyponatremia, elevated urinary sodium concentrations with normal renal and adrenal homeostasis. Few cases of prostate cancer associated with IADHS syndrome have been reported, and tumors were either poorly differentiated or small cell carcinoma and were almost uniformly metastatic at the time of diagnosis. Most of the patients died a few...
To evaluate the effectiveness of animal models, consider an example in the behavioral sciences. Bulimia is a disorder in which an individual's eating behavior becomes bizarre and his or her body image becomes distorted. In her overconcern about her body image, an adolescent female might eat large quantities of junk food and then vomit (binge-purge behavior). In the animal model of this disorder, a hole is made in the stomach wall when the animal eats, the food is siphoned off. Through this model of the condition of eating without calories,'' scientists attempt to identify and understand various environmental, dietary, and physiological causes of bulimia. Various forms of evaluation of this animal model were applied with the following results. Through examination of outcome studies of current treatments of bulimia, it was found that these treatments are only modestly and temporarily effective. Treatments reduce the frequency of binge-purge behavior but do not eliminate it, and relapse...
Historically, the nociceptive analgesic effect of naturally occurring opiates such as morphine has long been recognized by humans. Advances in research in the last several decades have revealed the existence of the so-called endogenous opioid peptides, can be divided into three classes dynorphins, enkephalins, and -endorphins. Contrary to the initial understanding, in addition to the cells of the central nervous system, those of peripheral tissues such as cardiac myocytes and heart tissues also express opioid peptides (1-3). The wide distribution of opioid peptides throughout the body underscores their involvement in a variety of cellular activities including pain regulation, respiration, immune responses, and ion channel activity (4) as well as possibly pathophysiological conditions such as asthma, alcoholism, and eating disorders (5-7).
Over the last 30 yr, the ever increasing realization of the involvement of opioid systems in a wide variety of physiological as well as pathophysiological conditions, beyond the initially described roles in the nociceptive analgesic systems, has certainly prompted an intensive screening of opioid receptor antagonists for potential therapeutic purposes. Because of its potent antagonistic activity, ease of crossing the blood-brain barrier, and relatively low systemic toxicity, (-)-naloxone has been tested for beneficial effects in a variety of experimental disease models. Mechanistically, the efficacy in the experimental treatment of conditions such as opiate dependence is certainly related to its activity as an opioid receptor antagonist (14), whereas in the treatment of eating disorders (15) and alcoholism (16), the opioid system most likely plays a role.
Functional success may not always be associated with technical success radiation-induced pharyngeal dysphagia, anorexia, painful tumor load and debility, and treatment complications can cause problems with ingestion of necessary calories and adequate palliation of symptoms (29). Complications of endoscopic laser therapy include TEF formation (0.7-6.3 ), bleeding (28), and perforation (1-5.8 ), with a procedure-related 30-d mortality of 1-5 (27). The mean survival of
Binge eating disorder is perhaps the least recognized eating disorder and is listed in the DSM-IV-TR as a category requiring further study. This disorder is characterized by eating large quantities of food rapidly within any two-hour period. Bingeing is often done in private and binge eaters often feel a lack of control in their eating, such that they cannot stop eating or control their intake. This disorder affects approximately 2 to 5 of the general population and occurs more often in women than in men. It is estimated that approximately 30 of people with binge eating disorder are participating in medically supervised weight loss programs (Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, 2002). People with binge eating disorder experience feelings of shame, disgust, or guilt after a bingeing episode. The health consequences associated with a binge eating disorder include high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, heart disease, diabetes, and gallbladder disease (Guide to Recovery, 2002).
Br J Pharmacol. 22 189-192 Huang ZL, Sato Y, Mochizuki T, Okada T, Qu WM, Yamatodani A, Urade Y, Hayaishi O. (2003) Prostaglandin E2 activates the histaminergic system via the EP4 receptor to induce wakefulness in rats. J Neurosci. 23(14) 5975-5983 Inui A. (1999a) Cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome are neuropeptides the key Cancer Kildsgaard J, Hollmann TJ, Matthews KW, Bian K, Murad F, Wetsel RA. (2000) Cutting edge targeted disruption of the C3a receptor gene demonstrates a novel protective anti-inflammatory role for C3a in endotoxin-shock. J Immunol. 165(10) 5406-5409 Langhans W. (2007) Signals generating anorexia during acute illness. Proc Nutr Soc. 66(3) 321-330
Assess for presence of associated symptoms diarrhea, fever, ear pain, UGI symptoms, vision changes, headache, seizures, high pitched cry, polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, anorexia, and so forth record intake and output, including all body fluid losses, IVs and oral fluids (specify frequency).
History may reveal damage to the parathyroid glands during some form of neck surgery. The patient may report many GI symptoms, including abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, and anorexia. Signs of hypocalcemia such as paresthesia (numbness and tingling in the extremities), increased anxiety, headaches, irritability, and sometimes depression may be reported. Some patients complain of difficulty swallowing or throat tightness. Others report difficulty with balancing and a history of falls or injuries.
With anorexia nervosa, with insurance coverage for 70 days of inpatient psychological treatment. If the plan has no comparable inpatient eating disorder program, then the treating physician may recommend referral to an out-of-network program. The health plan may approve a total of 6 weeks of inpatient therapy but then discontinue coverage over the treating physician's objections. In response, the patient may sue the plan for bad faith breach of contract.25
The most common presenting symptoms of hypercalcemia are nonspecific and include fatigue, anorexia, nausea, and constipation. Through the induction of an osmotic diuresis and inhibition of antidiuretic hormone activity, hypercalcemia also causes polyuria and progressive dehydration. Not uncommonly, patients are found to have acute or chronic renal insufficiency at the time of presentation. Neurologic symptoms such as weakness, lethargy, and disorientation may progress into seizures, coma, and even death if treatment is delayed. Symptom severity depends upon the degree of hypercalcemia and the rate at which it develops.
Patients may report no illness before the onset of symptoms others have a history of systemic multisystem disease, such as lupus erythematosus, diabetes mellitus, amyloidosis, or multiple myeloma or have a history of an insect sting or venomous animal bite. Symptoms usually appear insidiously and may include lethargy, depression, and weight gain. The patient may describe gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of nausea, anorexia, and diarrhea. Initially, patients report periorbital edema in the morning and abdominal or extremity edema in the evening.
Similar to ILTV, PsHV-1 is shed from the upper respiratory tract but also in the feces of infected parrots. Transmission of the virus occurs by direct contact between infected and susceptible animals or indirectly by contact with contaminated fomites or environmental contamination. The target sites for primary lytic viral replication and the establishment of latency are unknown. The systemic character of Pacheco's disease strongly argues for a viremic phase of infection during which the virus disseminates into multiple organ sites. Anorexia, lymphoproliferative peripheral nerve lesions. Chickens affected by MD lymphoma (acute MD) generally exhibit unspecific symptoms such as weight loss, anorexia, depression, and ruffled plumage, but (transient) paralysis may also be seen. Unlike the classic form of paralysis, transient paralysis is caused by inflammatory lesions of the CNS and peripheral nervous system. Most v and vv MDV strains induce MD lymphoma and or (transient) paralysis in...
For those aquareoviruses that have been isolated from disease outbreaks in finfish hosts, external signs are those typically found for systemic infections and include lethargy, inappetance, anorexia, abnormal swimming behavior, petechial hemorrhages on the body surface, lateral recumbency, distended abdomen, and high mortality rates. Internal signs included discoloration of the liver. Histological examination may reveal hepatic lesions with varying degrees of severity. Syncytial giant cell formations of hepatocytes have been reported.
Been described in a number of malignancies, particularly those of mesenchymal origin. The tumor-secreted factor responsible for oncogenic hypophosphatemic osteomalacia has been identified as fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) (Shimada et al. 2001). This hormonelike molecule has been recognized as playing an important role in the genesis of a number of disorders of phosphate homeostasis, having in common renal phosphate wasting and impaired mineralization of bone. Oncogenic hypophosphatemic osteomalacia presents clinically with fatigue, proximal myopathy (arthropa-thy, myalgia), bone pain (osteomalacia), metabolic en-cephalopathy (confusion, paraesthesia, seizures, coma) and gastrointestinal disturbances (anorexia, nausea, vomiting, gastric atony, ileus). It is characterized biochemically by increased urinary phosphate loss associated with low plasma phosphate and normal plasma calcium concentrations. In typical cases of oncogenic hypophosphatemic osteomalacia, low 1,25...
Menarche in girls in the UK is around 12.6 years, but the onset of menstruation is influenced by a number of factors. There is no doubt that this is genetically controlled, and the release of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) by the neurones in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus is controlled by central factors influencing DNA within the cells. It is hypothesized that neurotransmitters, endorphins, interleukins, leptin and other paracrine and autocrine factors modulate the onset of puberty and new data suggest that growth factors including transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor appear to play key roles in this regulatory process. The process is linked to an increase in percentage body fat and this percentage body fat is influenced by a number of external factors, for example, socio-economic status, allowing good nutrition or psychological problems to influence body weight, for example, anorexia nervosa 1 . However, there is little doubt that body fat is...
A 66-yr-old female, initially admitted to hospital with anorexia, malaise, weakness, shortness of breath, developed urosepsis and acute renal failure. Appropriate treatment, including transient dialysis, was started and her renal function improved. One week later, she complained of bilateral leg weakness and lower extremity swelling that was followed 2 d later by acute dyspnea. She reported no chest pains or hemoptysis.
The stomach is the most common site for GI lymphoma to occur, accounting for 75 of all GI lymphomas and 10 of lymphomas overall (10). Only 3 of gastric cancers are lymphomas. The clinical features of a patient with gastric lymphoma vary but include epigastric pain, dyspepsia, anorexia, weight loss, nausea, emesis, and early satiety. Physical exam is usual normal, but a palpable abdominal mass or peripheral lymphadenopathy may be present. Most gastric lymphomas are extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas (MALT) or DLBCLs.
Childhood obesity is associated with significant risk for health and psychological problems. A review of relevant literature reveals that obese children are more likely to develop hypertension, diabetes, and sleep apnea (Dietz, 1998). Twenty percent of overweight children have two or more of these problems. Further, being obese as a child greatly increases one's likelihood of being obese as an adult the probability increases with the severity of the childhood overweight condition, and leads to future health threats including possible increased risk for coronary heart disease, colon caner, and diabetes, as well as an associated increased risk of mortality (Dietz, 2002). Obesity in children can also carry a significant risk of social discrimination and psychological problems. Children tend to equate obesity with laziness and sloppiness and view obese children as less attractive, less intelligent, and less popular (Birch & Fisher, 1998). Further, obese children tend to suffer from...
Sleep patterns have been less extensively explored in other psychiatric disorders. Some studies have investigated the sleep EEG of eating disorder patients, who may report sleep disturbances including abnormal nocturnal eating behaviors. The main findings of these studies were sleep continuity decrements, reduced REM sleep latency, and excessive numbers of arousals from NREM sleep 86 . Patients with substance abuse disorders also frequently complain of sleep difficulties 87 . Most studies have been conducted in alcoholic patients, who have shown reduced sleep continuity, SWS (stage N3) deficits, decreased REM sleep latency, and increased REM percentage of total sleep time even after prolonged periods of sobriety 88 . Eating disorders Insomnia (anorexia nervosa). Sleep-related eating (bulimia nervosa)
No toxicities were noted from eniluracil alone in period 1, or following the administration of eniluracil and a single dose of intravenous 5-FU in period 2. The principal and dose-limiting toxicity observed in period 3 was myelosuppression, mainly neutropenia, which was not cumulative. Hematologic toxicity of grade 2 or higher developed at 5-FU doses as low as 10 mg m2. Neutrophil nadirs occurred between d 16 and 24 with complete recovery in most patients by d 28. Five episodes of sepsis were documented in 207 cycles of chemotherapy. Nonhematologic toxicities were infrequent, and included grade 3 diarrhea in 5 of patients, and grade 2 mucositis in 3 . Other toxicities included anorexia and fatigue.
Vomitoxin levels of contamination can be generally high ( 1 to 20 ppm) in barley, oats, sorghum, rye, and safflower seeds. Vomitoxin causes anorexia and emesis in animals and humans. of cereals with vomitoxin is a majorconcernformanycountries.The lethal dose of vomitoxin is50to70mg kg. T-2 toxin produces neurobehavioral effects is cytotoxic and causes hemorrhage, edema, and necrosis of the skin. anorexia, and depression. The major devastating effect is on the hematopoietic system, with 10 to 75 rapid decreases in circulating white blood cells, platelets, and extensive cellular damage in the bone marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes. T-2 toxin is a potent immunosuppressant, causing lesions of lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, and the bursa of Fabricius. T-2 toxin is found naturally in barley, corn, oats, and wheat, but less frequently than vomitoxin. However, T-2 toxin is more toxic (LD50 2 to 4 mg kg for mice).
There are at least two cannabinoid receptors, one of which (CB2R) is largely expressed in the periphery and does not appear to be involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. On the other hand, CB1R is predominantly localized in the brain and is expressed in the hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, basal ganglia, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum (100). Activation of CB1R by agonists such as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) stimulates appetite, which is reflected in the approval of THC for treating AIDS-associated anorexia. Thus, antagonism of this pathway would be expected to reduce food intake and ultimately result in weight loss. In fact, a CB1R antagonist (SR 141716) synthesized by Sanofi Synthelabo (Paris, France), has been shown to reduce hunger, caloric intake, and body weight in overweight or obese men (101). Phase III human trials have been initiated with this compound. Although only minor gastrointestinal adverse events were observed in the phase II studies, some concern...
Determine if the patient has a history of recent infection, steroid use, or adrenal or pituitary surgery. Establish a history of poor tolerance for stress, weakness, fatigue, and activity intolerance. Ask if the patient has experienced anorexia, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea as a result of altered metabolism. Elicit a history of craving for salt or intolerance to cold. Determine presence of altered menses in females and impotence in males.
For viruses that produce localized infections, the major steps in pathogenesis are entry into the host and subsequent primary replication in cells and tissues in proximity to the site of infection. In many local infections, virus spread is predominantly by cell-to-cell spread in a contiguous fashion. The brunt of injury is confined to the epithelial layer, although local lymphoid tissues may also be involved. This type of circumscribed infection is typical of uncomplicated upper respiratory diseases caused by coronaviruses, rhinoviruses and influenza, and the acute diarrheal disease induced by rotaviruses. More generalized symptoms (fever, chills, myalgia, malaise, fatigue, anorexia) can accompany these infections, but are generally the result of cytokine production or through the action of other circulating mediators induced as a result of the local infection.