Cerebrospinal Fluid Tests for Alzheimer Disease

Three different biomarkers in CSF have been particularly well researched neuronal thread protein, tau, and derivatives of APP (Table 5). Although these markers are distinguishing between persons with probable AD and healthy normal individuals, it remains to be determined if they have are sensitive and specific enough to aid with the earlier detection of AD. NYMOX has developed a quantitative test for measuring levels of a specific type of neuronal thread protein (AD7c-NTP) in small samples of...

References

American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 3rd ed-Revised. Washington, DC 1987. 2. Fleming KC, Adams AC, Petersen RC. Dementia diagnosis and evaluation. Mayo. Clin. Proc. 1995 70 1093-1107. 3. Joachim CL, Morris JH, Selkoe DJ. Clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease autopsy neuropathological results in 150 cases. Ann. Neurol. 1988 24 50-56. 4. McKhann G, Drachman D, Folstein M, Katzman R, Price D, Stadlan EM. Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's...

Dementia Associated with Sensorimotor Signs

A third major pattern in dementia is one in which cognitive decline is accompanied by sensory and motor signs. Most often, the salient mental state changes of these dementias also involve complex attention, behavior, and personality. Changes in executive functions are not universal, but depend on where the brunt of the neuropathology is located. Table 7 lists a number of disease processes that tend to have this dementia profile. The disease entity in this category with the highest prevalence is...

The Acute Phase Response and Alzheimer Disease

The acute phase response (APR) is an orchestrated physiological response of the body to tissue injury, infection, or inflammation. A prominent feature of the APR is the induction of acute phase proteins, which are involved in the restoration of homeostasis. Cytokines including interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) are important mediators of the APR. Different signaling pathways are activated by different cytokine-recep-tor interactions. Eventually,...