Atherogenity of insulin

Clinical studies have demonstrated that those processes linked to hyperinsulinaemia, such as type 2 diabetes or obesity, show a higher mortality due to coronary or cerebral atherosclerosis (Pyorala et al 1985). Furthermore, experimental results show that insulin acts on the vascular wall, either producing hypertension and endothelial changes, or influencing the smooth muscle cells (SMCs) to proliferate. It is well known that endothelial lesions and SMC proliferation are basic steps of...

Glucose tolerance glucose utilization and insulin secretion in ageing

Muller*, Josephine M. Egan*, Reubin Andres*, Johannes Veldhuisf and Graydon S. Meneilly Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, *Eaboratory of Clinical Physiology, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore 21224, MD, University of Virginia, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA, and Department of Medicine, University of...

The hypothalamopituitaryovarian axis

The hypothalamo pituitary ovarian axis is a classical example of a closed loop endocrine negative feedback system. Pulsatile secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), from hypothalamic peptidergic neurons drives the pulsatile secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the anterior pituitary. Whilst LH secretion depends on GnRH input, there is a GnRH-independent component of FSH secretion, probably driven by intrapituitary secretion of activin...

The thyroid axis in ageing

Holger Leitolf, Jens Behrends and Georg Brabant1 Department of Clinical Endocrinology, Center for Internal Medicine and Dermatology, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (MHH), 30625 Hannover, Germany Abstract. The hypothalmo pituitary thyroid axis, among various endocrine systems, undergoes physiological alterations associated with the ageing process. Directly age-related changes have to be distinguished from indirect modifications which are caused by simultaneous thyroidal or non-thyroidal...

Beldyes Sex

Abbasi AA, Drinka PJ, Mattson DE, Rudman D 1993 Low circulating levels of insulin-like growth factors and testosterone in chronically institutionalized elderly men. J Am Geriatr Soc 41 975-982 Abbasi A, Duthie EH Jr, Sheldahl L et al 1998 Association of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, body composition, and physical fitness in independent community-dwelling older men and women. J Am Geriatr Soc 46 263-273 Aleman A, Verhaar HJ, De Haan EH et al 1999 Insulin-like growth factor-I and cognitive...

Ovulation disturbances and perimenopause

The following will briefly describe the perimenopausal prevalence and incidence of ovulation disturbances while expanding on a previous review (Prior 1998). Cross-sectional data will be reviewed before the prospective and epidemiological data are examined. The earliest cross-sectional studies of ovulation in 40 50 year old women used non-quantitative basal temperature methods. Collett et al (1954) documented 302 cycles from 146 women aged 17 50 using the basal temperature nadir (assessed...

Ageing and water homeostasis

David Robertson, Jens Jordan , Giris Jacobf, Terry Ketch, John R. Shannon and Italo Biaggioni Autonomic Dysfunction Center, Departments of Medicine, Pharmacology, and Neurology Vanderbilt University, Nashville TN 37232-2195, USA, Clinical Research Center, Franz Volhard Institut, Berlin, Germany and Recanati Autonomic Dysfunction Center, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa, Israel Abstract. This review outlines current knowledge concerning fluid intake and volume homeostasis in ageing. The physiology...