Gandhi Mohandas Karamchand

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1869-1948) was a world statesman, pacifist, and vegetarian. Reading Henry Salt's* A Plea for Vegetarianism and Howard Williams's The Ethics of Diet reinforced his ethical vegetarianism* on his first visit to England in 1887. Thereafter Gandhi became a committed vegetarian ''by choice,'' and this commitment was deepened through his conversion to the Hindu (see RELIGION, Hinduism) philosophy of ahimsa, nonviolence or noninjury, which became fundamental to his religious...

Animal Rights Movement1

The first animal rights* movement began well over 100 years ago in England. The early movement was primarily antivivisectionist (see ANTIVIVI- 1Adapted from Animals' Agenda, July August 1996. SECTIONISM) and inspired protests, legislative reforms, antivivisectionist hospitals, and a broad base of support. Earlier humane leaders and antivi-visectionists worked together, but by 1910 humane leaders withdrew from criticizing institutional cruelties such as vivisection. Although humane societies and...

Subjectivity Of Animals

To be interested in animal welfare* is to assume that animals are capable of having subjective (or personal) feelings and thoughts. Only if we assume that animals can feel fearful, frustrated, unhappy, or bored does it make sense to want to improve their situation. However, for scientists working in the field of animal welfare, the problem is whether, and how, we can be certain that animals have such kinds of experiences. To consider this problem, we should take a closer look at what is meant...

History of Ideas Surrounding Hunting

Although prehistoric people needed to hunt to survive, hunting has had little economic significance throughout most of the history of Western civilization. Its importance in Western thought derives chiefly from its symbolic meaning. That meaning has much to do with how we define hunting and distinguish it from butchery. Hunting is not simply a matter of killing animals. To count as quarry (a ''kill''), the hunter's victim must be a wild animal. For the hunter, this means that it must be hostile...

Appendix Resources on Animal Welfare and Humane Education

This is a representative list1 of organizations that provide humane education materials directly pertaining to animals or that have information materials related to animal welfare available, either for the asking or for a fee. Space does not allow a complete listing of organizations extensive lists of international organizations are available from many of the organizations listedhere. Nearly all of the curricular and activity materials listedhere are sold, even if they are underwritten by a...