Zoos and Environmental Enrichment

The term ''environmental enrichment'' refers to the modifications that can be made to animal enclosures that increase the complexity and diversity of an animal's surroundings (see ENRICHMENT FOR ANIMALS). Animals in zoos are expected to live long lives in good health and, especially for endangered species,* to reproduce naturally in captivity. Zoos also strive to educate the public about the natural behavior and adaptations of animal species. The public and zoo professionals alike assess the...

Dowding Lady Muriel

Lady Muriel Dowding (1908-1981), a leading British humanitarian, vegetarian, and antivivisectionist, was the founder in 1959 and later chairperson of Beauty without Cruelty, the organization that led the way in the commercial production of synthetic alternatives to fur and cruelty-free cosmetics. She was a longtime president of the National Anti-Vivisection Society. In 1969, she cofounded the International Association against Painful Experiments on Animals (IAAPEA) and remained a patron until...

Utilitarian Assessment of Animal Experimentation

Many defenders of animal experimentation claim that the practice is justified because of its enormous benefits to human beings. Utilitarians can judge conflicts between members of different species by saying that the moral worth of an action would be the product of the moral worth of the creature that suffers, the seriousness of the wrong it suffers, and the number of such creatures that suffer. Many defenders of research often speak as if utilitarian (cost-benefit) calculation is easy....

Stephen L Zawistowski Metamorphosis See Animal Presence Mice

The mouse is the most typical laboratory mammal, and mice account for a large majority of all mammals used in research in the United States and Europe. Despite their tiny size, mice show remarkable genetic similarities to humans and can be used to study human genetic diseases. With their small body size, adaptability, and high reproductive rate, they are relatively economical and easy to maintain. Although rats and mice in the past were viewed as pests or laboratory animals, they are...

Chickens

Until relatively recently, most chickens were raised outdoors in small, free-ranging flocks. The primary product from these flocks was eggs. Poultry meat was scarce and expensive. But poultry meat and eggs are now the most abundant and least expensive animal food products, due largely to the development in the last 40 years of a highly intensified, large-scale poultry-production industry. The poultry industry is the largest (in terms of animal numbers) and most highly automated of all of the...

Bestiality

Though the term bestiality originally referred to a broad notion of earthy and often distasteful otherness, its meaning is nowadays confined to sexual relations between humans and nonhuman animals. Bestiality is also described as zoophilia, zooerasty, sodomy, and buggery. It can occur in a wide variety of social contexts, including adolescent sexual exploration, typically by young males in rural areas eroticism, a rare event where animals are the preferred sexual partner of humans cruelty,...

Genetic Engineering Pesticides and Agriculture

Industrial farming methods of food and fiber crop production that use various types of biotechnology to keep these methods operating are, in spite of political support, publicly unacceptable. We know very little about the risks of releasing genetically engineered biopesticides, as is proposed for the control of myriad insect pests, like the pine beauty moth and cotton boll weevil. Nor do we know the long-term ecological and economic risks and potential harm to ecosystems, wildlife, and natural...

Native Americans Early Uses of Animals

Many, if not all, pre-Columbian Native American nations used animals in the production of medical treatments and education. The common view of Native medicine has been shamanistic, but although ritual did, and still does, play an important role in Native American medicine, there was extensive use of practical therapy. The more practical therapies included the use of plants and animal parts to treat specific medical conditions. Most Native American nations, with the notable exception of the...

Vegetarianism

Paul Amato and Sonia Partridge offer the following useful classification of vegetarianism lacto-ovo vegetarians eat eggs and dairy products but no meat those who eat dairy products but no eggs or meat are lacto-vegetarians those who eat eggs but no dairy products or meat are ovo-vegetarians vegans consume no meat, dairy products, or eggs macrobiotic vegetarians live on whole grains, sea and land vegetables, beans, and miso natural hygienists eat plant foods, combine foods in certain ways, and...

Genetic Engineering

Although humans have always ''genetically engineered'' domesticated animals (see DOMESTICATION) to suit their uses of these animals, the only tool available to accomplish this in the past was to breed animals selected specifically for this purpose. This in turn required many generations of gradual change in order to produce significant changes in the animals and also limited manipulation of genes to those that could be introduced by normal reproduction. Since the late 1970s, however, the...

Domestication

Domestication is a process rather than an event, and it is hard to define the point at which a tame or captive wild animal can be classed as domesticated. In general, truly domesticated animals exhibit some obvious genetic divergence from the ancestral ''wild type'' due to the effects of artificial (human) selection over many generations. The first species to undergo the change from wild to domestic life was probably the wolf (Canis lupus), the ancestor of the dog.* The oldest known...

Needs Of Animals

A need can be defined as a requirement that is a consequence of the biology of the animal to obtain a particular resource or respond to a particular environmental or bodily stimulus. Animals have a range of functional systems controlling body temperature, nutritional state, and social interactions. Together, these functional systems allow the individual to control its interactions with its environment and hence to keep each aspect of its state within a tolerable range. When an animal acts to...

Preference And Motivation Testing

In a preference test, experimenters give animals a choice of two or more different options or environments and then monitor the animals' behavior to determine which alternative they select. Preference testing has been used in many ways in animal welfare* research. Animals' preferences have been established for air temperature, for type and level of light, and for common materials used in cage or pen design. The methods have also been used to assess how strongly animals seek to avoid aspects of...

Gandhi Mohandas Karamchand

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1869-1948) was a world statesman, pacifist, and vegetarian. Reading Henry Salt's* A Plea for Vegetarianism and Howard Williams's The Ethics of Diet reinforced his ethical vegetarianism* on his first visit to England in 1887. Thereafter Gandhi became a committed vegetarian ''by choice,'' and this commitment was deepened through his conversion to the Hindu (see RELIGION, Hinduism) philosophy of ahimsa, nonviolence or noninjury, which became fundamental to his religious...

Animal Rights Movement1

The first animal rights* movement began well over 100 years ago in England. The early movement was primarily antivivisectionist (see ANTIVIVI- 1Adapted from Animals' Agenda, July August 1996. SECTIONISM) and inspired protests, legislative reforms, antivivisectionist hospitals, and a broad base of support. Earlier humane leaders and antivi-visectionists worked together, but by 1910 humane leaders withdrew from criticizing institutional cruelties such as vivisection. Although humane societies and...

History of Ideas Surrounding Hunting

Although prehistoric people needed to hunt to survive, hunting has had little economic significance throughout most of the history of Western civilization. Its importance in Western thought derives chiefly from its symbolic meaning. That meaning has much to do with how we define hunting and distinguish it from butchery. Hunting is not simply a matter of killing animals. To count as quarry (a ''kill''), the hunter's victim must be a wild animal. For the hunter, this means that it must be hostile...

Embryo Research

The study of nonhuman animal embryos has provided a wealth of information about normal embryonic development. This basic research has important clinical relevance. For example, the research on fertilization in sea urchins and mice* has provided the data needed to develop methods for in vitro fertilization. Studies of the development of the nervous system in frogs (see Amphibians) have permitted researchers to identify the processes involved in a major birth defect, spina bifida, in which the...

Appendix Resources on Animal Welfare and Humane Education

This is a representative list1 of organizations that provide humane education materials directly pertaining to animals or that have information materials related to animal welfare available, either for the asking or for a fee. Space does not allow a complete listing of organizations extensive lists of international organizations are available from many of the organizations listedhere. Nearly all of the curricular and activity materials listedhere are sold, even if they are underwritten by a...