ebook Drug Test Friend

Discover The Amazing Secret That Olympic & Pro Athletes, Actors & Actresses, High-Paid Executives, And Street-Smart Convicts Use To Pass Drug Tests In Just 1 Hour Guaranteed! If your job, position, freedom, or competitive status is at risk, this Manual will allow you to Give The Finger TO Drug Testing without fear of getting nailed. Download information of passing drug tests now and youll be ready to pass your test within 2 hours! Detoxifying and masking the urine and learning how to pass a urine drug test is not a complicated thing. Most people do need help since everything you need to pass a the test isn't lying around your house. People also need realistic and honest help assessing their situation since everyone's situation is different and one size does not fit all in the world of urine detox. Drug Test Friend differs from everyone else out there in that we keep things very simple. Drug Test Friend has years of experience counseling people through tough times. Whether it is a pre employment test, probation or even a random test at work that you have to pass or else Drug Test Friend can help....[more here]

Drug Test Friend Overview

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Conclusions Kcz

The product of a drug test is information. Drug-testing laboratories have benefited from automation and information systems since they became practical to implement. Decentralization of the drug-testing laboratory, using the eScreen system, allows thousands of networked Internet readers to perform the immunoassay screen at the point of collection using lateral-flow drugs-of-abuse strips embedded in eScreen's eCup. The eScreen123 software platform allows each service provider real-time access to the drug-test record, creating a digital pathway of drug-test information from initiation of the drug-test order until the completion of the test, either at the point of collection or MRO service. myeScreen.com allows employers to schedule events and manage their drug-testing program at more than 1000 points of collection nationwide, each following a standardized method and standard operating procedures. The eReader removes subjective interpretation, bias, and transcription errors, and protects...

Peroxidase Activities in Urine Adulteration

Stealth is an adulterant advertised as an effective way to beat a urine drug test. Stealth consists of two vials, one containing a powder peroxidase and a second one containing a liquid peroxide . Combining the contents of both vials results in a strong oxidizing potential capable of oxidizing several drugs and metabolites. Stealth can mask detection of marijuana metabolite, LSD, and opiate morphine at 125-150 of cut-off values assayed by Roche OnLine and Microgenic's CEDIA immunoassay 16 . Low concentration of morphine 2500 ng mL could be effectively masked by Stealth, but not higher concentrations 6000 ng mL . Stealth also affects the GC-MS confirmation step. Cody et al. 17 reported that results of GC-MS analysis of Stealth-adulterated urine using standard procedures proved unsuccessful in several cases, and in 4 out of 12 cases, neither the drug nor the internal standard was recovered. Addition of sodium disulfite prior to extraction allowed recovery of both drugs and internal...

The eScreen123 Software Runs the eScreen System

The eScreen system consists of a suite of hardware installed at the point of collection. The hardware suite consists of a Windows PC, monitor, eReader Fig. 2 , signature capture device, barcode reader, and laser printer. The PC is connected to the Internet, preferably via a broadband connection, and runs the eScreen123 eScreen software platform. The eScreen123 Fig. 3 software is a Web-based application allowing each of the service providers e.g., the collection site, laboratory, MRO, and administrator to access their respective portion of the drug-testing record in real time throughout the drug-testing process. The collection site portal allows the collector to check in the donor, if not previously scheduled by the employer, based on a set of rules previously established by the system and embedded in the software. Collector screens guide the collector through the specimen-collection process, and require the completion of the custody and control form CCF elements. The date and time,...

The eCup

The eCup eScreen Fig. 1 is a specimen-collecting device with an internal aliquoting pump to sequester an aliquot when the lid is closed onto the cup. The aliquot pump is a double-walled syringe designed to pump the sample aliquot up onto the two LFDOA test strips and adulteration strips. Adulteration strips see Chapters 13 and 14 , which contain tests for pH, creatinine, and nitrite, reside in the eCup lid in a third test-strip slot. The eCup has a unique patented lid label with an integrated tamper-evident seal. The label and seal are bar-coded with a unique specimen number. This is the specimen number used to create the electronic custody and control form, and to track the specimen and result throughout the testing process. Additional barcodes appear on the label to direct the eReader eScreen discussed later to decode certain coded information from the test-strip configurations, as well as lot numbers of cups and test strips. eCup test strips are integrated into the eCup lid. Cup...

Adulteration Test Products Become a Necessity

With the spread of adulteration knowledge via the Internet, use of adulterants has increased . Hence, adulteration testing has become a necessity for guaranteeing the integrity of the drug-test process. However, laboratory-based adulterant test systems may not sufficiently detect all of the adulteration products in submitted specimens, because of the time delay involved in shipping and the quick dissemination of many newer-generation adulterants. Hence, the importance of on-site adulterant tests will increase an example is discussed in Chapter 14 . With the incorporation of adulterant test panels into lateral-flow drug test devices like the test cup, specimen integrity is established while the drug testing is being performed an example is discussed in Chapter 12 . This type of test product will become the device of choice.

Adulteration Remains a Challenge to Urine Drug Testing

Addicts to abused drugs have great incentives to try to defeat drug tests, and they often use adulteration products. Because of the high profit margin, great customer demand, low cost of entry, and wide accessibility via the Internet, there are many manufacturers in this market. Not only do some of them employ innovative chemists, they also provide informative educational materials on their Web sites, which help the abusers understand how the drug-testing system works and how to defeat the tests. Although legislators in many states have banned adulterant-product sales, and guidelines for detecting their presence have been established, adulteration will remain a challenge to urine drug testing see Chapters 13 and 14 .

Info Add

Legislation on drugs and driving, e.g., France, Denmark, Austria, and the Netherlands. The work of ROSITA is also cited in several high-level official documents, e.g., the Council Resolution 2 . The results have been presented at many scientific meetings and published in several journals 10-13 . Two PhD theses have been based on work in the ROSITA project. At the time of writing, the conclusions of ROSITA are still valid oral fluid and sweat are promising specimens for roadside drug testing, but more research and development is needed. Much progress has been made in the 3 yr since the end of the project, and the dream of a reliable and practical roadside drug test is coming closer to reality. The ROSITA-II project is currently evaluating the latest generation of oral-fluid tests.

The Results of the Roadside Drug Testing Assessment Project

The 21-mo Roadside Testing Assessment ROSITA project started in January 1999 and included a literature survey of drugs and medicines that have detrimental impacts on road users' performance, an inventory of the available roadside drug-testing equipment for urine, oral fluid, and sweat, an evaluation of the operational, user, and legal requirements for roadside testing equipment in the different European Union countries, and an extensive evaluation of several devices in eight countries. On-site immunoassays were used for the detection of drugs in urine, oral fluid, and or sweat in 2968 subjects. Police officers liked having the tools to detect drivers under the influence of drugs, and they were very creative in finding solutions to the practical and operational problems they encountered. On-site drug testing gave the police confidence, and saved time and money. Police officers had no major obj ections to collecting specimens of body fluids. In the majority of the participating...

Prisons

Interventions such as drug testing are thought to have a positive effect in the reduction of drug-related crime. As a result, DATs have become an increasingly important weapon at all levels of the criminal justice systems, particularly across northern Europe. DATs are not restricted to offenders officers may also be randomly tested for drug abuse owing to their potential contact with drugs. As a result, prospective candidates looking to join the prison service or police force may also be subjected to a drug screen as part of their pre-employment assessment. population in 2002 had admitted to consuming drugs while in prison. Prisons in Germany and Spain were believed to have the highest rates of drug abuse. In contrast, in countries like the United Kingdom, where mandatory drug testing MDT is carried out in conjunction with cell searches, a significantly lower rate of drug abuse has been recorded. Nevertheless, detecting drug abuse among inmates remains difficult and time-consuming.

DrugTesting Methodologies and Technology

As a result of the above-mentioned issues of cost and immediacy, drug courts have experimented with most of the testing methodologies in an effort to discover the most efficient means to achieve their testing agenda. Based upon the high concentration of drug metabolites present in urine, the basic ease of urine sample collection, the accuracy of urine testing, and the relatively low cost of testing a urine sample, urinalysis has become the primary choice of most drug courts. Drug courts have experimented with other matrices, such as hair, saliva, sweat, breath, and ocular scans. All of these methodologies have specific, limited value within a typical drug court. Because courts test multiple times per week and are concerned about new use, long-term methods such as sweat patches and hair testing have only minimal relevance in specific situations. Untimeliness of results, lack of long-term validity studies, and high cost have minimized the acceptance of saliva tests. Ocular scans have...

DrugCourt Testing Protocol

Owing to the impact of drug-test results in a drug-court system, it is imperative that the testing results be accurate and timely. Because cost is the major factor in the design of most drug court testing protocols, programs utilize the most comprehensive testing protocol possible based on available resources. Protocols are designed and followed to minimize these attempts to invalidate the drug-testing portion of the drug-court program. A basic tenet of drug courts is the necessity of providing immediate responses to both negative and positive drug tests. Participants appear before the drug-court judge on a regular basis so that their progress in treatment can be reviewed, their compliance with other programs and community supervision conditions can be monitored, and their behavior can be rewarded or sanctioned. Drug-test results are vital to this process. Research has shown consistently that rapid response is more effective than delayed response where any meaningful behavior change...

Conclusions Cnm

Adulteration will be a continuing problem for the drug-testing industry and scientific community. Manufacturers of adulterants have successfully developed innovative means and chemical formulas to mask positive drug results. Although banning the sales of these adulterants may prevent their availability in some areas, the Internet would always ensure their availability. Both governmental agencies and adulteration test manufacturers should constantly update their test criteria to combat the continuous formulation change strategy of the adulterant companies. Laboratory reagents and on-site dipsticks have proven to be effective in detecting their presence in adulterated urine specimens. For convenience, manufacturers of drug screens have started to produce devices that test for drug and screen for adulteration simultaneously. In this way, the integrity of the specimen is assured while the drug screen is being performed. Examples include Monitect PC11A, ToxCup PT15A, and QuickTox 51A from...

Adulterant Effects on Positive Drug Specimens Over Time

The kinetics of adulterant effects were studied by Tse and Bogema 20 . In these experiments, urine controls containing two times the cut-off levels of THC, MOR, AMP, PCP, and cocaine COC were set up. The samples were divided into three groups. To the first group, Urine Luck Formula 6.3 was added according to the manufacturer's instructions. To the second group, Stealth was added. The third group served as positive control, with no adulterants added. Within 5 min after the addition of adulterants, samples from each group were taken and simultaneously tested for presence of drugs and adulterants. The tests were repeated at 30 min and at 1,2, 3, 5, 8, 24, and 30 h after addition of adulterants. Detection of drugs was performed using Monitect, whereas adulterants were detected using Intect 7. Results of the drug tests with Monitect were as expected. Urine Luck and Stealth were found to be potent adulterants for THC and MOR, but were only marginally effective for AMP, PCP, and COC. For...

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Amine AMP . Commercial adulterants were added according to product instructions, and chemical and household adulterants were added according to the concentrations shown on the table. The effects of these adulterants on drugs were monitored by testing the adulterated urine samples on an on-site lateral-flow immunoassay drug-screen cassette, Monitect PC11, from Branan Medical Corporation. Test results obtained after the urine controls were treated with adulterants for 5 min 18,19 showed that some adulterants were effective in masking the presence of some drugs, especially THC. The majority of these adulterants were oxidants. The results also confirmed that some adulterant manufacturers continue to modify their formulations to foil detection. There are also commercial adulterants that are not very effective in modifying the drug-test results. Chemicals used in some of the adulteration formulas have been reported. Available information on these formulas is also included in Table 2.

Info Net

The presence of p53 mutations can have important implications for cancer therapy. Many anticancer therapies, including ionizing radiation IR , cisplatin, mitomycin C, etoposide, doxorubicin, and 5-FU, directly or indirectly cause DNA damage, induce nuclear p53 accumulation, and kill cells by inducing apoptosis 172 . The presence of wild-type p53 is required for the cytotoxic action of some of these therapies. The influence of p53 status was evaluated in a National Cancer Institute drug screen using 123 standard anti-cancer agents and 60 human cancer cell lines 173 . In general, compared with wild-type p53 cells, cell lines harboring mutant p53 genes are less sensitive to most agents tested.

Introduction Bmd

A positive drug test result has important impact on one's life, which may include a loss of job, b extension or initiation of jail sentence, or c disqualification of participation privileges including school sports. Hence, the incentive to defeat a drug test is high. Furthermore, advocacy groups such as the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws NORML view drug testing as a violation of the Fourth Amendment to the US Constitution, which forbids unreasonable search and seizures. Throughout the history of drug testing, masking the positive test result has been a serious problem, and this issue has been described in a number of publications 1-3 . An audit conducted at 66 certified laboratories in the National Laboratory Certification Program in 2001 identified a total of 6440 adulterated specimens and 2821 substituted specimens during a 2-yr period 4 . The semi-annual Drug Testing Index released by Quest Diagnostics, Inc. shows that adulteration rate including the...

Conclusions Gsq

Adulterants impose a new challenge in testing for abused drugs. Routine specimen integrity testing involving pH, creatinine, specific gravity, and temperature is not adequate to detect the presence of recently introduced adulterants such as Urine Luck, Klear, and Stealth. These agents can cause false negatives in immunoassay screening tests and may also affect the GC-MS confirmation tests. To counteract these effects, spot tests have been introduced, and several strip tests AdultaCheck 4, AdultaCheck 6, Intect 7, and so on are available for validation of specimen integrity. Studies are also needed to investigate effectiveness of hair shampoo in causing false negatives in a hair drug test and mouthwash products to invalidate saliva testing for abused drugs.

Adulteration of Hair and Saliva Specimens for Drug Testing

Hair and saliva specimens are alternatives to urine specimens for drug testing see Chapter 11 . Several products available through the Internet claim that washing hair with their shampoos can help pass a drug test. Clear Choice Hair Follicle Shampoo claims to remove all residues and toxins within 10 min of use. One application is sufficient for shoulder-length hair, and the effect can last for 8 h. Root Clean hair-cleansing system shampoo has also been commercially available. However, no systematic study has been reported to investigate the effect of using these products in a drug test. Saliva samples are also used for drug testing. The chances of adulteration of saliva specimen are very low to non-existent. However, the manufacturer of a commercially available mouthwash claims that by rinsing the mouth twice with this product, a person can beat saliva-based drug testing, which is a popular method of testing by insurance companies. The same company claims that its specially formulated...

Diluted Urine A Simple Way to Beat Drug Tests

A negative result for the presence of abused drugs in a urine specimen does not necessarily mean that no drug is present. It is also possible that the amount of drug was below the cut-off values used in the drug-testing protocol. Diluting urine is a simple way to beat an otherwise positive drug test if the original concentrations of drugs in the urine are just slightly above the cut-off values. To counteract this strategy, creatinine analysis in urine is an effective method to detect diluted urine. Neeedleman and Porvaznik considered a creatinine value of less than 10 mg dL as suggestive of replacement of urine specimen largely by water 4 . Beck et al. 5 reported that 11 of all urine specimens submitted to their laboratory for DOA testing were diluted. The SAMHSA program currently does not allow analysis of dilute urine specimens at lower screening and confirmation cut-offs. However, in Canada, the Correction Services of Canada CSA program incorporates the following lower drugs...

Sample Adulteration in Urine DOA Testing

The instant DOA testing procedures are instituted, opposing forces are at work to develop methods to avoid detection of drug use. Initially, common household chemicals such as laundry bleach, table salt, toilet-bowl cleaner, hand soap, and vinegar were used. More recently, a variety of products became commercially available, which can be ordered through Internet sites and tollfree telephone numbers. Commercially available adulteration products can be classified into two broad categories. The first category consists of specific fluids or tablets, which when taken along with plenty of water, serve to flush out drugs and metabolites, resulting in diluted urine and reduced concentrations of drugs or metabolites. Examples of products in this category include Absolute Detox XXL drink, Absolute Carbo Drinks, Ready Clean Drug Detox Drink, Fast Flush Capsules, and Ready Clean Gel Capsules. All products are available from Internet sites. Root Clean is a hair-cleansing system targeting drug...

Benefits of a Closed Information System

Historically, in the laboratory-centric model, drug testing has been an open information system. The MRO receives laboratory data when then lab completes the specimen testing. The MRO doesn't know what they will be receiving until they receive it. The same is true for the laboratory. The laboratory receives samples each day sent from the collection site, not knowing what they will be receiving. There is no feedback loop in an open system, and the result is a lack of anticipated information and an arduous task of tracking missing specimens or results, starting at the end of process and moving forward until the problem has been identified. In the eScreen closed-loop information model, each of the parties to the transaction communicates via the Web to a common server. The donor, employer, collector, eReader, laboratory, and MRO each have access to the drug-test record in real time. Any party can access their respective portion of the record, sharing common file elements. Pre-accession...

The myeScreencom Portal

In the eScreen model, the digital information record begins when the employer orders a drug test online, schedules the event at the collection site via the portal at myeScreen.com, and the collection site has the complete donor information pre-accessioned. The donor's failure to appear within the prescribed time frame, usually 24 h, results in an e-mail to the employer, and a flag on the collection site record to cancel the collection. If the collection proceeds as scheduled, the laboratory, MRO, administrator, and employer have pre-accessioned data of the eScreen drug test, and know whether they should expect a specimen or result in the coming days. Exception reports can be generated to alert the service providers that the specimen or result has not been received when expected, before the customer calls looking for a missing result. myeScreen.com is a robust application service provider ASP software model, allowing employers to manage their drug-testing programs from beginning to end...

The eReader

Lighting conditions on the test strip are standardized and enhanced with white and green light-emitting diodes LEDs to improve the contrast between the background and test lines. Software was written to measure the optical activity of the CCD and produce a digital output in the form of translating the series of bars and spaces into 1s and 0s, as previously described. Thresholds were calibrated according to the strip manufacturer's specifications and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration SAMHSA cutoff levels. The eReader has essentially only one moving part, the plunger mechanism. The plunger bracket is attached to an integrated light shield lowered onto the eCup lid to block ambient light from the camera. Once the eCup is inserted into the reader and the eScreen Web-based CCF is completed, an instruction is sent to the reader to begin the test. The plunger locks the eCup into the reader during the testing process and proceeds with the imaging and analysis in...

The eScreen System

In view of the deficiencies associated with the conventional POCT and the perception that a digital drug test could be created, a system known as eScreen was developed. eScreen combines the benefits of point-of-collection specimen collection with recent advances in information technologies to create an instrumented POCT system. eScreen monitored the progress of LFDOA development closely. LFDOA clearly led the market as the analytical method of choice. Easy-to-use, low-cost, highly sensitive lateral-flow test strips could do everything that the lab-based immunoassay could do. eScreen did not compete in the manufacturing of LFDOA devices, but realized that commoditization would likely develop as tests got better and cheaper. eScreen uses the current Federal drug testing standards as a starting point, extracts the immunoassay screening procedure from the centralized laboratory, and shifts it to the point of collection. It keeps in place many of the safeguards already built into the...

Changeable Bar Code Prelude to Digital Drug Testing

Confirmation laboratory can positively identify the drug. Removing the drug names from the cassette means that if all the color lines are present, as is the case with most strips, no drugs are detected in the specimen i.e., the result is negative . If one or more color lines are absent from the series, the result is presumptively positive. It does not matter which drug is detected, because in every case, the outcome is the same. The specimen must be sent to a confirmation laboratory for further testing. From the bar code prospective, this argument presents a unique opportunity to translate the lines and spaces on the LFDOA test strips into a digital code, or a series of 0s and 1s. Consider the presence of a target line as indicated by a 1 and a space by a 0, then a five-drug test with one control line would be translated by a barcode reader into 10101010101 six lines and five spaces when the sample is negative and all six lines appear. If, for example, the THC test in the second...

Concerns About Accuracy of Analysis

Further complicating POCT is the shift in analysis from the laboratory to the point of collection. Decentralizing the analytical process of DOA testing places the burden of responsibility for analytical interpretation on the collector and potentially unskilled personnel. Visually read endpoints of test results, although quite simple in most pregnancy tests, is dramatically more complicated in DOA testing. Most DOA tests contain multiple analyses, testing for cannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol THC , cocaine, amphetamine, morphine, and phencyclidine PCP on one or more lateral-flow strips. Included on each lateral-flow strip is a control, ensuring that the sample has migrated across the test area. A five-drug test will have one target zone for each drug analyte and one target control zone for each strip. Hence, a two-strip, five-drug panel will have a total of seven target zones. Most competitive binding assays produce a color indicator in the absence of the analyte. However, some tests...

Murray Lappe

New federal regulations proposed by the Department of Health and Human Services for drug testing of federal employees includes the addition of alternative specimens as well as the addition of alternative technologies for screening samples at the point of collection. Alternative technologies called point-of-collection tests POCT may use urine or oral fluids, and are either visually read or instrumented. eScreen eScreen, Inc. is an instrumented urine POCT with an integrated SVT, adulteration assay, Web-based information management system, and paperless chain of custody form. eScreen's instrumented system eliminates many potential areas of concern when testing samples at the point of collection. Safeguards that are present in a laboratory-based drug-testing environment are duplicated in eScreen's decentralized point-of-collection drug-testing model. The key to eScreen's robust point-of-collection model lies in the use of an extensive installed base of Internet-enabled eReaders and Web...

Medical Applications of Hair Analysis

A number of investigators have applied hair testing to detect prenatal drug exposure 61-70 . The retrospective power of hair analysis allows, at the time of birth of an infant, an assessment of drug intake for as long a portion of the gestation period as the length of the mother's hair specimen permits. The first example of determining prenatal drug exposure by hair analysis, reported in 1987, was that of a mother who had ingested PCP during her pregnancy 61 . This study and that of Grant et al. 66 demonstrated that determining the pattern of drug usage over the term of the pregnancy by segmental hair analysis may be especially useful in evaluating effects on neurodevelopmental outcomes of varying levels of drug use during specific trimesters. Callahan et al. 67 , in comparing hair, meconium, and urine analyses for identifying cocaine use in mothers, found hair and meconium when performed by GC-MS to be about equivalent, whereas urine was about half as effective. The Hospital for Sick...

Applications of Hair Analysis in Criminal Justice and Rehabilitation Settings

Mieczkowski et al. 57 have reported on use of hair testing as an objective measure of drug treatment outcome in a criminal justice diversionary treatment program for first-time, nonviolent offenders. Violations of the program conditions, including drug use, result in dismissal from the program. Hair samples were taken at intake to the program and at approx 2-mo intervals during the program, with random urine testing also being employed. Hair analysis at intake showed 50 of the 91 subjects positive for cocaine, 35 for marijuana, 3 for opiates, 1 for PCP, and none for amphetamines. Urinalysis done at the same time showed 12 positive for cocaine, 24 for marijuana, 1 for opiates, and none for PCP or amphetamines. These results highlight the diagnostic value of hair analysis in assessing the status of subjects as they enter a rehabilitation setting. The effectiveness of hair as a diagnostic tool in drug treatment has been discussed by Brewer 60 , who noted a good correlation between drug...

Mass Spectrometry

Simple EI, a single-quadrupole mass analyzer, has been the cornerstone of identification in forensic urine drug-testing facilities. However, in most cases, this method is totally inadequate for determining the lower concentrations of drugs and their metabolites found in hair. Because of this fact and matrix effects seen with hair analysis, more sensitive and more specific MS technology has been developed. Psychemedics, the authors' laboratory and one which performs the most commercial hair analysis, presently uses the Finnigan TSQ 7000 MS analyzers operating in negative ion chemical ionization NICI GC-MS-MS for the determination of marijuana in drug samples, detecting the tetrahydro-cannabinol THC metabolite carboxyTHC cTHC , which is also the target ana-lyte monitored in forensic urine drug testing. All confirmation procedures need to go through vigorous validation studies. Psychemedics also uses positive ion chemical ionization PICI LC-MS-MS for the determination of cocaine,...

The Influences of Hair Color in Hair Analysis

In spite of the serious flaws in studies purporting to indicate a color bias in hair analysis, the suggestion of such a bias in hair testing continues to receive attention. Some of the limitations in such studies are

The Analytical Goal of a DrugScreening Assay

The goal of a drugs-of-abuse screening immunoassay is simpler than that of a clinical assay, which must accurately quantify normal serum components or abnormal markers over a range of concentrations. In forensic drug testing, there is usually just one standard reference, which contains the cut-off concentration of drug. Samples containing less than the cut-off drug concentration are considered negative, with no further testing required. Certain issues, such as cross-reactivity with related drugs or metabolites, which would produce unacceptable error in diagnostic clinical assays, are tolerable for workplace or other forensic screening because a second and more specific confirmatory test will be performed on the sample. precision of the signal measurement, and 3 the level of nonspecific binding. Because hair-testing laboratories often purchase well-characterized immuno-assay kits from vendors, the selection of the antibody is usually not a factor. The job of the laboratory is to...

Preliminary Screening Assays for Drugs of Abuse in Hair

Analysis for the presence of the drug opiates in hair was performed using RIA as early as 1979 22 . This was followed soon after with tests for phen-cyclidine PCP 23 and cocaine 24 . In fact, it was the availability of RIA as an ultrasensitive analytical tool that initially prompted the pioneering testing of drugs in hair. As enzyme immunoassays develop greater sensitivity, nonradio-active immunoassays are increasingly being used for hair testing. A review of the immunological methods for testing drugs in hair from the early period to the year 2000 has been presented by Spiehler 25 . MS confirmation methods took a few additional years to achieve the necessary sensitivities.

Info Eca

U Monitect urine results O Oratect results G GC-MS confirmatory results using oral fluids collected with the Oratect device I GC-MS results using oral fluids collected with the Intercept device ND no drug detected. U Monitect urine results O Oratect results G GC-MS confirmatory results using oral fluids collected with the Oratect device I GC-MS results using oral fluids collected with the Intercept device ND no drug detected.

Info Dxy

When the Oratect opiate C.O. concentration was lowered to 10 ng mL 6 , the results as shown in Table 6 suggested that the detection window can be extended twofold to 12 h. In this experiment, five healthy, normal subjects were each administered one dose of Prometh. Oratect test with 10 ng mL opiate C.O. and Monitect urine drug screen were undertaken at 1,6, 8, 10, 14, and 16 h after the administration of the dose. Two men subjects A and B and one woman subject C were tested for THC after each of them smoked a single marijuana cigarette. Oratect drug screens and Intercept collections were performed at half-hour intervals. Both the Oratect collection pads and the Intecept devices were sent to Scientific Testing Laboratory for GC-MS analysis. The results as shown in Table 7 suggest that the Oratect can detect the presence of THC up to 2 h after use. Moreover, the Oractect GC-MS results correlate well with the Intercept GC-MS data. Correlation of Oratect Opiate Test With Oral-Fluid Gas...

Info Xce

Results are summarized in Table 4. None of the subjects tested positive for PCP. Subjects who tested positive by Oratect for COC and OPI were likely to be tested positive by the urine drug screen. Oratect appeared to detect AMP better than urine test, and all subjects tested MET positive by Oratect were tested positive by Monitect. Confirmation of Oratect results by GC-MS ranged from 85 to 100 for COC, MET, AMP, and OPI. 3.3. Correlation of Oratect Opiate Test With Oral-Fluid GC-MS and Urine Drug Screen In another study 4 , 10 normal human subjects were each administered one dose of Prometh with Codeine Cough Syrup Alpharma USPD, Inc., Baltimore, MD containing 10 mg of codeine phosphate, and their oral fluids and urine were analyzed for opiate after 1 h, 4 h, and 6 h. The urine samples were tested with Monitect PC11 Multiple Urine Drug Screen Test, while the oral-fluid samples were analyzed with three methods Oratect screening test, Oratect confirmation test by GC-MS, and a...

Info Gzb

3.2. Correlation With Urine Drug Screen and Confirmation by GC-MS A total of 465 volunteer subjects at a drug rehabilitation program were tested with both urine drug screens and the Oratect device. In this experiment, urine specimens were collected under observed conditions and screened for five drugs using Monitect PC11 drug screen Branan Medical Corporation . The Oratect tests were performed immediately after the subject exited the restroom. Results from the two test methods were compared only at the end of the day. The collection pads from the positive Oratect test devices were sent for GC-MS confirmation tests at Scientific Testing Lab Richmond, VA . The

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Drug Test Result Positive Figure 5 shows a schematic diagram of a test strip used for the detection of morphine. After sampling, the collected sample is expressed into the SPC and delivered into the cassette, which contains a lateral-flow strip of nitrocellulose impregnated with test and reference lines. In the lateral-flow strip, phosphor-antibody complexes mix with sample buffer and move by capillary action along the test strip. If the sample does not contain any morphine, the antibodies cross the membrane and bind with the membrane-fixed morphine molecules in the test zone Fig. 5, top . When morphine is present in the oral-fluid sample, the drug will complex with the phosphor-antibody conjugate during flow. Upon reaching of the test lines, there is no reaction of the phosphor-antibody conjugate with the membrane-fixed morphine molecules in the test zone, because the active sites on the antibody are already occupied by the drug in the sample. Consequently, the subsequent analysis of...

Info Ppr

Comparison of Positive Drug Prevalence Rate Found in Oral-Fluid Testing With Federally Mandated and General Workforce Urine Drug Testing Programs According to Quest Diagnostics' Drug Testing Index Comparison of Positive Drug Prevalence Rate Found in Oral-Fluid Testing With Federally Mandated and General Workforce Urine Drug Testing Programs According to Quest Diagnostics' Drug Testing Index Drug testing index federally mandated urine drug testing Jan .-Dec. 2001 n 1,000,000 Drug testing index general workforce urine drug testing Jan .-Dec. 2001 n 5,200,000

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3.4.4.1. P-glycoprotein P-gp P-gp is the best-characterized drug efflux transporter. The protein was first discovered in 1976 by Juliano and Ling144 in drug-resistant Chinese hamster ovary CHO cells. As this transporter influenced the cellular levels of a variety of anticancer agents, it was termed permeability-glycoprotein P-gp . The transporter was originally identified in brain capillary endothelial cells forming the BBB in the late 1980s.145,146 However, the actual functional consequences of P-gp expression in the BBB were noted well in advance of its molecular characterization. This is shown in studies by Levin147 in which some 25 compounds were evaluated for BBB permeability. For the most part, there was a clear correlation between BBB permeability and lipophilicity. However, there were several compounds whose BBB permeability was much lower than would be predicted based on lipophilicity.147 While a clear explanation for these findings could not be presented at the time, it is...

Other Specimens

Semen has been demonstrated to have measurable levels of drug after drug use. It is occasionally proposed as a basis to explain positive drug tests as a result of exposure to drugs through sexual relations. However, the absolute amount of drug present in semen is very low and could not account for significant exposure 61 . A wide variety of body fluid specimens have been analyzed for the presence of drugs of abuse. The analytical methods are sound and well developed. Each specimen provides different information about time and extent of use and likelihood of impairment. However, the interpretation of test results from each of these types of specimen offers its own challenges. Formal regulatory criteria have been established for several of these specimens, and case law addressing their admissibility and probative value has been developed for some. These drug-testing tools, as an objective piece of information identifying drug use, have proven highly useful in addressing the ongoing...

Urine

By far, urine is the most widely used specimen for drugs-of-abuse testing. It offers the advantages of large specimen volume and relatively high drug concentrations, because of the approx 100-fold concentrating effect of the kidneys each minute, approx 125 mL of blood plasma is filtered in the kidneys by the glomeruli and concentrated to approx 1 mL of urine . There is an extensive body of literature addressing the detection of drugs and their metabolites in urine specimens, and much is known about the pharmacokinetics of drug and metabolite elimination in urine. There are several well-established guidelines and laboratory certification programs, most notably those originally established by the National Institute on Drug Abuse NIDA in 1988 for federally regulated workplace drug-testing programs. These guidelines, called the NIDA Guidelines, are now overseen by SAMHSA 8 . These guidelines address testing for five drugs of abuse cannabinoids marijuana , cocaine metabolites, opiates,...

Growth of Drug Testing

By the mid-1970s, the field of drug testing had begun to take root, as many young Americans, both military and civilian, experimented with illegal drugs such as marijuana tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC , lysergic acid diethyl-amide LSD , and cocaine. Most urine testing for illicit drugs was being done either by forensic laboratories or in methadone treatment programs. In these programs, patients undergoing methadone substitution therapy for heroin addiction were monitored for illicit drug use and compliance with the methadone therapy 4 . A modest amount of drug testing was being conducted in the workplace by innovative companies that recognized the productivity value of promoting a drug-free work environment. Then on May 26, 1981, an event occurred that had tremendous repercussions on the drug-testing industry 5 . There was a serious and deadly crash involving fighter aircraft on the carrier USS Nimitz, in the Atlantic Fleet. Fourteen servicemen died, 48 were injured, and 150 million in...