Hinduism

Hinduism, the oldest of the major religious traditions, is not a single religion, but an umbrella under which one finds very different kinds of beliefs. These include, among others, Vaishnavism, Shaivism, Shaaktism, and Tantrism, each of which in turn is a complex religious tradition that has many forms of its own. The term Hinduism'' was coined by European scholars in the 19th century as a description of native beliefs, other than Buddhism and Islam (see RELIGION AND ANIMALS, Buddhism, Islam),...

Farmanimal Welfare

Ruth Harrison's book Animal Machines, published in Britain in 1964, introduced the British public to a large-scale and highly intensified animal agriculture that was a far cry from their cherished image of the pastoral family farm. Harrison coined the term ''factory farming''* to describe this new agriculture, which she viewed as being more concerned with profits than with animals. The farming practices that Harrison described were the outcome of a number of scientific and technological...

Animal Rights

Two opposing philosophies have dominated contemporary discussions regarding the moral status of nonhuman animals (1) animal welfare* (welfarism) and (2) animal rights (the rights view). Animal welfare holds that humans do nothing wrong when they use nonhuman animals in research, raise them to be sold as food, and hunt* or trap* them for sport or profit if the overall benefits of engaging in these activities outweigh the harms these animals endure. Welfarists ask that animals not be caused any...

Subjectivity Of Animals

To be interested in animal welfare* is to assume that animals are capable of having subjective (or personal) feelings and thoughts. Only if we assume that animals can feel fearful, frustrated, unhappy, or bored does it make sense to want to improve their situation. However, for scientists working in the field of animal welfare, the problem is whether, and how, we can be certain that animals have such kinds of experiences. To consider this problem, we should take a closer look at what is meant...

History of Ideas Surrounding Hunting

Although prehistoric people needed to hunt to survive, hunting has had little economic significance throughout most of the history of Western civilization. Its importance in Western thought derives chiefly from its symbolic meaning. That meaning has much to do with how we define hunting and distinguish it from butchery. Hunting is not simply a matter of killing animals. To count as quarry (a ''kill''), the hunter's victim must be a wild animal. For the hunter, this means that it must be hostile...

Appendix Resources on Animal Welfare and Humane Education

This is a representative list1 of organizations that provide humane education materials directly pertaining to animals or that have information materials related to animal welfare available, either for the asking or for a fee. Space does not allow a complete listing of organizations extensive lists of international organizations are available from many of the organizations listedhere. Nearly all of the curricular and activity materials listedhere are sold, even if they are underwritten by a...