Home Remedies for Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disease

Heartburn and Acid Reflux Cure Program

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Heartburn and Acid Reflux Cure Program Summary


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The Acid Reflux Strategy Summary

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Official Website: blueheronhealthnews.com
Price: $49.00

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease GERD

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a syndrome that is caused by esophageal reflux, or the backward flow of gastroesophageal contents into the esophagus. Approximately 7 of the U.S. population has symptoms of heartburn each day. GERD occurs because of inappropriate relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) in response to an unknown stimulus. Reflux occurs in most adults, but if it occurs regularly, the esophagus cannot resist the irritating effects of gastric acid and pepsin because the mucosal barrier of the esophagus breaks down. Without this protection, tissue injury, inflammation, hyperemia, and even erosion occur. Barrett esophagus is a condition thought to be caused by the chronic reflux of gastric acid into the esophagus. It occurs when squamous epithelium of the esophagus is replaced by intestinal columnar epithelium, a situation that may lead to adenocarcinoma. Barrett esophagus is present in approximately 10 to 15 of patients with GERD.

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Gerd Introduction

Gastroesophageal reflux (chalasia, cardiochalasia) is the return of gastric contents into the esophagus and possibly the pharynx. It is caused by dysfunction of the cardiac sphincter at the esophagus-stomach juncture. Reasons for this incompetence include an increase of pressure on the lower esophageal sphincter following esophageal surgery or immature lower esophageal neuromuscular function. The result of the persistent reflux is inflammation, esophagitis, and bleeding causing possible anemia and damage to the structure of the esophagus as scarring occurs. It also may predispose to aspiration of stomach contents causing aspiration pneumonia and chronic pulmonary conditions. Most commonly affected are infants and young children. As the condition becomes more severe or does not respond to medical treatment and the child experiences failure to thrive, surgical fundoplication to create a valve mechanism or other procedures may be done to correct the condition.

Gerd And Be

It is currently accepted that BE develops as a complication of chronic GERD. The evidence that mucosal injury to the esophagus as a result of GERD can cause BE and lead to adeno-carcinoma of the esophagus is compelling (14,15). The estimated prevalence of reflux in the general population is between 25 and 35 (at least one episode per week). Approximately 10-15 of the population experience reflux daily. Overall, it has been estimated that more than 60 million American adults experience reflux symptoms on a regular basis. BE has been identified in 10-20 of individuals undergoing upper endoscopy for reflux symptoms and in 0.4 at autopsy (16). Recent studies have demonstrated a direct correlation between the rates of endoscopy and the discovery of BE (17). The incidence of clinically diagnosed BE ( 3 cm) increased 28-fold between 1965-1969 and 1995-1997 in the Olmstead County catchment area, suggesting that the more we look for BE, the more we find. Utilizing these estimates of...


CHOKE CHERRY bark has got a reputation in America for dyspepsia it was usually administered as a cold infusion with syrup (Lloyd), but the important plant at one time was SWEET FLAG. The carminative usage appeared in medieval Latin compilations, and was to be found in New World medicine also. In Alabama, they either chewed the root, or put it in whisky to be used when needed. Or it could be boiled, and the water drunk (R B Browne). The American Indians used it too, for similar purposes. A tisane of WHITE HOREHOUND has often been taken for a weak stomach, lack of appetite, and the like (Fluck). Indigestion and dyspepsia were cured with Horehound tea, or, in homeopathy, by a tincture (Schauenberg & Paris). Even Navajo Indians were reported to use this herb for indigestion (Wyman & Harris), and it is certainly an American domestic medicine for dyspepsia still (Henkel). CENTAURY is another plant still used as a popular medicine for dyspepsia, in the form of a leaf infusion (Clair). As...


Gypsies use a root and herb infusion of FIELD GENTIAN to relieve indigestion (Vesey-Fitzgerald), and TANSY leaves, chopped up and added to bread dough and cake mixtures, were a popular indigestion remedy in Cambridgeshire (Porter. 1969). In Ireland flatulence used to be cured by taking a tansy leaf decoction with salt added (Egan), and another Irish remedy is the simple expedient of eating CELERY (Maloney). LEMON VERBENA leaves, fresh or dried, are widely used as a tea for indigestion (Macleod), and FENNEL is used in the same way, and has been for a very long time. Fennel seed drunke asswageth the paine of the stomacke, and wambling of the same, or desire to vomit. And breaketh winde . (Gerard). A Middle English rimed medical treatise prescribed wither betony or fennel for the digestion, fennel to be taken in droge after meat . Drogges were a kind of digestive powder for weak stomachs, and were used by Chaucer's 'Doctour' (Prologue to Canterbury Tales). CORIANDER seeds are still known...

The gastrointestinal system

Taste often alters very early in pregnancy. The whole intestinal tract has decreased motility during the first two trimesters, with increased absorption of water and salt, tending to increase constipation. Heartburn is common from the increased intragastric pressure. Hepatic synthesis of albumin, plasma globulin and fibrinogen increases, the latter two sufficiently to give increased plasma concentrations despite the increase in plasma volume. Total hepatic synthesis of globulin increases under oestrogen stimulation, so the hormone-binding globulins rise. There is decreased hepatic extraction of circulating amino acids.

Endoscopic Mucosal Ablation

Efforts at inducing reversal of BE with medical therapies have been successful (20,21). The dogma that BE, once formed, is irreversible was disproved by Sampliner (22) and Berenson et al. (23) who demonstrated that once BE was ablated by thermal energy from either multipolar probe or laser, squamous epithelium could replace BE if acid reflux is controlled. It appears that any technique that can destroy the metaplastic epithelium can induce squamous re-epithelialization. Multiple techniques have been developed and these include photodynamic therapy (PDT), thermal therapy, and mucosal resection.

Primary Nursing Diagnosis

Pain related to esophageal reflux and esophageal inflammation 370 Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Although diet therapy alone can manage symptoms in some patients, most patients can have their GERD managed pharmacologically. Dietary modifications that may decrease symptoms include reducing intake of fatty foods, caffeinated beverages, chocolate, nicotine, alcohol, and peppermint. Reducing the intake of spicy and acidic foods lets esophageal healing occur during times of acute inflammation. Encourage the patient to eat five to six small meals during the day rather than large meals. Ingestion of large amounts of food increases gastric pressure and thereby increases esophageal reflux. Both weight loss and smoking cessation programs are also important for any patients who have problems with obesity and tobacco use.

Classificationprognostic Indicators

GEJ appear to differ significantly in their etiology as compared with gastric cancers. GEJ tumors arise from gastro-esophageal reflux resulting in esophagitis, gastric metaplasia, and Barrett's esophagitis. It appears also that obese people are at increased risk of GEJ cancers (28). It may be related to increased intra-abdominal pressure from an increased body mass index resulting in hiatal hernia formation and gastro-esophageal reflux. Tobacco, alcohol, and low socioeconomic status are also risk factors for GEJ tumors (67,68).

Fecal Incontinence in Peripheral Neuropathies

Diabetes mellitus is the most common cause of polyneuropathy in developed countries. Diabetic neuropathy is a chronic symmetrical sensorimotor polyneuropathy that usually begins after years of hyperglycemia and is frequently associated with autonomic neuropathy and bowel, bladder, and sexual dysfunction. Severe diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is almost always associated with insulin-dependent diabetes. Symptoms of autonomic involvement include impairment of sweating and of vascular reflexes, constipation, nocturnal diarrhea and fecal incontinence, atonic bladder, sexual impotence, and occasionally postural hypotension. The pathogenetic mechanism of the constipation is uncertain, but autonomic neuropathy causing parasympathetic denervation is likely to be implicated. Diarrhea typically occurs at night or after meals, is a more troublesome complication of diabetes, and may be an isolated symptom of autonomic dysfunction. It is usually chronic, but it is intermittent and alternates...

Veterinary Uses Of Plants

The Pennsylvania Germans made a ball of ELDER bark, and pushed it down a cow's throat when it had indigestion (Dorson). Gypsies use the leaves to treat a horse's leg - they soak the young shoots from the tips of the leaves in hot water, and bandage them round the lame leg (Boswell). In Ireland, too, the water in which elder leaves had been boiled was used to dose pigs. One way to treat a horse that cannot urinate is to strike it gently with an elder stick, and to bind some leaves to its belly. Lameness in pigs used to be treated by boring a small hole in its ear and putting in a plug of elder wood. As the plug withered or fell out, the animal would be cured (Drury. 1985). A similar usage was to cure coughs in cattle by putting a piece of OX-EYE DAISY root in a hole made in the cow's ear or dewlap (Drury. 1975). Manx vets still use ALEXANDERS as a treatment for animals with sore mouths (Garrad). Martin, in his account of the Western Isles, reported that horses were...

Preoperative Assessment for Laparoscopic Simple Nephrectomy

Laparoscopic simple nephrectomies are performed for benign pathologic conditions involving the kidney. Most often, these entities result in problems such as pain, bleeding, hematuria, or chronic infection. In addition, some benign processes cause massive enlargement of the kidney, leading to displacement of adjacent structures and symptoms such as dyspnea, early satiety, and gastroesophageal reflux.

Gastrinoma and the Zollinger Ellison Syndrome ZES

Gastrinomas produce the ZES, named by the surgeons who described the clinical disorder resulting from excessive gastric acid production. The tumor should be suspected after recognition of the constellation of clinical symptoms that include ulcer-like abdominal pain (dyspepsia) with associated diarrhea. The endo-scopic findings of peptic ulcer disease and concomitant esophagi-tis are a clue to the diagnosis. Profound acid hypersecretion leads to ulcerations throughout the upper gut, and the peptic ulcers may be in atypical locations such as the second, third, and fourth portions of the duodenum and jejunum (15).

Modalities For The Treatment Of Hgd In Be

Despite the elevated cancer risk, the majority of patients with HGD will not develop adenocarcinoma. For this reason, many surveillance protocols have been proposed with the aim of detecting patients with early cancer for treatment although there still is a high likelihood of cure (10,15). Typically, surveillance involves obtaining four quadrant biopsies every 1-2 cm, along the BE, with additional biopsies at sites with visible mucosal abnormalities. In addition, patients are placed on higher dosages of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) to eliminate symptoms of acid reflux. These results have been shown to lead to reasonable results in expert centers in which large numbers of biopsies can be obtained. In expert hands, surveillance can be performed with minimal morbidity or mortality. One group of 75 patients had only one cancer-related death during a mean of 7 yr of follow-up (15a). Although this strategy has been demonstrated to be effective in tertiary centers, there are some problems...

Magnification Endoscopy

Chromoendoscopy is the term describing the use of special dyes during endoscopy to highlight histological changes within the gastrointestinal mucosa. A specific dye is applied to the mucosa, typically with the use of a spray catheter passed through the accessory channel of an endoscope. After the application of the dye, careful endoscopic inspection is performed looking for areas that either fails to stain or stain differently than their surroundings. The dye used is chosen based on the particular pathology sought and the choice reflects the different cell types and cell components stained by each dye. In the case of squamous cell dysplasia, iodine is used as the stain based on a chemical reaction between iodine and glyco-gen (52). The glycogen rich prickle-cell layer of the stratified squamous esophageal epithelium stains greenish brown after the application of a potassium iodide solution or Lugol's iodine. Dysplastic epithelium lacks the glycogen-rich granules in the prickle-cell...

Common symptoms in pregnancy

Heartburn is also a common symptom in pregnancy, but unlike constipation, occurs more frequently as the pregnancy progresses. It is estimated to complicate one-fifth of pregnancies in the first trimester rising to three quarters by the third trimester. It is due to the increasing pressure caused by the enlarging uterus combined with the hormonal changes that lead to gastro-oesophageal reflux. It is important to distinguish this symptom from the epigastric pain associated with pre-eclampsia which will usually be associated with hypertension and proteinuria. Symptoms can be improved by simple lifestyle modifications such as maintaining an upright posture especially after meals, lying propped up in bed, eating small frequent meals and avoiding fatty foods. Antacids (especially Gaviscon ), H2 receptor antagonists and proton-pump inhibitors are all effective, although it is recommended that the latter be used only when other treatments have failed because of its unproven safety in...

Adverse Effects Interactions and Pharmacokinetics

Dosages of up to 30 mg rhDNase I per day were well tolerated in healthy volunteers and CF patients 69,87 . Severe bronchospasms or anaphylactic reactions, as seen after inhalation of bovine DNase I, have never been observed with rhDNase I. The most common adverse effects reported after daily inhalation of 2.5 mg rhDNase I were voice alterations (hoarseness), pharyngitis, rash, laryngitis, and conjunctivitis 74,76,78 . All these events are generally mild and transient. In patients with severe pulmonary disease (FVC 40 ), rhinitis, fever, dyspepsia, dyspnea, and an FVC decrease of 10 have also been reported 76,88 . Facial edema has been reported to an exceptional degree in patients receiving 2.5 or 10 mg rhDNase I twice daily 70 . It has also been shown that rhDNase I may increase airway inflammation by releasing elastase and proinflammatory cytokines that are bound to DNA in the airway secretions 89-91 . However, other studies did not confirm this observation 92-94 . Antibodies against...

Esophageal Dysfunction

Esophageal motor dysfunction is common in patients with diabetes, but is usually asymptomatic (Table 1). The most frequent complaints are heartburn and dysphagia, but these symptoms are evidently nonspecific. Nishida et al. (9) reported that 25.3 of a group of 241 patients with diabetes mellitus had symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms against 9.5 of a control group of patients with chronic hepatitis C. This figure approximates the 28 prevalence of abnormally elevated gastroesophageal reflux in diabetics, based on pHmetry studies, reported by Lluch et al. (10), although most patients in the latter group appeared to be asymptomatic. In any case, the presence of abnormal gastroesophageal reflux was associated with cardiovascular autonomic neurophathy (10). However, on the issue of reflux and autonomic neuropathy there are some conflicting reports. Jackson et al. (11) observed that among symptomatic GERD patients, those with diabetes mellitus often have normal...

Dosage Form Decisions

The other key item in selecting the product profile is defining how the product will be used. A product intended for surgical anesthesia would be most amenable to an injectable dosage form that can be easily titrated to achieve the desired level of anesthesia. A product intended to treat heartburn would likely need to be self-administered as an oral dosage form. A product intended to be given predominantly to smaller children would be easier to administer as a solution or a suspension. Product use and the resulting product profile also may be dependent on the disease being treated. Diseases producing significant nausea such as cancer may need non-oral alternatives to ensure proper dosing. Asthma can be treated with inhalation products, depending on the mechanism of action, given the pulmonary site of disease and the accessibility of lung tissue to direct product administration. Diseases that harbor in specific tissues may benefit from special direct extravascular administration, such...

Sleepwalking and sleep terrors overview and clinical description

(OSA), periodic limb movements of sleep (PLMS), gastroesophageal reflux disorder, other physical illness, or full bladder, without any specific psychological meaning 9,11,19,20-22 . Nathaniel Kleitman, father of American sleep research, wrote all the characteristics of somnambulism underline the difference between wakefulness and consciousness. 23 This idea is reinforced by a more recent report of SPECT imaging during a polygraphically documented SW episode, demonstrating increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the anterior cerebellum (vermis) and posterior cingulate cortex when compared to quiet slow-wave sleep. There were also large areas of frontal and parietal cortical decrements of CBF when compared with normal awake subjects. As anticipated by Kleit-man, SW appears to represent a concurrence of increased motor activation and decreased executive function during incomplete, disordered arousals from sleep 24 .

Patients And Methods

Patients of both sexes, aged between 17 and 72 years, with clinical symptoms such as epigastric pain, dyspepsia, heartburn, or anorexia, were enrolled in this open, noncomparative study. They were included in the study on the basis of endoscopic findings (endoscopic appearance of duodenal ulcer, measuring between 5 and 20 mm in longest dimension, or endoscopic appearance of antral erosions, spotty erythema of antral mucosa, pale areas, goose-pimple-like appearance of antral mucosa, fine spotty erythema of the body of the stomach), histologically defined gastritis (by the Sidney system), and HP seropositivity (ELISA IgG 1.0 U), Patients were excluded if they had received nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug therapy, corticosteroids, antimicrobial drugs, or bismuth salts within 4 weeks prior to entry or antiulcer medications within 2 weeks prior to entry. Patients with evidence of chronic renal or liver disease, gastric surgery or vagotomy, pregnancy, and chronic alcohol abuse were also...

Treatment Of Ascites And Edema In Patients With Hepatic Cirrhosis [35

Tense ascites and edema do produce significant adverse clinical consequences which can be mitigated by judicious treatment. Ascites can exacerbate gastroesophageal reflux, contribute to anorexia, and possibly increase portal venous pressures, which will heighten the risk of variceal bleeding. Massive ascites in cirrhotic patients commonly becomes infected and the abdominal wall pressure may produce umbilical eventration skin ulceration and necrosis. Elevation of the diaphragms restricts respiration and contributes to development of basilar atelectasis.

Anise Aniseed

This is one of the herbs supposed to avert the evil eye (Grieve. 1931), and it was used in a Greek cure for impotence ointments were made of the root of narcissus mixed with the seeds of nettle or anise (Simons). Gerard claimed, among other things, that it helpeth the yeoxing or hicket, hiccup, that is both when it is drunken or eaten dry the smell thereof doth also pre-vaile very much . It is best known as an indigestion remedy. The Romans offered an anise-flavoured cake at the end of rich meals to ease indigestion.


A patient with FOC may present in a number of ways. The peak incidence of sporadic ovarian cancer is 40-60 years of age. Familial ovarian cancer has an earlier average age of onset, but cancers under 40 years of age are still uncommon (Bewtra et al., 1992 Boyd et al., 2000). Ovarian tumours rarely give rise to specific symptoms at an early stage, the commonest being vague gastrointestinal disturbance such as dyspepsia or increased abdominal girth. A result of this is that the majority of patients still present as stage III disease with spread to the abdominal cavity. It is the aim of screening to be able to identify the disease before it has spread from its primary site of origin, i.e. stage 1A, as one is then able to cure the majority of patients. More and more patients with FOC are presenting via some sort of screening programme.


Patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric ulcer, and duodenal ulcer. Gastrointestinal motility is influenced by sex hormones (51,52), implying that gender-based disparity in motility may exist and that the transit time in women may vary throughout pregnancy and the menstrual cycle. Estrogen and its equivalents may inhibit gastric emptying (53,54), whereas the effects of progesterone depends on its concentration (55,56). Gastric transit time has been demonstrated by many researchers to be slower in females than males (57-61).

Gastric Lymphomas

Rugal Surface Stomach

The stomach is the most common site for GI lymphoma to occur, accounting for 75 of all GI lymphomas and 10 of lymphomas overall (10). Only 3 of gastric cancers are lymphomas. The clinical features of a patient with gastric lymphoma vary but include epigastric pain, dyspepsia, anorexia, weight loss, nausea, emesis, and early satiety. Physical exam is usual normal, but a palpable abdominal mass or peripheral lymphadenopathy may be present. Most gastric lymphomas are extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas (MALT) or DLBCLs.


Gargle for a sore throat (V G Hatfield. 1994). Sucking a sloe is said to cure gumboils (Addison & Hillhouse). And a gypsy remedy for bronchitis involves peeling the bark, boiling it in a saucepan of water, and then allowing it to cool. Add sugar, and then drink it when needed (Page. 1978). In Sussex, the inner bark is scraped off and made into a tea to be taken for various ailments. Equally varied and unspecified are the disorders for which sloe wine used to be taken in Northamptonshire (Friend. 1883). Blackthorn leaves were used in Ireland as an indigestion remedy, or to cure summer fever (O Suilleabhain), while Thornton said that ague could be cured sometimes with the powdered bark. He also reckoned that an infusion of a handful of the flowers is a safe and easy purge , but the Welsh belief that if a person ate the first three blackthorn blossoms he saw, he would not have heartburn all through the year (Trevelyan), can only be classed as superstition, not even a charm.

Castor Oil Plant

Castor oil is a vermifuge, and, of course, a laxative, and a particularly valuable one, though the smell and taste have made it a by-word for offensiveness (Maddox). In Haiti it is used for colic, for eye trouble and headaches, or, in America, to put on a wart (Thomas & Thomas). African peoples like the Mano, of Liberia, use it for headaches, too, by rubbing the leaves in water, and bathing the head with the infusion (Harley), while in the southern states of America a similar practice merely involves wrapping the forehead with the leaves, which will treat a fever as well (Puckett). Kentucky practice was to carry a castor-bean about on the person, for indigestion (Thomas & Thomas). There is, too a certain amount of ritual use, which probably includes the Shona (Zimbabwe) habit of smoking the leaves like a cigarette, ostensibly to cure hiccups, it is said (Gelfand. 1956). Certainly, the Brazilian curanderos used it ritually, as a fumigant, and as an ingredient in ritual baths in their...


Use peppermint to keep flies and midges away - rub the face and hands with the leaves. Mint (or parsley) grown on a window sill is also said to keep flies and insects out of a kitchen. Bruise the leaves occasionally to release more odour (Boland. 1977). Applied to the temples, it will relieve headaches, and it can also be used for a queasy stomach and indigestion. It is an antiseptic (Genders. 1971). Gypsies use the tea for headaches (as well as laying the leaves on). A drop of the juice on an aching tooth will relieve the pain (Vesey-Fitzgerald). Peppermint tea is also a sedative (Bircher), and is used in Russian folk medicine as a heart strengthener (Kourennoff). In Alabama, they used to give peppermint tea to babies who had a cold (R B Browne).

Green Purslane

Liberia, who recognize it as an accessory green food, specially prescribed for malnutrition (Harley). There are a number of other medicinal uses throughout the world. The Navajo use the green plant for stomach ache (Elmore), and the Mano too recognize it as an indigestion remedy (Harley). In Central America, Maya medical texts prescribed the crushed plant, rubbed on the body, for tuberculosis. The juice is given for giddiness, and an infusion is used as a bath for convulsions (Roys). In West Africa it is prescribed for local application to swellings and bruises, or as a poultice for abscesses or boils. The juice is sometimes dropped in the ear for earache, and is also used for toothache. Skin diseases are treated in West Africa, as well as in China, with purslane, but in Ghana they eat the leaves along with tiger nuts as the remedy (Dalziel). The Mano look on it as a sore throat remedy, too. They take a large handful, beaten up with root ginger. It has to be mixed with water from a...

Choke Cherry

(Prunus virginiana) An American species that is cultivated in Mexico and central America. The cherry is small, black and bitter (hence Choke Cherry, presumably). Birds often get drunk eating them. However, the cherries are quite useful - country people infuse them in brandy as a flavouring (Lloyd), and native Americans used them as food the Ojibwe used to pound them, stones and all, and dried them to store as food (Densmore). The bark is slightly narcotic, making the user a little drowsy, and its sedative qualities gave it quite a reputation in America, in dyspepsia and tuberculosis (Lloyd). The Indians made a tea from this bark for diarrhoea (HH Smith. 1923), or any stomach ailment. Apparently, the bark was also used in the treatment of syphilis (Lloyd). However the kernels are as poisonous as those of the rest of the genus, and children have been known to die after eating them (Tampion) - it is the cyanide content that causes the damage. The root, too, has been used - Blackfoot...


Medieval medical receipts were quite keen on celery, as it was prescribed for widely differing complaints - ache of wound (Dawson), for example. Topsell suggested that apium seed was used for snakebite, even. Other conditions included a stroke (a blow in this case), heart disease, or who that spitteth bloud , backache, and so on. Gerard was just as keen, as were other herbalists of his generation, recommending it for agues, jaundice, mouth ulcers, whitlows, etc., It has well-known diuretic effects, and would certainly help anyone suffering from kidney stone, strangury, etc., Lastly, sufferers in Norfolk would cure a hangover by the simple expedient of chewing celery (V G Hatfield. 1994), and eating it is a simple Irish remedy for indigestion (Maloney).


The seeds are still known to herbalists as an efficient indigestion remedy. A few seeds chewed before a meal always help (Conway), and they would be chewed to sweeten the breath, too (G B Foster). The whole plant is used in Chinese herbal medicine in the early stages of measles, to bring the rash out (Geng Junying). The juice, blown up the nostrils , was used to stop a nosebleed, and when mixed with violets, it was used to sober up a drunk (F J Anderson). The Anglo-Saxon version of Apuleius claimed an extraordinary use for coriander seeds. In translation, it reads in order that a wife may quickly bring forth, take seed eleven grains or thirteen, knit them with a thread on a clean linen cloth let then a person take them who is a person of maidenhood, a boy or a maiden, and hold this at the left thigh, near the natura, and as all parturition be done, remove away the leechdom, lest part of the inwards follow thereafter (Cockayne). So, according to Apuleius, it helps women in childbirth,...


Turnips seem to have been first grown in the London area in the 16th century, but Norfolk was the first county in which they were extensively cultivated for cattle feed (G M Taylor). Gerard, at the end of that century, was rather disparaging about them the root .is many times eaten raw, especially of the poore people in Wales, but most commonly boiled. The raw root is windy, and engendreth grosse and cold bloud the boiled doth coole lesse . yet it is moist and windy . The Regimen Sanitatis Salernii was equally scathing Turnips cause flatulence and spoil the teeth, stimulate the kidneys, and when ill cooked cause indigestion (Hickey). There seems to have been some doubt early on as to what one should do with them -English travellers in Scotland in the 17th century complained that they got turnips (neeps) as dessert. ( The Scots had no fruit but turnips (Graham)).


Dystress is taken from the Greek root dus (bad), which has a notion of hard or bad or unlucky and removes the good sense of a word or increases its bad sense (e.g., dyspepsia, dysentery). Dystress means stress* with which the animal cannot cope (see ANIMAL WELFARE, Coping) and is usually a result of long-term (chronic) stress. It is to be differentiated from stress with which an animal can cope, sometimes referred to as eustress. It often involves activation of the hypothalamus with its connections to the pituitary gland, which controls many of the endocrine glands in the body. The adrenal cortex is often involved, and this leads to a rise in circulating corticosteroids. On other occasions, compromised functioning of

White Horehound

Similarly, horehound was used for all pains in the chest, and for lung disease. The Lacnunga prescribed a draught for lung diseases boil marrubium in wine or ale sweeten somewhat with honey. Give it warm to drink after the night's fast. And then let him lie on his right arm as much as he can (Grattan & Singer). A tisane of this herb is often taken for weak stomach, lack of appetite, etc. (Fluck), and horehound was remembered in Cheshire as the cure for loss of appetite (Cheshire FWI). Indigestion and dyspepsia, too, were treated with this preparation. Even the Navajo Indians were reported to use this herb for indigestion (Wyman & Harris), and it is certainly an American domestic medicine for dyspepsia still (Henkel). There is nothing new in this. The Anglo-Saxon Apuleius prescribed it for sore of maw (Cockayne), and it went on to advise its use for tapeworms about the navel , a recipe still in use many centuries later, as candy or tea in Alabama (R B Browne), or simply by using the...

Holy Thistle

(Carduus benedictus) When a plant is called holy or blessed (Blessed Thistle is recorded for this (Ellacombe)), it means it has the power of counteracting poison, or so it was supposed (herba benedicta, Avens, that is, is better known for this property). Langham could say the leafe, juice, seede, in water, healeth all kindes of poyson . Everybody knew it as a heal-all. Langham, indeed had four pages of recipes under this head, for practically every malady, including plague, for which it was regarded as a specific. Thomas Hill had a very similar list. Culpeper, too, was enthusiastic. Wesley was more restrained, but could still say, Coldness of the Stomach. Take a spoonful of the Syrup of the Juice of Carduus Benedictus, fasting, for three or four Mornings. A warm infusion is used for bad colds or intermittent fevers . That same infusion is used in America for dyspepsia and as an appetite restorer (Henkel), which probably is the equivalent of John Wesley's advice above. But Shakespeare...

Sweet Flag

Violette' apparently contains some of it (Barton & Castle). It is an early example of a substance used to kick the smoking habit (Leyel. 1937). Cut up and boiled in syrup, as one would do with ginger, the rootstock made a confection, as well as a mild stimulant to aid digestion (Sanford). It is quite a favourite on the Continent, and is sold in Indian bazaars as a sweetmeat to comfort dyspepsia (A W Hatfield). It has been a favourite medicine in India from the earliest times, valuable for children's bowel complaints (Sanford), but its best known use in former times was for dyspepsia, loss of appetite, etc., (W A R Thomson. 1978). The carminative usage appeared in medieval Latin compilations, and was to be found in New World medicine also. In Alabama they either chewed the root, or put it in whisky to be used when needed. Or it could be boiled, and the water drunk (R B Browne). In Ohio, this was drunk as a cure for diarrhoea (Bergen. 1899). The American Indians used it, too, for...


Roy Vickery was quite right when he said that there was little evidence for betony being much used in British and Irish folk medicine (Vickery. 1995). It is surprising in view of the number of prescriptions in early and classical herbalism, and also in view of the proverb Sell your coat and buy betony (Dyer. 1889 Whitlock. 1992). There is a Cumbrian recommendation to drink betony tea for indigestion (Newman & Wilson), and in Somerset a cure for headache is to drink the tea hot (Tongue. 1965). Gypsies, too, take an infusion of the fresh leaves to relieve stomach trouble, and they make an ointment from the juice of fresh leaves and unsalted lard to remove the poison from stings and bites (Vesey-Fitzgerald). There is, too, an injunction to chew a fresh betony leaf to prevent drunkenness before a party (Conway). But that is all, yet next to vervain, betony was the most esteemed of all plants by the early herbalists. To sum it all up A medicine against alle maner of infirmities. Take and...

Herbal Remedies For Acid Reflux

Herbal Remedies For Acid Reflux

Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the medical term for what we know as acid reflux. Acid reflux occurs when the stomach releases its liquid back into the esophagus, causing inflammation and damage to the esophageal lining. The regurgitated acid most often consists of a few compoundsbr acid, bile, and pepsin.

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